|Your Handy-Dandy Guide to Theorists!!!!!!
"If I have seen further . . . it is by standing upon the shoulders of Giants." --Sir Isaac Newton
Karl Abraham - psychoanalyst; manic depression; role of infant sexuality.
Mary Ainsworth -- published her findings on attachment between Ugandan parents and babies in 1975; see picture.
Alois Alzheimer -- identified Alzheimer's Disease in 1906.
Virginia Apgar -- Apgar Newborn Assessment scale; infant assessed at 1 and 5 minute: 2 points each: respiration, heartbeat, color, muscle tone, reflex
Aristotle 427 -- 106 BCE -- founded schools with small-group tutoring, mostly for wealthy boys -- thinking skills, governing, military strategy, managing commerce.
Aristotle also described Epigenetic Development.
Sylvia Ashton-Warner -- popularized "organic reading".
Albert Bandura -- 1925 -- Canadian; social learning theory; imitation, behaviorism; see picture.
Diana Baumrind -- parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive.
Alfred Binet -- 1857 -- 1911 -- French; wrote the first IQ test with partner Theodore Simon; see picture beside Bandura.
Sandra Blakeslee -- 4 types of good marriage, research done with Judith Wallerstein.
Charles K. Bliss -- invented Blissymbols.
Susan Blow -- 1873 -- opened the first kindergarten in the US associated with public schools.
Bohannan -- six different but overlapping experiences of divorce.
Pauline Boss -- Ambiguous Loss theory.
John Bowlby -- 1907 -- 1990 -- British; Attachment Theory; see picture.
Louis Braille -- French, developed the Braille System in 1821. Braille was himself blind.
T. Barry Brazelton -- 1918 -- pediatrician, developed the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale; Harvard professor; see picture beside Bowlby.
Joseph Breuer -- developed "cathartic method" of therapy with Freud.
Urie Bronfenbrenner -- 1917 -- 2005 -- Russian, Ecological Systems Theory (concentric circles of child's environment); see
Brubaker -- three stages of grief.
Jerome Bruner -- theory of intellectual growth developed in 1960s.
Noam Arram Chomsky -- language acquisition device; baby's learn language in the environment and lose ability to make unique sounds in other languages.
Cicero -- see Aristotle.
John Amos Comenius -- 1592 --1670 -- Czechoslovakian; wrote the first picture book for children, "Orbis Pictus" (the World in Pictures) in
1657; emphasized learning at a child's own pace (readiness) and learning by doing; see picture.
Charles Darwin -- 1809 -- 1882 -- British, Evolution -- natural selection, survival of the fittest, variation in sexual
reproduction; see picture beside Comenius.
Developmentally Appropriate Practices -- first published 1984; NAEYC.
John Dewey -- 1858 -- 1952 -- early American educator -- believed that children are valuable and that
childhood is important; started the Progressive Movement in education; see picture.
Albert Einstein -- theory of relativity (e = mc²).
Abigail Eliot -- 1892 -- 1992 -- opened the Ruggles Street Nursery and Training Center; see picture.
David Elkind -- "miseducation".
Havelock Ellis -- coined the term "autoeroticism".
Eric Erikson -- 1902 -- 1994 -- American, Psychosocial stages of development (see below), Stage theorist; see picture.
Eugenics -- "desirable" are genetically endowed.
Wilhelm Fliess -- helped develop psychoanalysis; inherent bisexuality.
Anna Freud -- Sigmund Freud's daughter, also a psychoanalyst.
Sigmund Freud -- 1856 -- 1939 -- Austrian; Psychosexual Theory of Development (see below); id, ego, superego; Stage theorist;
importance of first five years to later mental illness; see picture.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel -- 1852 -- "Father of Kindergarten" -- started kindergartens (German for "children's garden" --
he thought that a child's first educational experiences should be a garden full of pleasant discoveries and delightful adventures.) In
1836 he developed educational toys he called "gifts from God"; see picture.
Howard Gardner -- published "Frames of Mind" outlining his Multiple Intellegences Theory in 1983; see picture.
Magda Gerber -- educaring; parenting philosophy: loving, crying, spanking, quality time, discipline.
Arnold Gesell -- 1880 -- 1961 -- Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny; established the Clinic of Child
Development at Yale University; published "The Preschool Child" in 1923; see picture.
Eleanor Gibson -- designed the Visual Cliff apparatus with Richard Walk; used to test a small child's depth perception.
Carol Gilligan -- published "In a Different Voice" in response to Lawrence Kohlberg's moral development theory; see picture.
Daniel Goleman -- emotional intelligence.
