TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
tableaus -- "frozen pictures" in which groups of students "freeze" or pose to act out a scene, a saying, a book title, etc.

tableaux -- deliberate picture; arrangement; vivid, graphic description.

taboo -- Freud: a sacred-feeling prohibition that applies to an entire group. Its true purpose is to keep incestuous wishes unconscious. The rituals surrounding the taboo are similar to those
of
obsessive-compulsive neurosis but are collective rather than personal.

tabula rasa -- Concept attributed to John Locke. Young children seen very much like a blank slate. Learning is not innate but rather the result of experiences and activities.

tachophobia -- fear of speed.

tacenda -- thing to not be mentioned or things to be passed over in silence.

tachycardia -- rapid heart rate.

tachypnea -- abnormally fast breathing.

taciturn -- reticent; quiet, not talkative; insouciant.

tact -- acute sensitivity to what is proper and appropriate in dealing with others, including the ability to speak or act without offending.

tactile -- referring to touch; perceptible by touch; of, relating to, or being the sense of touch.

tactilely defensive -- Responding to physical contact with an unusual level of resistance (e.g., a child who will not finger paint because it is messy).

tactile exploration -- using the sense of touch to learn more about the environment.

tactile sense -- the sense of touch where contact, pressure, or traction exerted on the skin as well as in some internal organs are recognized.

tactile stimulation -- response using the sense of touch.

Tadoma -- tactile lip-reading by feeling the vibrations of the words by touching the speaker's throat, face, and jaw muscles. Tadoma is a communication style used by people who are deaf-
blind
.

tadpole man -- beginning drawings of humans with lines protruding from circles. (See illustration--------->>.)

taeniophobia, teniophobia --
fear of tapeworms.

talent -- outstanding performance in a particular field.

talented and gifted -- designation for higher than average cognitive, linguistic, social, creative development.

tale type index -- a classification system for folktales developed by Antti Aarne, 19th century Finnish folklorist edited and published in 1928 by the American  folklorist Stith Thompson in
The Types of the Folk-tale: A Classification and Bibliography. Classification is based on recurrent plots, characters, and component elements (motifs). This system allows for the identification
of variants of the same tale and supports cross cultural folktale research.

talipes equinovarus -- see clubfoot.

talisman -- item marked with magic signs thought to confer magical powers or repel evil.

tall tales -- humorous tales that relate impossible events or a larger than life character's exploits, giving realistic but hugely exaggerated details. Tall tales are
considered an American genre.
(See picture-------->.)

tamarind --
a tropical Asian evergreen tree having pinnately compound leaves, pale yellow flowers, and long pods containing small seeds embedded in an
edible pulp; the fruit of this tree.

tamarisk -- any of numerous African and Eurasian shrubs or small trees of the genus Tamarix, having small scalelike leaves and racemes of pink, white, or red
flowers.

tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) -- the machine used in newborn screening to detect certain inborn errors of metabolism. The method to use this machine is called tandem mass
spectroscopy.

TANF -- see Temporary Aid to Needy Families.

tangible reinforcers --
Material things that the individual likes; in children, favorite foods or drinks, toys, stickers, etc.

Tangier disease -- named after a group of three islands in the Chesapeake Bay (Tangier Island), Virginia. Tangier disease is characterized by an excess of "foam cells" -- immune cells
called
macrophages stuffed to the gills with a slightly modified version of cholesterol. Nearly all people with Tangier disease develop a yellowing of the corneas as they age, and
peripheral
neuropathy in their arms that can prevent the person from feeling pain. Other characteristics of Tangier disease are a slightly elevated amount of fat in the blood (mild
hypertriglyceridemia
); disturbances in nerve function  (neuropathy); enlarged, orange-colored tonsils; artherosclerosis (accumulation of fatty deposits and scar-like tissue in the lining of
the arteries); enlarged
spleen (splenomegaly); enlarged liver (hepatomegaly); clouding of the cornea; and type 2 diabetes. Tangier is a rare disorder with approximately 100 cases
identified worldwide. Caused by a mutated gene (ABC1 gene) on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9q31),
autosomal recessive. Though recessive, people who inherit just one copy of the
mutated gene show an intermediate condition: their bodies produce about 50% less HDL (
high density lipoprotein, the good cholesterol) than people with 2 normal copies of the gene.

tantalum -- atomic number 73, symbol Ta; a very hard, heavy, gray metallic element; occurs with niobium in tantalite and columbite; exceptionally resistant to chemical attack below 150°C;
used to make light-bulb filaments, electrolytic capacitors, lightning arresters, nuclear reactor parts, surgical instruments; discovered in 1802 by
Anders Ekeberg, named for King Tantalus
(Greek mythology).

tapenade -- a savory paste made from capers, olives, and anchovies.

taoiseach -- the head of government or prime minister of Ireland.

tapestry -- heavy cloth woven with rick, varicolored designs or scenes, often hung on walls.

taphephobia, taphophobia -- fear of being buried alive.

tapinophobia -- fear of small objects.

tardive dyskinesia -- a potentially severe movement disorder resulting from the long-term use of phenothiazines or any other antipsychotic medication.

target behavior -- behavior selected for assessment and management.

TAR syndrome -- see thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome.

tartar --
see calculus.

TASH -- formerly the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. International advocacy group for people with disabilities, which actively
promotes the full
inclusion and participation of persons with disabilities in all aspects of life.

task analysis - Instructional process for ensuring systematic learning by breaking lengthy or small steps and teaching those steps to students,
separately at first and then gradually in combination.

taurine -- a free amino acid needed by infants for normal growth and development of the central nervous system.

taurophobia -- fear of bulls.

Taurus -- a constellation of the zodiac; named for the bull; a large and prominent constellation in the northern winter sky; includes Pleiades and the
Hyades (open clusters); Aldebaran is the brightest star in the constellation; supernova remnant Crab Nebula in the northwest part of Taurus, 7 of its
stars are candidates for planets; lies between Aries and Gemini, Perseus and Auriga, southeast of Orion;
see picture.

tax exempt --
excused from taxation, often on the basis of nonprofit claims.

taxis -- an orienting or locomotor response; an innate behavioral response by an organism to a directional stimulus.

Tay-Sachs disease (GM2 gangiosidosis, type 1) -- a lysosomal storage disorder leading to a progressive neurological condition characterized by deafness, blindness, and
seizures
; development is typical for the first several months of life. Subsequently, there is an increased startle response, hypotonia followed by hypertonia, cherry-red spot in maculae,
optic nerve atrophy. There is a rapid decline and fatality by age 5 years. An adult form of this enzyme deficiency presents with ataxia. Associated complications: feeding abnormalities,
aspiration. Tay-Sachs is most common among the Ashkenazi Jewish population, followed by French Canadians in southeastern Quebec and Cajun populations in Louisiana. In the United
States approximately 1/27 Ashkenazi Jews is a recessive carrier of Tay-Sachs disease. Cause: deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A caused by mutation in the gene at chromosome
15q23--q24;
autosomal recessive.

TBI -- see traumatic brain injury.

T-cell --
a type of lymphocyte that plays a large role in the immune response. The T stands for thymus. Every effective immune response involves T cell activation. T cells are especially
important in cell-mediated immunity against tumor cells and pathogenic organisms inside body cells.

T-cell lymphoma -- T cells become malignant. T-cell lymphomas account for about 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the US; they are more common in Asia. The exact cause of T-cell
lymphoma is unknown, however it seems likely that it is
genetic.

T-charts -- charts laid out in the form of a capital T, which allows teachers to track two aspects of a behavior together.

