ubiquitous -- existing or being everywhere at the same time; omnipresent.

U-curve -- graphic representation of variations in marital satisfaction according to stages of family life cycle.

uffish thought -- from Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll defines: "I did make an explanation once for 'uffish thought'! It seemed to suggest a state
of mind when the voice is gruffish, the manner roughish, and the temper huffish."

ulcer -- a crater-like sore (generally 1/4 inch to 3/4 inch in diameter) which form in the lining of the stomach, the small intestine, and less
commonly in the

ulcerative colitis -- a type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the large intestine (colon) and rectum. Symptoms are abdominal
pain and cramping, abdominal sounds, diarrhea, fever,
tenesmus (rectal pain), weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, joint pain, nausea and

ulna -- the longer of the two bones in the forearm (the other is the radius). The ulna is the inner bone (the one closest to the body). (See picture above.)

ulnar grasp --
the clumsy grasp of the young infant, in which the fingers close against the palm. Also called palmar grasp. (See->.)

ultramarine --
a type of intense bluish-purple.

ultrasound -- a procedure used to identify some developmental problems, in which video images of the fetus and the fetus's
internal organs are produced from the echoes of sound waves. Ultrasound is used medically for more than
pregnancy. (See

ululate --
howl, wail.

umbilical cord -- the long cord connecting the prenatal organism to the placenta; it delivers nutrients and removes waste products. It is usually 1 to 3 feet long and
consists of two
arteries (waste removed) and one vein (delivers nutrients). (See illustration.)

umbilical cord prolapse --
the umbilical cord being born before rather than after the baby, thereby becoming compressed by the fetus during the delivery process
and interfering with oxygen flow to the fetus during the
delivery process and interfering with oxygen flow to the fetus during labor; typically occurs with

umbilical hernia -- an outward bulging of the abdominal lining or part of the abdominal organs through the area around the belly button (of an infant).

umbrage -- offense; affront; the shade beneath a tree; shade; suspicion; reason for doubt.

umbrella -- apparatus used as a personal rain repellent.

umpteenth -- occurring in a relatively large but unspecified position in a series.

unbalanced families -- families who fall at the extremes on both the flexibility and the cohesion dimensions of the Couple and Family Map; chaotically enmeshed, chaotically disengaged,
rigidly enmeshed, or rigidly disengaged, families.

unceremoniously -- without the due formalities; abrupt; informal; rudely; hurriedly; summarily.

unconditional positive regard -- feelings a teacher should have for a student; based on the work of Carl Rogers.

unconditioned response (UCR) -- in classical conditioning, a reflexive response that is produced by an unconditioned stimulus.

unconditioned stimulus (UCS) -- in classical conditioning, a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response.

unconscious -- not conscious, without awareness, occurring below the level of conscious thought; the part of the human psyche that is not conscious or aware. Freud: that which is
repressed out of awareness. Its core is instinct representations consisting of wish-impulses; see
id. Jung: see collective or personal unconscious.

uncontested divorce -- under traditional divorce law, a divorce in which one party would charge the other party with an infraction that was considered by the court as grounds for granting a
divorce and the accused party would agree not to challenge the accuser in court. In many cases parties were forced to collude and to perjure themselves in order to divorce.

uncoupling -- going through the series of stages by which partners -- whether married or cohabiting, heterosexual or homosexual -- move toward ending their relationship.

uncouth -- strange or clumsy in shape or appearance; outlandish; lacking in polish and grace; rugged; awkward and uncultivated in appearance, manner, or behavior; rude.

underemployed workers -- people holding jobs below their level of qualification or are working part-time but wanting to work full-time.

underextension -- an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too narrowly, to a smaller number of objects and events than is appropriate.

underfunctioner -- an individual who is too highly flexible and disorganized and becomes less competent under stress.

underlying assumptions -- those aspects of family life that a theory takes for granted in order to simplify its focus.

undernutrition -- inadequate nutrition to sustain normal growth.

understatement -- a figure of speech in which a writer or a speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is.