Dean M. Gorall -- Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems with David T. Olsen.
Georg Groddeck -- called the ego "it" -- an unknown quantity, "the sum total of an individual human being, physical, mental, and spiritual, the organism with all its
forces, the microcosmos, the universe which is a man, I conceive of as a self unknown and forever unknowable, and I call this the "It" as the most indefinite term
available without either emotional or intellectual associations."
Johannes Gutenberg -- invented the printing press in 1423, making books more available to the common person. The printing
press is credited with bringing about the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance; see picture.
G. Stanley Hall -- 1846 -- 1924 -- held seminar for kindergarten teachers to explain his approach to child development --
Normative Period; age-related standards and milestones; see picture by Gutenberg.
Harry Harlow -- 1905 -- 1981 -- American -- Ethology; rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers; see picture.
Patty Smith Hill -- 1868 -- 1914 -- Wrote the Happy Birthday song and founded the National Association of Nursery Education in
1926. Now NAEYC -- National Association for the Education of Young Children; see picture.
Reuben Hill -- ABC-X Family Crisis Model.
Robert Aubrey Hinde -- religion, ethics, eliminating the causes of war; ethologist.
Hippocrates -- 460 BCE -- Greek physician, "founder of medicine," though that illness had a physical and rational
explanation instead of possession by evil spirits or disfavor of the gods; see picture.
Susan Isaacs -- 1885 -- 1948 -- published "The Nursery Years" which emphasized forces of love, good but regulating
parent, opportunity to express aggression in modified form, not explosive negative actions of hatred and oppression -- child's
point of view and play; see picture.
Carl Jung -- dream interpretation, mandalas, colleague of Freud; see picture.
David Kantor -- three types of Marriage/Family systems, 1975 with William Lehr.
Susan Kellogg -- "companionate family" with Steven Mintz.
Samuel Kirk -- coined the term "learning disabilities".
Melanie Klein -- psychoanalysis, psychoanalysis on children.
Lawrence Kohlberg -- published Moral Development Theory in 1963 and 1966; see picture.
La Leche League was established in 1956.
Ellen J. Langer -- coined the terms mindfulness and mindlessness.
John Alan Lee -- origin of love; styles of love: eros, mania, ludus, storge, agape, pragma.
William Lehr -- three types of marriage/ family systems; 1975 with David Kantor.
Lerner -- "Dance of Anger"; styles of anger and how they interact.
John Locke -- 1632 -- 1714 -- British, Tabula Rasa (blank slate -- Reformation; NURTURE; see picture.
Konrad Lorenz -- 1903 -- 1989 -- Austrian; Ethology; greylag goslings and imprinting; see picture beside Locke.
Mary Lyon -- lyonization: genetic principle that there is an X-chromosome inactivation in girls.
Paul MacLean -- coined the term "limbic system" in 1952, referring to a group of connected tissues in the mid-brain area.
Mary Main -- developed the Adult Attachment Interview.
Loris Malaguzzi -- 1920 -- 1994 -- started the Reggio Emilia Preschools in Italy at the end of World War II (1946), respect for children's work;
100 Languages of Children; see picture.
Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs; self-actualization.
Masters and Johnson -- 4 phases of physiological sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
McMillian Sisters (Margaret and Rachel) -- 1914 -- concerned about environments in schools -- campaigned to improve schools by installing bathrooms,
better ventilation, free meals (hungry children cannot learn). 1918 -- opened USA's first school clinic offering dental, surgical, and breathing and posture
lessons; night camps for children to bathe and receive clean clothes. Opened an open-air Nursery School and training center; see pictures.
Medieval societies 6th -- 15th centuries-- believed children were miniature adults.
Gregor Mendel -- 1822 -- 1884 -- Augustinian priest and scientist who studied the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants. He
gained posthumous fame as the figurehead of the science of genetics.
Steven Mintz -- "companionate family" with Susan Kellogg.
Lucy Sprague Mitchell -- 1878 -- 1967 -- The Bureau of Education Experiments became the Bank Street College of Education, which Mitchell founded.
Maria Montessori -- 1870 -- 1952 -- Italian; physician; opened the preschool "Casa di Bambini" for 50 children, ages 2 to 5 years; sequential
steps of learning; self-correcting and sequential materials; tactile materials; prepared environment; teachers are observers and facilitators; children
have an innate desire to learn; see picture.
Robert Murdoch -- coined the term "nuclear family" in 1949.
National Association for the Education of Young People (NAEYC) -- 1966 name changed from National Association for Nursery Education.
Darcia Navarez -- moral components to a moral education: moral character, moral judgment, moral motivation, moral sensitivity.