TDD -- see teletypewriter.

teachable moments --
Points of time when a child is highly motivated and better able to acquire a new skill or learn a new thing.

teacher aide -- parent or full-time staff member who assists the teacher in a classroom.

teacher assistance team -- see intervention assistance team.

teacher-counselor parenting style -- parenting style in which parents are intensely focused on guiding their children's behavior.

teacher guided instruction -- Person who teaches by demonstrating or lecturing.

teacher-guided large group -- a teacher who demonstrates or lectures a group of more than 4 or 5.

teacher-mediated -- Intervention directed by teachers to promote social interactions.

teacher of children who are deaf and hearing impaired -- a teacher with special training in methods of working with children who are hearing impaired.

teacher presence -- the use of assertive behaviors, teacher proximity, and nonverbal communication to manage student behavior and promote a positive classroom environment in which
effective instruction can occur.

teacher proximity -- the teacher positioning himself or herself close to a student to prevent or eliminate problematic behavior.

teacher's stories -- the relating of classroom experiences to child development or professional practice principles; may be related orally or in written form.

teaching objectives -- a set of goals teachers set for themselves as they plan activities for children; these goals remind teachers what they will do to help children learn.

team -- two or more interdependent individuals with unique skills and perspectives who interact directly to achieve their mutual goals of providing students with effective educational programs
and services.

technetium -- atomic number 43, symbol Tc; a silvery-gray radioactive metallic element; first synthetically produced element; produced by bombarding molybdenum by deuterons; also
produced naturally in extremely small amounts during the radioactive decay of uranium; used as a tracer, in radiotherapy, and to eliminate corrosion in steel; discovered by
Carol Perrier in
1937.

technical vocabulary -- words that are used in a particular content area.

technologically dependent -- a disability category that includes people who require some technological assistance to breathe, to pass urine, or to meet other essential health needs while
participating in home, school, or community activities.

technology -- tools used to perform a task.

Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act (1988) -- federal act that provides funding and allows for technical assistance to people with disabilities as they
select and use
assistive technology.

technophobia -- fear of technology.

teenager -- a youth between 13 and 19 years old. (See cartoon-------------------------------------------->>.)

telangiectasia --
abnormal cluster of small blood vessels.

telecanthus -- abnormally increased distance between the medial canthi (the angle formed by the meeting of the upper and lower eyelids at either side of the
eye) of the eyelids.

telecommunication devices -- devices that use sight and hearing to improve communication, such as captions.

telecommunications -- according to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, PL 101-336), all companies offering phone services to the general public must
offer telephone relay services to individuals with
hearing impairments.

telecommuting --
working at home while in telecommunication contact -- by Internet, phone, or fax -- with the office.

telegenic -- well-suited to the medium of television; especially having an appearance and manner that are markedly attractive to television viewers.

telegraphic speech -- early utterances that leave out most articles, prepositions, and conjunctions.

teleology -- the study of the philosophical concept of the telos.

telepathy -- Freud believed tentatively in the possibility of telepathy, linking it with the emergence of psychic material from the primary to the secondary
process.

teletophobia -- fear of religious ceremonies.

teletypewriter (Telecommunications Device for the Deaf -- TDD) -- a device that enables those who are deaf to make and receive telephone calls by
using typewritten messages.
(See illustration--------->>.)

tellurian --
terrestrial; inhabiting the earth; pertaining to the earth; earthen.

tellurium -- atomic number 52, symbol Te; a brittle, silvery-white metallic element; found in combination with gold, copper, nickel, silver, and other metals; produced commercially as a
byproduct of the electrolytic refining of copper; used to alloy stainless steel and lead, in ceramics, and thermoelectric devices; discovered in 1782 by
Franz Muller von Teichenstein.

telly -- (British) television.

telophase -- the final phase in cell division in which the daughter chromosomes are at the opposite poles of the cell and new nuclear membranes form.

tempera -- powder paint that is mixed with water for use in painting activities.

temperament -- The individual's psychological makeup or personality traits.

temperamental tantrum -- anger response when some aspect of a child's style of interacting has been violated.

temperature -- a measurement of body heat; varies with the time of day, activity, and method of measurement.

temper tantrum -- an outburst of anger, rage, or irritability.

temporal -- having to do with time and time sequence; in the early childhood setting, refers to scheduling and how time is sequenced and spent,
both at home and in school.

temporal bone -- one of two bones situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebrum. It supports the
part of the face known as the temple;
see picture.

temporal lobes --
located on the side of the cerebrum (in the middle of our upper brain, near our ears), it's an area believed to be responsible
for hearing, senses, listening, language, learning, and memory storage. The other three major cerebrum areas are the
frontal, occipital, and
parietal lobes. (See illustration below temporal bone.)

Temporary Aid to Needy Families --
a welfare reform legislation passed in 1996.

tendentious -- marked by a tendency in favor of a particular point of view; biased.

tender years doctrine -- the legal presumption under traditional divorce laws that young children would do better with their mother than with
their father after a divorce.

tendinitis -- a common sports injury that usually happens after overworking a muscle. The tendon and tendon sheath become inflamed, which
causes pain. Resting the muscles and taking anti-inflammatory drugs can help.

tendons -- tough, cord-like tissues that connect muscles to bones.

tenesmus -- straining, especially long-continued, ineffectual and painful straining, at stool or urination.

tennis elbow -- an inflammation, soreness, or pain on the outside of the upper arm near the elbow. It is due to injury from repeated motions
of the wrist or forearm.

ten thematic strands of social studies -- developed by the National Council for the Social Studies, these ten themes were developed
to point to a  fundamental knowledge of social studies for children, grades K -- 12.

tenuous -- long and thin; slender; flimsy; without great substance; diluted.

teratogen -- agents that cause malformations in a developing embryo; agents that cross the placental barrier and cause or increase the incidence of physical malformations and
behavioral and cognitive deficits; any medication, chemical, infectious disease, or environmental agent  that might interfere with the normal development of a fetus & result in the loss of a
pregnancy, a birth defect, or a pregnancy complication. There are no absolute teratogens.

teratophobia -- fear of monsters or giving birth to a monster.

terbium -- atomic number 65, symbol Tb; a soft, malleable, silvery-gray metallic rare-earth element; occurs in gadolinite and monazite; used in x-ray, laser, and color television tubes;
discovered by
Carl Mosander in 1843.

tercet -- group of three lines of verse, often rhyming together or with another triplet.

terdekaphobia, tridecaphobia, trikaidekaphobia -- fear of the number 13.

terminal -- a progressive disease that is expected to cause death.

term pregnancy -- gestational period of at least 38 weeks.

terpsichorean (terp-sih-kuh-REE-un) -- of or related to dancing.

tertiary -- third in order.

tertiary circular reactions -- subtle modifications infants make in their behavior with objects so as to explore the effects of those modifications.

tertiary prevention -- efforts directed at preventing or decreasing the recurrence of an event that has already occurred.

tertiary services -- indirect services that benefit children and their families.

tesselation -- tile pattern sans gaps or extraneous spaces; a specified mathematical pattern.

test bias -- an unfairness of a testing procedure or test instrument, which gives one group a particular advantage or another a disadvantage as a c
onsequence of factors unrelated to ability, such as culture, sex, or race.

testes -- the male gonads (sex glands), which produce testosterone and manufacture sperm, also called testicles. (See-->>?)

testicular feminization -- (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome) --
a genetic disorder in which a fetus that is a boy (XY) is unresponsive to androgens (male hormones).
Instead they are born appearing female. Internally there is a short blind-pouch
vagina, no fallopian tubes, ovaries, or uterus. There are testes in the inguinal canal. It is often detected
at
puberty when the girl should but does not begin to menstruate, has no pubic or axillary hair, have a luxuriant scalp without male-pattern balding. They are sterile, and are at high risk
for
osteoporosis. The mutated gene is on the X chromosome, X-linked recessive. There is also a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, with the result being micropenis with
hypospadias
and gynectomastia. This is also due to mutations of the androgen receptor gene.

testing -- a type of cohabiting relationship undertaken as a trial in a situation closely resembling marriage.

testosterone -- a hormone produced in the testes, responsible for male sexual characteristics and sexual functioning.

tests -- systematic procedures for observing a person's behavior and describing it with the aid of numerical scales or fixed categories.

tête-á-tête -- a private conversation between two people.

tetracycline -- a medicine used to treat bacterial infections such as pneumonia, acne, ulcers, Lyme disease, anthrax. It works by
preventing the growth and spread of bacteria. It is a known
teratogen.

tetralogy of Fallot -- a complex congenital heart defect, consisting of four different abnormalities, including ventricular septal
defect and pulmonary stenosis. It usually results in blood that is not sufficiently oxygenated being pumped into the body, causing
cyanosis. (See illustration------>>.)

tetraplegia --
paralysis involving both arms, both legs, the trunk of the body, and the neck; also called quadriplegia.  (also spina
bifida is a useful link here).

tetraploid -- having four copies of each chromosome (i.e., 92 chromosomes). This is incompatible with life.

tetrasomy -- the presence of two extra chromosomes of one type in an otherwise diploid cell.

tetrasomy X -- see XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX syndromes.

teutophobia, teutonophobia -- fear of Germany or Germans.

text telephone (TT) -- telephones that send, receive, and print messages through thousands of stations across the United States.

thaasophobia -- fear of sitting; fear of being idle, of boredom.

thalamus -- located deep within the middle of the brain, it is a key sensory relay station. It is also part of the body's reward system. (See--------->>.)

thalassophobia --
fear of the sea.

thalassemia -- a severe kind of anemia in which red blood cells are destroyed and iron is deposited in the skin and vital organs.

thalidomide -- a sedative widely available in Europe, Canada, and South America in the early 1960s. When taken by women between the fourth and sixth weeks after conception, it produced
gross deformities of the
embryo's arms, legs, and ears (teratogen).

(Fetal) thalidomide syndrome -- phocomelia (shortened limbs). Caused by maternal ingestion of thalidomide during sensitive period of embryonic development in the first trimester of
pregnancy. Thalidomide is no longer available for use by pregnant women. Associated complications are deafness, blindness, congenital defects of heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract,
and reproductive organs; usually normal intelligence;
teratogen.

thallium -- atomic number 81, symbol Tl; a soft, malleable, highly toxic metallic element; used in photocells, infrared detectors, low-melting glass, and formerly in rodent and ant poisons;
resembles tin, but discolors on exposure to air; occurs in zinc blende and some iron ores; discovered by
Sir William Crookes in 1861.

thanatophobia -- fear of death.

thanatos -- Freud: the mythic name that Freud's students gave to the death drive he postulated in 1920 in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. This drive represents the organic needs to
return to lifelessness and stasis, the ultimate calm of lifeless non-conflict.
Freud traced all aggressive and destructive activity to this notion, which impressed him deeply after the outbreak of
World War II and the death of his sister Sophie. That portion of the drive which is turned outward benefits the organism which would otherwise turn it against itself. However, Freud did
concede that destructiveness also affords the
ego satisfaction of its old narcissistic need for omnipotence.

theatrophobia -- fear of theaters.

thelarche -- the beginning of breast development at puberty.

theophany -- religious epiphany or appearance of God to a person.

theophobia -- fear of God.

theory -- a group of general principles, ideas, or proposed explanations for explaining some kind of phenomenon; in this case, child development.

theory of mind -- the understanding of inner mental events -- that people think, imagine, pretend, and wonder about the world around them.

theory of multiple intelligences -- Gardner's theory, which proposes at least nine independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to
engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities.

therapeutic -- related to treatment of a disease or disability.

therapeutic feeding -- a feeding intervention that consists of rubbing or stroking to decrease hypersensitivity around the mouth and stretching to develop oral-motor tone.

therapeutic play -- using typical play activities as therapy time.

therapeutic recreation -- the provision of treatment and recreation services for people who are ill or have disabilities. The goal is to use this service to help people with disabilities use
leisure in ways that enhance health, functional abilities, independence, and quality of life. Some examples are animal assistive therapy, art therapy, bibliotherapy, cinema therapy, dance
therapy, drama therapy, horticultural therapy, music therapy, poetry therapy, therapeutic humor, and recreation and sports.  

theraplay -- an intensive, short-term treatment based on interactions modeled by the theraplay interventionist, which is modeled on naturally occurring healthy parent-child relationship
activities.

there, their, they're -- there is a place; their means belonging to them; they're is a contraction for they are.

theremin -- a musical instrument with electronic tone generation, the pitch and the tone volume being controlled by the distance between the player's hands and two metal rods serving as
antennas.

thermic energy of foods -- energy required to digest, absorb, transport, and metabolize nutrients in food.

thermophobia -- fear of heat.

thestral -- In the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, a thestral is a breed of winged horses with a skeletal body, face with reptilian features, and leathery wide wings that resemble a bat.
They are rare, and are undeservedly known as omens of misfortune and aggression because they are only visible to those who have witnessed death. The superstition that they bring bad
luck is erroneous, because they are actually amazing magical creatures. They have shining eyes, and dragonish faces and necks. They are attracted to the smell of blood. They also have
amazing senses of direction. A group of thestrals is an invisibility. A thestral baby is a horsie.

thiamine -- also known as Vitamin B1; helps convert carbohydrates into energy. It is essential for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system.

thimerosol -- a mercury-containing organic compound that was used as a preservative in vaccines. Thimerosol has been the suspected cause of autism and subsequently, caused public
fear of
vaccinations for young children.

thin filaments -- actin filaments occurring in striated muscle.

think aloud -- the teacher saying out loud the steps he or she is taking while solving a problem.  

think aloud interviews -- asking students to think out loud as they perform a task.

thinking brain -- the part of the brain that thinks logically. It reacts after the emotional brain.

thionine -- artificial red or violet dyestuff, usually for microscopic stains.

third level of inclusion -- this level of inclusion is the third most inclusive. Fewer children are in this level than are in levels one and two. In this level, the child is placed in the general
education classroom for most of the day but attends special education resource room or specialized services in area of need.

third party custody -- custody arrangement whereby the children live with someone other than a parent.

thixophobia -- fear of being touched.

thole -- chiefly dialect; endure.

Thomas theorem -- Statement by William I. Thomas, a sociologist who represented the symbolic interaction perspective: "If people define a situation as real, they are real in their
consequences."

thoracic -- relating to the thorax (chest). The thorax runs between the abdomen and neck and is encased in the ribs.

thorium -- atomic number 90, symbol Th; a soft, ductile, radioactive, silvery-white metallic element; recovered commercially from monazite; its only natural isotope has a half-life of 1.41 x 10¹º
years; used in magnesium alloys, and as a source of nuclear energy; discovered in 1828 by
Jons Berzelius; named for Thor (a god).

threatening situation -- Rogers: a situation when there is an incongruity between your image of yourself and your immediate experience of yourself
(i.e., between the ideal self and the real self).

three-dimensional art -- refers to any art form that has at least three sides. Art that is "in the round," which means that one can look at it from many
sides
(see picture).

three year reevaluation --
tri-annual process of reassessing the needs of a student with a disability; carried out by a multidisciplinary team.

threnody -- song, hymn, or poem reflecting on mourning or a tribute to the deceased.

threshold -- The physical or psychological point at which an individual begins to respond to certain kinds of stimulation.

throat -- the front part of the neck, in front of the vertebral column. It consists of the pharynx and larynx. The epiglottis separates the
esophagus from the larynx, preventing inhalation of food or drink. The throat contains various blood vessels, muscles, the trachea, and the
esophagus. The
hyoid bone and clavicle are the only bones located in the throat. See picture.

throes --
pangs or spasms of pain; a condition of agonizing struggle or trouble; in the midst of, in the process of, struggling with, wrestling with,
toiling with, anguished by, agonized by, in the pangs of.

thrombocytes -- see platelets.