A.S. Neill -- 1883 -- 1973 -- wrote book "Summerhill" and based his curriculum on Rousseau's view of child development; believed in
granting children "freedom" because they are "innately wise and realistic." see picture.
David H. Olsen -- Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems with Dean M. Gorrall.
Parent Cooperative Schools -- Brook Farm -- Utopian co-op community in 1840s -- on-site child care center for working adults; first
Parent Participation Schools -- 1915 at University of Chicago -- faculty wives -- Chicago Cooperative Nursery School.
Talcott Parsons (Parson and Bales) -- relationship between the individual and society; model of the modern family.
Mildred Parten -- stages of play: unoccupied, solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, cooperative.
Ivan Pavlov -- 1849 -- 1936 -- Russian, classical conditioning; dogs, saliva, bell; behaviorism; see picture.
Elizabeth Peabody -- 1860 -- opened the first English speaking kindergarten in Boston.
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi -- 1746 -- 1827 -- Swiss; educator; believed that good education meant the development of the
senses; caring as well as educating; integrated curriculum to develop the whole child. Book: "How Gertrude Teaches Her Children"
emphasized home education; group teaching; see picture.
Jean Jacques Piaget -- 1896 -- 1980 -- Swiss, Cognitive Development Theory (see below) -- assimilation, accommodation,
adaptation, conservation, object permanence -- etc.; Stage theorist; see picture.
Plato -- see Aristotle.
Plautius -- "Man is a wolf to man" ("Homo lupus homini").
Polybius -- see Aristotle.
Project Head Start -- War on Poverty (Johnson) -- Head Start provided educational, social, dental, etc. for children from low-SES households; "compensatory
Puritans -- children are born evil and stubborn.
Ira Reiss -- developed the Theory of the Origin of Love.
Carl Rogers -- Humanistic approach.
Barbara Rogoff -- preferred the term "guided participation" to "scaffolding" (Vygotsky).
Jean Jacques Rousseau -- 1712 -- 1778 -- French, Noble Savages; Enlightenment; Book "Emile" proclaims the child's natural goodness;
Margaretha Schurz -- 1856 -- opened the first kindergarten in the US -- in Wisconsin -- for children who spoke German.
Sidman - 6 criteria against which a theory should be measured.
Theodore Simon -- Binet's partner in writing the first IQ test.
BF Skinner -- 1904 -- 1990 -- American; operant conditioning; behaviorism; see picture.
Socrates -- conscience is the inner voice that forbids certain activities.
Benjamin Spock -- 1903 -- 1990 -- wrote "Baby and Childcare" -- sold over 50 million copies in 42 languages; children should spend
discovery time out of the playpen; child-proofing; see picture by Dave Teller.
Rudolf Steiner -- 1861-- 1925 -- German, method of education: Waldorf School of Education; three periods of childhood: will, heart, and
head; emphasized the child's spiritual development, imagination, and creative gifts; self-discipline will emerge from the child's natural willingness to learn and
initiate; fairy stories help children learn wisdom; television not allowed; see picture.
Robert Sternberg -- Triarchic theory of successful intelligence; Triangular theory of love.
Lewis Terman -- of Stanford University; revised and standardized the IQ scale designed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon.
William I. Thomas -- Thomas theorem: symbolic interaction perspective: "If people define a situation as real, they are real in their consequences."
Stith Thompson -- American folklorist, motif index.
Traditional Nursery Schools -- began in the early 20th century and served mostly upper and middle class children, funded by parents.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky -- 1896 -- 1934 -- Russian, Sociocultural theory; zone of proximal development; see picture.
Conrad Hal Waddington -- coined the term "epigenetic" in 1977.
Lenore E. Walker -- wrote "The Battered Woman", published in 1979.
Richard Wall -- helped design the Visual Cliff apparatus with Eleanor Gibson.
Willard Waller -- proposed the rule that the partner in a relationship who is least interested has the most power.
Judith Wallerstein -- four types of good marriage; longitudinal divorce study.
John Watson -- 1878 -- 1958 -- American, classical conditioning; Albert and the white rat; Behaviorism; see picture.
David Wechsler -- developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
Lenore Weitzman -- sex role socialization in picture books for children; "alimony myth" that women profit from divorce.
White -- effective motivation.
|JEAN PIAGET --
Sensorimotor stage -- ages birth
to 2 years
Infants "think" by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, and
hands. As a result, they invent ways of solving sensorimotor
problems, such as pulling a lever to hear the sound of a music
box, finding hidden toys, and putting objects in and taking them
out of a container.