thrombocytopenia – abnormal bleeding causing a reduction of platelets; the most common cause of bleeding disorders. Bleeding is usually from
small
capillaries. Treatment requires a specific diagnosis of the cause. All drugs are stopped because nearly any drug can cause the condition.
Adrenal corticosteroids and transfusion may be necessary.

thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome (TAR syndrome) -- radial aplasia (absence of one of the lower arm bones) with normal thumbs,
thrombocytopenia (
platelet deficiency) is present in all cases and symptomatic in 90% of cases; 50% of patients have dysmorphic features including
micrognathia (small jaw) and low posteriorly rooted ears. Associated complications: knee joint abnormalities, neonatal foot swelling, occasional congenital
heart or
renal defect, gastrointestinal bleeding, and occasional intracerebral bleeding. Unknown cause, autosomal recessive, but possible
autosomal dominant.

thrombocytopenic purpura (ideopathic) -- a bleeding condition in which the blood doesn't clot as it should. This is due to a low number of cell
fragments called platelets. The cause is unknown. A person with thrombocytopenic purpura often have purple bruises on the skin or mucous
membrane, which means that bleeding has occurred in the small blood vessels under the skin. Also there may be tiny red or purple dots called
petechiae (see picture). Other symptoms are nosebleeds, gum bleeding, or other bleeding that is hard to stop; heavy menstrual flow,
hematoma. It is considered an autoimmune disease.

thrombophilia -- a genetic tendency for one's blood to clot more than normal (thrombus formation).

thrombosis -- a blood clot inside a blood vessel which obstructs the flow of blood.

thrum -- a continuous rhythmic humming sound; make a continuing rhythmic humming sound.

thrush -- monilial (fungal) yeast infection of the oral cavity in infants. (See illustration.)

thulium --
atomic number 69, symbol Tm; a bright, silvery, malleable, ductile rare earth element; obtained from monazite; used in portable x-ray units; discovered by Per Theodor Cleve in
1879; name came from Thule, which is the ancient name of Scandinavia.

Thursday -- the 5th day of the week; named for Jupiter and associated with the Greek god Dios and the Roman god Jovis. The word Thursday comes from the Old English Thunor, an
analog to the Roman and Greek gods. Dios and Jovis were gods of thunder. Thursday was identified with the color white, the liver in the body, and the metal tin (stannum), with the chemical
symbol
Sn.

thwart -- to prevent to occurrence, realization, or attainment of; to oppose and defeat the efforts, plans, or ambitions of; eager to oppose; perverse; prevent; frustrate.

thylacine -- the extinct Tasmanian tiger.

thymic – pertaining to the thymus gland, which is the primary central gland of the lymphatic system. (See picture below.)

thymine --
one of the four nucleotides (chemicals) that comprise DNA. The formula for thymine is C₅H₆N₂O₂. It pairs with adenine.

thymus gland -- the primary central gland of the lymphatic system. The thymus processes a type of white
blood cell known as a T-lymphocyte, which governs cellular immunity (help cells recognize and destroy invading
bacteria, virus, etc., abnormal cell growth such as cancer, and foreign tissue.
(See thyroid gland -- an important
organ of the
endocrine system that helps control metabolism.)

thyroid disease --
a medical condition impairing the function of the thyroid, such as hypothyroidism,
hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, goiter, etc.

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) -- a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to release
thyroxine, which is necessary for normal brain development and body growth.

thyrotoxicosis -- a form of hyperthyroidism leading to severe symptoms.

thyrotropin -- a hormone produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain in response to signals from the hypothalamus gland in the brain.
It promotes the growth of the thyroid gland and stimulates the  production of thyroid hormones.

thyroxine -- the main hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; see picture above.

tibia --
a long bone in the shin. (See illustration.)

tics --
purposeless and irregular behavior such as motor movement or vocalizations with unpredictable onset. Movements or vocalizations are involuntary,
rapid, or recurrent over time. They may take the form of eye blinking, facial gestures, sniffing, snorting, repeating certain words or phrases, or grunting.
Stress often exacerbates the nature and frequency of tics. Tic disorders are classified as follows: 1) transient tic disorders which consist of multiple motor
and/or phonic tics with a duration of at least 4 weeks but less than 12 months; 2)
chronic tic disorders which are either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which are
present for more than a year; 3) Tourette disorder which is diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics are present for more than a year; and 4) tic disorder NOS which is diagnosed when
tics are present but do not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder. Tic disorders are complications of
autism: up to 9% of children with autism have them.

tilt -- to cause to slope, as by raising one end; incline.

tilt o whirl -- a flat amusement park, carnival, and fair ride, consisting of 7 freely-spinning cars that spin as the platform revolves, raises and lowers.

timed toileting -- a method of toilet training in which the child is placed on a toilet at times he or she would usually eliminate.

time frames -- the schedule of events, or "calendar" leading up to and through the child's transition into a new program.

time out -- removing a child from the immediate setting until they are ready to act  appropriately; a procedure whereby the possibility of positive reinforcement is withdrawn for a
predetermined brief amount of time following the occurrence of a targeted challenging behavior; an extreme form of withdrawing reinforcement.

time sample -- method of recording where children are by choice at a certain time, measuring attention span and interests.

timorous -- timid, fearful, diffident, mousy, shy, bashful.

tin -- atomic number 50, symbol Sn; a malleable, silvery metallic element; obtained chiefly from cassiterite; used to coat other metals, to prevent corrosion, and part of numerous alloys such
as soft solder, pewter, and bronze; tin was known to the ancients; comes from the Latin word stannum.

tinnitus -- high-pitched throbbing or ringing sounds in the ear, associated with disease of the inner ear.

tinny -- of, concerning, yielding, tasting, smelling of tin; weak or thin; flimsy; cheap, badly made, shoddy.

tin-pot -- cheap or trivial of its kind; petty, small-time, two-bit.

tintinnabulation -- ringing or sounding of bells; the sound of bells.

tiramisu -- a type of dessert made with cake and espresso.

tirokroketes -- Greek croquettes, containing cheese.

tissy -- a fit of bad temper; tantrum.

titanium -- atomic number 22, symbol Ti; a lightweight, strong, low-density, highly corrosion-resistant, lustrous white metallic element; occurs widely in igneous rocks and soils; used to alloy
aircraft metals for low weight, strength, and high-temperature stability; discovered by
William Gregor in 1791.

tittup -- to move in a lively manner often with an exaggerated or affected action.

TLR -- see tonic labyrinthine reflex.

T-lymphocyte --
see T-cell.

to, too, two -- to
indicates movement, direction, vicinity, extent, purpose, a position in time, etc.; too means also; two is a number before three and after one.

toast -- an African American genre of oral narrative poetry consisting of rhymed couplets, often with four stresses to a line. It was popular from the early 20th century through the 1970s,
when it gave way to rap. The subject of toasts were usually humorously exaggerated tricksters and "bad men." The latter represented the resistance of African Americans against the
economic and social inequities of the pre-Civil Rights era.

tobacco and nicotine -- smoking can have a teratogenic effect on a fetus like this: Smoking constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus, and causes the placenta to grow
abnormally. This reduces the transfer of nutrients, so that the fetus gains weight poorly. Also, smoking raises the concentration of carbon monoxide in the bloodstreams of both mother and
fetus.
Carbon monoxide displaces oxygen from red blood cells, damaging the central nervous system and slowing body growth in the fetus. The most common result of maternal smoking is
low birth weight but the likelihood of other serious consequences, such as
miscarriage, prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing during sleep, infant death, and cancer in later
childhood is also increased.

tocolysis -- use of medications to stop premature labor.

tocolytic agents -- medications used to stop premature labor. The most common example is ritodrine.

tocophobia -- fear of childbirth.

toddler -- a child one to three years old. (See picture---------------------------------------------->>.)

toe rag --
a piece of cloth worn on the foot under the book to substitute a sock, especially in winter.

toe walking -- a common gait disturbance of cerebral palsy which results from tightness of the calf muscle and Achilles tendon and increased
extensor tone in the legs, resulting in the child walking on toes.

tog -- to dress especially in fine clothing -- usually used with up or out.

toilet training -- the best time to start is when the baby is interested.

toison -- wool of a young sheep.

token reinforcement system -- a system in which students, by exhibiting positive behavior changes, may earn plastic chips, marbles, or other tangible items that they can exchange for
activities, food items, special privileges, or other rewards.

tolutiloquent -- speech characterized by rapidity.

tome -- a volume forming part of a larger work; book; a large or scholarly book.

tomophobia -- fear of surgery.

tone -- in writing, the "voice" of a written product, which can be light-hearted, serious, optimistic, pessimistic, and so forth.

tongue-tied -- see ankyloglossia -- the skin under the tongue (lingual frenulum) is shorter and wider than normal and restricts distinct sounds to be made. In infants, this may result in
potential feeding problems.

tongue twister -- a phrase designed to be difficult to articulate properly: Red baby buggy bumpers.

tonic bite reflex -- an abnormal jaw pattern -- jaw closure accomplished by forceful, sustained upward movement of the mandible, occurring following stimulation of the guns. It is
accompanied by increased abnormal tone in the jaw muscles, and is difficult to release. Damage to the teeth may occur.

tonic-clonic seizures -- spasmodic alteration of muscle contraction and relaxation; seizures in which the entire brain is affected. These seizures are characterized by stiffening of the body,
followed by a phase of rapid muscle contraction (extreme shaking). Also called a "
grand mal" seizure.

tonic labrynthine reflex (TLR) - primitive reflex in which the infant retracts the arms and extends the  legs when the neck is tilted backwards, stimulating the labyrinth.

tonic neck reflex -- appears when the infant, lying on the back, turns the head to one side or if the head is passively rotated to one
side. The infant tends to assume a "fencing" position - with his face toward the extended arm, while the other arm flexes at the elbow.
The lower limbs respond in a similar manner. This reflex generally disappears by 4 to 9 months.
(See illustration.)

tonic phase --
the phase of a seizure in which the entire body becomes rigid and stiff.

tonitrophobia, tonitruphobia -- fear of thunder.

tonometer -- an instrument for measuring intraocular pressure and detecting glaucoma.

tonotopically --
arranged spatially by tone as found in the cochlea or inner ear.

tonsorial -- of or relating to a barber or the work of a barber.

tooth bud -- see dental organ.

tooth enamel -- the outer layer of the exposed tooth. It is a hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance that envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the teeth. It is the hardest
substance in the body and is composed almost entirely of calcium salts. It has the highest concentration of mineral in the body at ~ 90%.

toothsome -- agreeable, attractive; sexually attractive; of palatable flavor and pleasing texture; delicious; I have noticed that some people on cooking shows use this word to explain food that
is chewy or of a thicker texture.

top down method of physical therapy -- a method of physical therapy focusing on teaching everyday skills a child will need as an adult.

toplofty -- very superior in air or attitude.

topographical -- Freud's division of psyche into three layers: the preconscious, the unconscious, and the conscious.

topographical classification system -- correlates the specific body location of the movement impairment with the location of the brain damage.

topophobia -- fear of performing (stage fright).

torpedo -- a weapon for destroying ships by rupturing their hulls below the waterline: as a submarine mine or as a thin cylindrical self-propelled underwater projectile; a large sandwich on a
long-split roll with any of a variety of fillings: submarine.

torpor -- a state of mental and motor inactivity with partial or total insensibility; a state of lowered physiological activity typically characterized by reduced metabolism, heart rate, respiration,
and body temperature that occurs in varying degrees especially in hibernating and estivating animals; apathy; dullness.

torrential -- resembling, flowing in, or forming torrents.

torsion -- the act of twisting or turning; the condition of being twisted or turned; the stress or deformation caused when one end of an object is twisted in one direction and the other end is
held motionless or twisted in the opposite direction.

torsion dystonia (Dystonia musculorum deformans) -- progressive involuntary movement disorder, normal intelligence. Inheritance is autosomal dominant or recessive. More
common in Ashkenazic populations. Associated complications are
contractures in affected limbs, normal intelligence, progressive motor abnormalities. Incidence: 1/20,000 in Ashkenazic
population, recurrence risk for offspring of patients with AD form, 50%; to siblings of patients with AR form, 25%.

torticollis -- wry neck in which the neck is painfully tilted to one side; a form of dystonia.

total communication -- An approach to education for students who are deaf that combines oral speech, sign language, and fingerspelling.

total fertility rate -- a statistic that is used to predict the number of births each woman in the population would have if the current fertility rates continued.

totally blind -- receiving no meaningful input through the visual sense.

total marriage -- marriage in which the partners are intensely bound together psychologically and participate in each other's lives in all, not just some, areas and have very few areas of
tension or conflict.

totem -- Freud: a common ancestor of a clan. Symbolized most often by an animal, it symbolizes the clan's guardian spirit or helper. Psychologically, the totem is a stand-in for the father.

totemism -- Freud: the earliest form of religion, intended to forbid incestuous desires felt by family members toward one another. Freud regarded it as the basis of all other social obligations
and norms.

Touchpoints model -- model developed by T. Berry Brazelton to support families at key points of disruption during their child's development.

touch-sensory problems -- sensory problems associated with autism: an early sign of autism is screaming when touched. Light touch may be painful, may cause anxiety; clothing can be
torturous; deep pressure, however, seems to be tolerated very well; self-stimulating behaviors seem to relieve the stress involved with these sensory problems.

Tourette syndrome -- a condition characterized by motor or verbal tics that cause the person to make repetitive movements, emit strange involuntary sounds, or say words or phrases that
are inappropriate for the context.

tourist approach -- a curriculum theme or experience that provides only a superficial look at a culture through differences rather than similarities; teaching about cultures only through
artifacts such as food, traditional clothing, and household implements.

tourmaline -- multifarious gemstone of grossly differing colors.

tourniquet -- a device (like a band of rubber) that checks bleeding or blood flow by compressing blood vessels.

toves -- a species of badger, with smooth white hair, long hind legs, and short horns like a stag. Toves eat mainly cheese. "Well, toves are something like badgers -- they're something like
lizards -- and they're something like corkscrews." (
Humpty Dumpty) "They must be very curious looking creatures." (Alice) "They are that," said Humpty Dumpty. "Also they make their nests
under sun-dials -- also they live on cheese." (
Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass [Jabberwocky]).

toxemia -- Presence of toxic substances in the body; generally refers to a disorder of late pregnancy. Sometimes called eclampsia or preeclampsia, the mother's blood pressure increases
sharply and her face, hands, and feet swell. If untreated, it can cause
seizures in the mother and fetal death; see preeclampsia.

toxicity -- a state of being poisonous.

toxic substances -- foreign substances that can be harmful or destructive to the body (e.g., alcohol, nicotine, narcotics).

toxin -- a poison.

toxiphobia, toxophobia, toxicophobia -- fear of poison.

toxocara canis or cati -- dog or cat roundworm. It can cause toxocariasis in humans if the larvae of these worms is ingested.  

toxoplasma gondii -- microorganism causing toxoplasmosis.

toxoplasmosis -- an infectious disease caused by a parasite found in many animals. It may be asymptomatic in adults, but can lead to severe
fetal malformations;
teratogen; a cause of deaf-blindness.