Preoperational stage -- ages 2 to 7 years
Preschool children use symbols to represent their earlier
sensorimotor discoveries. Development of language and
make-believe play takes place. However, thinking lacks the
logical qualities of the two remaining stages.
Concrete Operational stage -- ages 7 to 11 years
Children's reasoning becomes logical. School age children
understand that a certain amount of lemonade or play dough
remains the same even after its appearance changes (object
permanence). They also organize objects into hierarchies of
classes and subclasses. However, thinking falls short of adult
intelligence. It is not yet abstract.
Formal Operational stage -- 11 years and upward
The capacity for abstraction permits adolescents to reason with
symbols that do not refer to objects in the real world, as in
advanced mathematics. They can also think of all the possible
outcomes in a scientific problem, not just the obvious ones.
|SIGMUND FREUD --
Oral Stage -- ages birth to 1 year
The new ego directs the baby's
sucking activities toward breast or bottle. If oral
needs are not met appropriately, the individual may develop such
habits as thumb sucking, fingernail biting, and pencil chewing in
childhood; overeating and smoking in adulthood.
Anal Stage -- ages 1 to 3 years
Young toddlers and preschoolers enjoy holding and releasing urine
and feces. Toilet training becomes a major issue between parent
and child. If parents insist that children be trained before they are
not ready or make too few demands, conflicts about anal control
may appear in the form of extreme orderliness and cleanliness or
disorder and messiness.
Phallic Stage -- 3 to 6 years
Id impulses transfer to the genitals, and the child finds pleasure in
genital stimulation. Freud's Oedipus Conflict for boys and Electra
conflict for girls take place. Young children feel a sexual desire for
the opposite-sex parent. To avoid punishment, they give up this
desire, and instead, adopt the same-sex parent's characteristics
and values. As a result, the superego is formed. The relations
between the id, ego, and superego established at this time
determine the individual's basic personality orientation.
Latency Stage -- 6 to 11 years
Sexual instincts die down, and the superego develops further. The
child acquires new social values from adults outside the family and
from play with same-sex peers.
Genital Stage -- adolescence
Puberty causes the sexual impulses of the Phallic Stage to
reappear. If development has been successful during earlier
stages, it leads to marriage, sexual maturity, and the birth and
rearing of children.
|ERIK ERIKSON --
Trust vs. Mistrust -- birth to one year
Babies learn either to trust OR mistrust that
others will care for their basic needs, including
nourishment, sucking, warmth, cleanliness, and
physical contact. This stage corresponds with
Freud's Oral Stage.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt -- 1 to 3 years
Children learn either to be self-sufficient in many activities,
including toileting, feeding, walking, talking, OR to doubt their own
abilities. This stage corresponds with Freud's Anal Stage.
Initiative vs. Guilt -- 3 to 6 years
Children want to undertake many adult-like activities, sometimes
overstepping the limits set by parents and feeling guilt. This stage
corresponds with Freud's Phallic Stage.
Industry vs. Inferiority 7 to 11 years
Children busily learn to be competent and productive or feel
inferior and unable to do anything well. This stage corresponds
with Freud's Latency stage.
Identity vs. Role Confusion -- adolescence
Adolescents try to figure out, "Who am I?" They establish sexual,
ethnic, and career identities, OR are confused about which future
roles to play. This stage corresponds with Freud's Genital stage.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adults seek companionship and love with another person
OR become isolated from others.
Generativity vs. Stagnation -- adulthood
Middle-aged adults are productive, performing meaningful work
and raising a family, OR become stagnant and inactive.
Integrity vs. Despair -- maturity
Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life
as a meaningful whole, OR despairing at goals never reached and
questions never answered.
|URIE BRONFENBRENNER --
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The Microsystem --
The immediate setting that contains the child. Includes physical
space and activities therein, most important people to the
particular child, and interactions between the child and the
The Mesosystem --
Made up of the relationships among the different settings in which
the child spends time during different periods of development.
Interrelations among microsystems.
The Exosystem --
A set of specific social structures that do not directly contain the
child but still have impact on the child's development. These
structures influence, delimit, or even determine what goes on in
the child's microsystem.
The Macrosystem --
Consists of all the elements contained in the child's micro-, meso-,
and exosystems, plus the general underlying philosophy or cultural
orientation within which the child lives. This is the overarching
institutional patterns of the culture or subculture, such as the
economic, social, educational, legal, and political systems of
which the local micro-, meso-, and exosystems are the concrete
The Chronosystem --
(outside the Macrosystem) Temporal changes in children's
environments, which produce new conditions that affect
development. These changes can be imposed externally or arise
from within the child. (time)