Tozitna --
a river in Alaska.

trabeculotomy -- a microsurgical ophthalmologic operation to relieve glaucoma.

trachea -- windpipe. (See illustration-------------------------------------------------------->>.)

tracheal cartilage --
any of the incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage forming the wall of the trachea. Also called tracheal ring.

tracheoesophageal fistula -- a congenital connection between the trachea and esophagus leading to aspiration of food and requiring surgical correction.

tracheomalacia -- softening of the cartilage of the trachea.

tracheostomy -- a surgical creation of an opening into the trachea (windpipe) to permit insertion of a tube to facilitate mechanical ventilation; the tube itself.

trachoma -- a slowly progressing, infectious bacterial disease associated with poor living conditions and inadequate hygiene; the most common cause of preventable blindness; parasitic
infection of the eye that causes
blindness in children. This is only seen in developing countries; a cause of deaf-blindness.

tracking --
ability to follow moving objects with the eyes in several different directions (vertically and horizontally).

traditional classroom -- an elementary school classroom based on the educational philosophy that children are passive learners who acquire information presented by teachers. Children's
progress is evaluated on the basis of how well they keep up with a uniform set of standards for all students in their grade. The teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision-
making and does most of the talking. Students are passive, listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher assigned tasks. Progress is measured by a uniform set of standards.

traditional couple -- a type of premarital and marital couple characterized by some external strengths (such as religion and friends) but fewer internal strengths (such as communication and
conflict-resolution skills).

traditional family -- family in which the man's role is primarily husband, father, and income earner; and the woman's role is wife, mother, and homemaker.

traditional literature -- literature that has been handed down from generation to generation. Most traditional literature is oral, but some literature, such as a culture's great epics, might be
written.

traditional marriage -- marriage in which the husband is the income earner, and the wife takes care of the house and the children; one of the four types of "good marriage" described by
Judith Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee in 1995.

traditional nursery school -- the core of early childhood educational theory and practice; program designed for children aged two and a half to five years of age, which may be a part-
or all-day program.

traffic patterns -- paths that students frequently follow as they move about the classroom.

tragus -- the prominence in front of the external opening of the outer ear.

trailing -- a traveling technique used by students who are deaf-blind, aids in orientation in a particular area: the student extends his/her arm at about 45 degrees, holding the arm to the
side and slightly in front of the body while maintaining contact with a surface, such as a wall.

trainable -- in referring to intellectual disability, generally considered to be between 40 and 55 IQ. Learning is primarily in the area of self-care skills; some achievement in functional
abilities. A range of more extensive support may be needed to help the student adapt to community environments. Opportunities for paid work include supported employment in a community
job.

traipse -- to walk; to wander without destination; gad; aimlessly or blithely walk.

trammel -- a net for catching birds or fish; something impeding activity, progress, or freedom: restraint, usually used in plural.

tramontane (truh-MAHN-tayn) -- situated on the north side of the Alps; transalpine; lying on or coming from the other side of a mountain range.

tranquility -- peace, serenity, calmness, relaxation.

transactional learning -- interactions between a child and the environment that facilitates new learning.

transactional model -- a model of education that describes the interaction of an individual with one or more persons, especially as influenced by their assumed roles. This model implies that
the role of parent, child, or teacher has an effect on what and how information is taught and learned.

transactional perspective -- the view that development occurs as the result of the interplay between the diverse qualities that individuals bring to their environments and the diverse
environments that individuals experience.

transactional relationships -- The understanding that children and adults influence each other in their ongoing relationships and that both child and adult learn from these interactions;
future interactions are influenced by earlier interactions.

transcortical motor aphasia -- the ability to repeat words, name objects, and understand speech are preserved, but an inability to speak spontaneously.

transcription -- the process in which mRNA is formed from a DNA template.

transcurricular -- able to be used or applied in a variety of situations or activities.

transcytosis -- the process by which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell.

transdisciplinary --   A team whose members plan and provide services within and across discipline boundaries to provide integrated services; a type of teaming model utilized in delivering
services to young children with special needs. Building on an
interdisciplinary model, this approach also includes sharing of rules and interventions delivered by a primary service provider.
Support and consultation from other team members is important. Professionals from various disciplines come together to develop an instructional program that views the student from an
holistic perspective. All members of the team work together to integrate instructional strategies and therapy concurrently within the classroom, and to evaluate the effectiveness of their
individual roles in meeting the needs of each student. Also called transdisciplinary team or transdisciplinary teaming.

transdisciplinary assessment -- type of assessment in which appropriate specialists and classroom personnel work together in regular classroom activities to conduct a child assessment.

transductive reasoning -- the inference that if two particular examples or events occur together, they must be causally related.

trans fats -- unsaturated fats that have been converted to a solid by a process of hydrogenation.

transfer -- how a person is physically moved from one position to another.

transfer DNA -- the form of RNA that attaches the correct amino acid to the protein chain being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell.

transfer RNA -- abbreviated tRNA; one of a class of RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis. hmmm.

transference -- Freud: a type of projection in which early parental conflicts are reexperienced with the therapist, whose job is to interpret them back to the patient. Freud first saw
transference as a hindrance because it distorted the relationship between patient and therapist; later, he argued that a positive transference onto the analyst could help the psychoanalysis
progress. He distinguished three kinds: negative, erotic, and sensible.

transfer skills -- the ability to generalize previously learned skills to an unfamiliar setting or new classroom.

transfusion -- a procedure in which blood is given through an intravenous line. Blood transfusions are done to replace blood lost during surgery or due to a serious injury or illness.

transgender -- an individual who believes that he or she is a victim of a biologic accident that occurred before birth and has been living within a body incompatible with his or her real
gender identity. A majority of transgender persons are biologic males who identify themselves as female, usually early in childhood.

transgenderist -- a person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity of the other gender and lives the full-time life of that gender, but doesn't undergo medical procedures
to change to that gender.

transience -- brevity, briefness; evanescence; shortness; the state of being temporary.

transient behavioral disabilities -- social-emotional disturbances that come and go.

transient situational disorders -- psychiatric disturbances linked to environmental events. An example is posttraumatic stress disorder that is precipitated by an unanticipated,
psychologically devastating event, such as a
physical attack and/or sexual abuse, a car accident, or the sudden loss of a close family member.

transient tic disorder -- a temporary condition that causes single or multiple motor tics, which are brief, repetitive, difficult-to-control movements or noises (vocalizations). In order to be
diagnosed with transient tic disorder, a person must have had tics almost every day for at least 4 weeks, but less than one year.

transition -- a period when a person makes a change from one setting to another. Going to a new placement can be traumatic and should be carefully planned, coordinated, and monitored.
Transition for young children with disabilities occurs for infants and toddlers at age 3 and for preschoolers at age 5 or 6. Also coordinated set of activities for children with disabilities that are
designed to facilitate the move from school to employment, further education, vocational training, independent living, and community placement.

transition -- climax of the first stage of labor, in which the frequency and strength of contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely.

transitional (fetal) circulation -- circulatory changes occurring at birth in the lungs and around the heart, resulting from pulmonary vasodilation and closure of the ductus arteriosis
and the
foramen ovale (the two fetal by-passes around the lungs during fetal life).

transition coordinator -- the primary contact person whom parents and service providers can contact during transition for specific information regarding a particular child.

transition planning -- a statement of the process to help a child move from one type of program to another.

transition services -- PL 108-446 -- services designed to promote movement from school to post school activities based on the student's needs and taking into account preferences and
interests. Adds that services must be focused on improving academic and functional achievement, and that the student's strengths must also be taken into account. The goal is to further
education, vocational training, independent living, and community participation.

transition stage of grief -- the period during which the bereaved's grief lessens and he or she begins to recognize that a new life is possible; the second of Brubaker's three stages of the
grieving process.

transition to parenthood -- the personal and relational changes that parents experience with the birth of the first child.

transitive inference -- the ability to seriate -- to order items along a quantitative dimension -- mentally; Piaget.

translation -- the process in which an amino acid sequence is assembled according to the pattern specified by mRNA.

translocation - the transfer of a fragment of one of the chromosome to another chromosome.

translocation Down Syndrome -- can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.

transmission model -- a model of education describing the transference of information directly from one person to another, such as in the sense of passing on knowledge directly from
teacher to child.

transmutable -- able  to change from one nature, substance, form, or condition into another; transform.

transnational marriages -- marriages in which one partner is in the US and the other -- and perhaps the children -- are in another country.

transpersonal psychologies -- Maslow: humanistic psychology which studies experiences when an individual sees beyond what the conditioned ego, and defines a deeper and more
enduring sense of self. Sympathy, empathy, altruism, compassion, unselfishness, and unconditional love are all part of  transpersonal psychology, as are experiences and beliefs which lead
us to see a higher reality, whether thought of impersonally or assigned to a deity.

transplacental -- substance that crosses from maternal to fetal bloodstreams, or vice versa, via the placenta.

transportation -- according to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA; PL 101-336), all new public transit buses, train and bus stations, and rail systems must be accessible to people with
disabilities.

transposons -- a segment of DNA that is capable of independently replicating itself and inserting the copy into a new position within the same or another chromosome or plasmid. This
alters the genetic constitution of the organism. Transposons act somewhat similarly to viruses and in humans are an underlying cause of hemophilia, certain cancers, and other diseases.
Transposons can also be beneficial.

transracial adoption -- adoption of a child of one race or ethnic group by adoptive parents who are of another race or ethnic group.

transsexual -- a person with the biological sex of one gender who has the identity or self-concept of the other gender and who undergoes medical procedures to change to that gender.

transverse presentation -- fetal position in which the baby is lying sideways.

transvestite -- a cross-dresser, usually a male, who dresses provocatively to appeal to men.

trapezoid philtrum -- a philtrum that is trapezoidal in shape; part of the Kabuki syndrome.

trauma -- a deeply distressing or disturbing experience. Trauma can be a cause of hearing loss: blows to the head resulting in trauma to the cochlea can lead to a sudden unilateral
sensorineural hearing loss
. Traumatically loud sounds can also cause this (such as firecrackers, fireworks, cap pistols, gunfire). Over time, exposure to such sounds can cause
permanent hearing loss.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) --
Acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability of psychosocial impairment; direct injuries to
the brain, such as tearing of nerve fibers, bruising of the brain tissue against the skull, brain stem trauma, and swelling. This category was added to
IDEA in 1990, PL 101-476.

traumatic neurosis --
Freud: those caused by situations of unusually high stress. They are the sole possible exception to the rule of neuroses being
caused by unresolved
Oedipal conflicts.

traumatophobia -- fear of injury

Treacher Collins syndrome (mandibulofacial dysostosis) -- characteristic facial appearance with malformation of the external ear, flattened area
near cheekbones, absence of lower eyelashes,
cleft palate, small mandible, conductive or mixed hearing loss, defects in middle ear and inner
ear, respiratory and feeding problems, apnea, intelligence is normal in 95% of the cases. Cause: mutations in TCOFI gene on chromosome 5q32--q33,
autosomal dominant. Treatment includes surgical repair of most malformations; a cause of deaf-blindness. (See illustration.)

tregetour --
juggler; mummer; conjurer.

tremophobia -- fear of trembling.

tremor -- a trembling motion.

tremulous -- marked by trembling, quivering, or shaking.

trenchant -- incisive or keen, as language or a person; caustic; cutting; vigorous; effective; energetic; clearly or sharply defined; clear-cut; distinct.

Treponema pallium -- microorganism causing syphilis.

trial and error -- see discovery learning.

trial marriage -- see premarital cohabitation.

Triangular theory -- a theory of the origin of love that emphasizes three important elements of love, which interact with
one another; intimacy, passion, and decision/ commitment. Developed by
Robert Sternberg. (See illustration.)

triangulation --
as used in assessment,  a term that refers to merging information from several sources and several
techniques to reach a conclusion, rather than relying on one direct measure.

Triangulum -- a small constellation in the northern sky; name derives from its three brightest stars; one of the 48
constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy; one of the 88 modern constellations; 1 star in Triangulum
so far has planets.

triarchic theory of successful intelligence -- Sternberg's theory, which identifies three broad interacting
intelligences: 1) analytic intelligence (information-processing skills); 2) creative intelligence (capacity to solve problems);
and 3) practical intelligence.
(See illustration below triangulation.)

trichomoniasis -- a common sexually transmitted disease that affects both men and women, but the symptoms are
more common in women. It is the most common curable STD in young, sexually active women.

trichopathophobia -- fear of hair disease.

trichophobia -- fear of hair.

trickster archetype -- Jung: a very important character in the history of man. He is a God, and he is not. He is a wise-fool. It is he, through
his creations, that destroys, points out the flaw in carefully constructed societies of man, rebels against authority, pokes fun at the overly
serious, creates convoluted schemes that may or may not work, etc. He appears when an outmoded way of thinking needs to be torn down
and built anew. In dreams, he may appear as a fool, clown, magician, jester, villain, or destroyer.

trickster tales -- stories about stock characters who use their wits rather than brawn to gain their ends or get out of trouble.

tricuspid valve -- one of the four heart valves, the first one that blood encounters as it enters the heart. It stands between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It allows blood flow
only from the atrium to the ventricle.

trigenimal nerves -- the Vth pair of cranial nerves; aiding sensory and motor functions in the face, teeth, mouth, and nasal cavity.

trigeminal neuralgia -- a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain. Mild stimulation of the face may trigger a jolt of
excruciating pain.

triglycerides -- the chemical form in which most fat exists in food as well as in the body. They are present in blood plasma, and in association with cholesterol, form the plasma lipids.
Excess triglycerides in plasma is called
hypertriglyceridemia. Normal level in the plasma is less than 150 mg/dL. Very high is 500 mg/dL or higher.

trilithon -- a structure consisting of two large vertical stones supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top. The most famous are at Stonehenge
in England.
(See picture.)

trillion --
a crazy big number: 1,000,000,000,000; the human body has about 100 trillion cells (100,000,000,000,000) and 30,000 -- 80,000 genes.

trillium -- a spring ephemeral flower with three large leaves and white flowers that turn pink as they age.

trilobite -- any of numerous extinct marine arthropods of the class Trilibita, abundant in the Paleozoic Era, having a segmented body divided by
grooves into three vertical lobes and found now as fossils throughout the world.
See picture of a trilobite fossil.

trimesters --
three equal time periods in prenatal development, each of which lasts 3 months.

trimethylaminuria -- see fish odor syndrome.

trinity -- group consisting of three closely related members; a unity of three special objects.

triplegia -- cerebral palsy affecting three extremities of the body.

triplet repeat expansion -- abnormal number of copies of identical triplet nucleotides (as occurs in Fragile X syndrome).

triploid -- having three copies of each chromosome (i.e., 69 chromosomes), which is generally incompatible with life.

triptych -- a work consisting of three painted or carved panels that are hinged together.

trisomy -- a condition in which there are three copies of one chromosome on a chromosome pair rather than the traditional two.

Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) -- Microphthalmia, coloboma, corneal opacity, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, scalp defects, dysmorphic features, low-set ears, hypertelorism,
flexion deformity of fingers,
microcephaly, brain malformations, congenital heart defects, eye abnormalities, kidney and gastrointestinal tract malformations, sensorineural hearing
loss, profound intellectual disability, cerebral palsy. Caused by a nondisjunction resulting in extra #13 chromosome, rarely parental translocation. Sporadic inheritance; a cause of deaf-
blindness.

Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)-- Small for gestational age, low-set ears, clenched hands with overriding fingers, congenital heart defects, prenatal onset of growth retardation,
microphthalmia, coloboma, corneal opacity, 30% die within first month of life, 50% by second month and only 10% survive the first year. Associated complications: feeding problems,
aspiration, conductive hearing loss, profound intellectual disability. Caused by a nondisjunction resulting in trisomy for chromosome # 18. Sporadic inheritance; a cause of deaf-
blindness.

Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) -- Type of Down Syndrome in which the chromosomal pairs do not separate properly during the formation of sperm or egg cells, resulting in an extra
chromosome on the 21st pair; also called
nondisjunction.

Trisomy 22 -- frequently seen in first trimester miscarriages but is extremely rare in live-born babies. It is the second most common cause of miscarriage (second to Trisomy 16).

Trisomy X -- see XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX syndromes.

triste --
sad, mournful; dismal; depressed.

tristiloquy -- a speech characterized by sadness or gloominess.

trochlear nerves -- the IVth pair of cranial nerves; they innervate the superior oblique muscles of the eyeballs.

troll -- also called jotunn, thurs, jotnar. Trolls are humanlike, though much larger and much uglier. They are extremely strong, but dim-witted. Troll language consists of grunting and pointing.
A troll stands about 12 feet tall, has gray skin, a lumpy body, and flat, horny feet. They smell horrible, "a mixture of old socks and the type of public toilet no one seems to clean." A troll's nose
is full of what looks like lumpy, gray-blue boogers. A group of trolls is a reek or an emphasis. A troll baby is a rosebud.

trophoblast -- the thin outer ring of cells in the blastocyst, which will become the structures that provide protective covering and
nourishment to the new organism.
(See illustration---->.)

tropophobia --
fear of changes.

Troyer syndrome -- see spastic paraplegia.

truncate -- to shorten by or as if by cutting off.

trust -- the defining feature of friendships during middle childhood.

trust vs. mistrust -- the first of Erikson's stages of development, the primary focus of which is whether the child's basic needs are met in a sensitive, predictable way.

tryptophan -- an amino acid needed for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults. It is an essential amino acid which means that the body does not produce it -- it must
come from food. The body uses tryptophan to help make
niacin and serotonin. Tryptophan is helped in this process by sufficient iron, riboflavin, and Vitamin B6. Tryptophan can be
found in cheese, chicken, eggs, fish, milk, nuts, peanut butter, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, soy, tofu, and turkey.

tryst -- agreement, as between lovers, to meet at a certain time and place; a date between two people.

Tsk! -- used, often in quick repetition, as an exclamation of contempt, disdain, impatience; for shame!

TTY -- see teletypewriter.

tubal ligation or sterilization --
a female sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are interrupted surgically -- cut and tied or
blocked. This prevents passage of the eggs to the
uterus. (See illustration.)

tuberculosis --
a bacterial infection, passed through the air, and usually involves the lungs, though other organs can be involved also. It is
caused by the TB bacterium, M tuberculosis; a cause of
deaf-blindness.

tuberous sclerosis -- hypopigmented areas on skin, adenoma sebaccum (acne-like facial lesions), infantile seizures, iris
depigmentation, retinal deposits in brain, benign tumor of the kidneys, pulmonary lesions, seizures, mild to moderate intellectual disability, tumors of the heart, increased risk of
malignancy, hypoplastic tooth enamel and dental pits, renal (kidney) cysts, hypertension. Cause: mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes on chromosome 16p13 and 9q24, respectively;
autosomal dominant. Although only 1% to 4% of people with autism have tuberous sclerosis, almost all children who have tuberous sclerosis have symptoms of autism.

tubers -- benign congenital tumors found in the brain of an individual with tuberous sclerosis.

tubule -- a very small tube.

Tuesday -- the 3rd day of the week; named for Mars and associated with the Greek god Ares and the Roman god Martis. The word Tuesday
comes from the Old English translation of the Latin Martis. Ares and Martis were gods of war. Tuesday is correlated with the color red, the gall
bladder in the body, and the metal iron (ferrum), with the chemical symbol
Fe.

tulgey wood -- from Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll: dense and wet forest, usually foliage.

tumescent -- swollen, torous or torose, turgid, tumid, swelling.

tumor -- an abnormal growth of body tissue. They can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). A tumor is also called a
neoplasm.

tumor cells -- part of a tissue that is abnormally growing; can be benign or malignant. Malignant tumor cells are called cancer.

Tumtum tree -- from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll: a short, deciduous tree with broad, bright green leaves. Here is a picture I found. If it
is one that you drew or painted, please tell me, as I could not find a source. I will happily remove it or give you large amounts of
applause for your talent!

tungsten --
atomic number 74, symbol W; a hard, brittle, corrosion resistant, gray to white metallic element; extracted from wolframite, scheelite,
and other minerals; highest melting point and lowest vapor pressure of any metal; used in high-temperature structural materials, electric
elements, lamp filaments, instruments x-ray targets; discovered by
Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar in 1783; name for the Swedish words tung (heavy) and sten (stone), from the German
word wolfram.

tunnel vision -- a field of vision that is 20% or less at its widest angle.

tu quoque (TOO-KWOH-kwee) -- a retort charging an adversary with being or doing what he or she criticizes in others.

Turner syndrome (XO syndrome; 45,X; monosomy X) -- affecting females only, the physical features include short stature, broad chest with widely spaced nipples, short neck with low
hairline and extra skin at nape ("webbed" appearance), "puffy" hands and feet, "streak" ovaries causing infertility and delayed puberty,
congenital heart defect (often coarction of aorta),
small ear canals, eye involvement (
strabismus, ptosis, nystagmus, cataracts), chronic otitis media in 90% with frequent hearing loss, hypothyroidism, renal disease, intelligence is
usually normal, but prevalence of
learning disabilities is high. Cause: nondisjunction chromosome abnormality resulting in one X only; new mutation.

tuppence -- variant of two pence.

turquoise -- a type of blue-green color; a opaque, blue-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum: CuAl₆(PO₄)₄(OH)₈4H₂O.

tutelage -- an act of guarding or protecting; the state of being under a guardian or tutor; instruction especially of an individual; a guiding influence.

tutoyer (tew-twah-YAY) -- to address familiarly.

twee -- affectedly or excessively dainty, delicate, cute, or quaint.

twinkling -- shining intermittently with a sparkling light; emitting or reflecting light readily or in large amounts; the act of blinking; a blink or twinkle; the time it takes to blink once; an instant.

twinning -- the production of twins. (See illustration.)

twitter-light --
(noun) twilight.

two-dimensional media -- a term used to refer to any art form that is flat, having only two sides -- front and back.

two-person single career -- traditional family form in which the husband works outside the home and the wife -- even if she is also
employed -- helps the husband's career by being responsible for domestic tasks and child-rearing.

two-way communication -- communication designed to elicit dialog between home and school.

two-way journal-- A notebook for questions or observations on a particular day that is passed back and forth between parents,
teachers, and other team members on a regular basis.

tympanic -- referring to the ear canal.

tympanic membrane -- the eardrum. It separates the outer ear from the middle ear.

tympanography -- a test that measures the functioning of the middle ear and the movement of the eardrum.

tympanometry -- the measurement of flexibility of the tympanic membrane as an indicator of a middle-ear infection or fluid of the middle ear.

tympanostomy tubes -- a small tube inserted into the eardrum to prevent the accumulation of mucus in the middle ear.

type 1 diabetes -- a disease distinguished by a lack of insulin production; usually diagnosed in childhood or young adulthood.

type 2 diabetes -- an insensitivity to insulin causing an imbalance in how the body handles sugar consumption.

typhoid -- an acute illness caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and then spread to other people in the area. The
incidence of typhoid fever in the U.S. has dramatically decreased since the early 1900s., due to improved environmental sanitation. Symptoms are poor appetite, headaches, generalized

malaise
, fever, lethargy, and diarrhea. It can be treated with antibiotics.

typology -- a set of types used to differentiate between or among persons, processes, or objects in order to facilitate scientific study.

tyrosine -- an amino acid.
This is Amie Osborne, who has
Treacher Collins Syndrome. Go
to her
website !! It is wonderful.
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