undifferentiated -- the stage of children's friendships in which children do not distinguish between "friend" and "person I'm playing with," considered the first stage, usually from infancy into
the preschool years.

undifferentiated cry -- crying that expresses discomfort but is not specific to any particular stimulus.

undifferentiated response -- A behavior that is not directed toward a specific person or intended to communicate a specific message.

undoing -- Freud: a defense mechanism by which we try to undo something we feel we shouldn't have done to begin with (example: doghouse flowers).

undulation -- a regular rising and falling or movement to alternating sides; movement in waves; a wavelike form, outline, or appearance; one of a series of waves or wavelike segments.

unemployed workers -- people seeking work who are new to the labor force or have been laid off (temporarily dismissed), downsized (permanently dismissed), or fired (dismissed for cause,
such as absenteeism).

unexpected underachievement -- a defining characteristic of learning disabilities; poor school performance cannot be explained by other disabilities or limited potential.

unfounded -- child abuse reports that upon investigation lack evidence for criminal or civil charges.

unforgivable curses -- Imperius, Cruciatus, Avada Kedavra (from Harry Potter series, J. K. Rowling.)

ungainly -- lacking in smoothness or dexterity; clumsy; hard to handle; unwieldy; having an awkward appearance.

unicorn -- a fabulous equine beast with a long horn jutting from the middle of its forehead. Once thought to be native to India, it is now seen throughout the world. It was often considered a
composite creature, having the features of various animals. It is beautiful, usually pure white in color. They seem to prefer the touch of a woman. They are powerful magic creatures, hard to
catch. Their blood is silver and shines under moonlight. Their hooves are golden and their babies are pure gold. They turn silver when they are about 2 years old. At 7 years, they are full-
grown and turn pure white.  A group of unicorns is called an enchantment. A unicorn baby is a colt or pony or foal.

unilateral -- the stage of children's friendships in which children think of friendship as involving one side only; that is, a one-way situation in that a "friend" is "someone who does what I want
him to do," usually spanning the preschool years and into early primary.

unilateral cleft lip/cleft palate -- palate and/or lip are cleft only on one side.

unilateral hearing loss -- hearing loss in only one ear; now believed to adversely affect the educational process in a significant percentage of students who have it.

unilateral use of hands -- using one hand to perform a task, such as patting, reaching, grasping.

unnilennium (Une) -- atomic number 109, former name of meitnerium, symbol Mt.

unnilhexium (Unh) --
atomic number 106, former name of seaborgium, symbol Sg.

unniloctium (Uno) --
atomic number 108, former name of hassium, symbol Hs.

unnilpentium (Unp) --
atomic number 105, former name of dubnium, symbol Db.

unnilseptium (Uns) --
atomic number 107, former name of bohrium, symbol Bh.

uninhibited, or sociable, child --
a child whose temperament is characterized by positive emotional reaction and approach to novel stimuli.

unintelligible speech -- speech that cannot be understood by most listeners.

uninvolved child-rearing style -- a child-rearing style that combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and effort to grant autonomy. Reflects minimal commitment to
parenting; general indifference.

uninvolved disorganized attachment -- Unresolved/disorganized adults are confused or disoriented when speaking about the loss of a loved one or about past traumas, such as sexual or
physical abuse. During discourses of loss or abuse, the adult shows a striking lapse in the monitoring of reasoning or discourse. This adult may lapse into prolonged silence or eulogistic
speech as the interview progresses.

uninvolved parenting -- a style of parenting in which parents make few demands on their children and are unresponsive or rejecting.

uniparental disomy -- see genomic imprinting.

unit of analysis -- the level at which a theory focuses, that is, whether it attempts to explain individual (micro) or societal (macro) level phenomena.

universal -- common to children of all cultures.

universal design -- PL 108-446 -- a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products and services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional
capabilities, which include products and services that are directly usable (without requiring
assistive technologies) and products and services that are made usable with assistive

Universal design for learning (UDL) -- instructional programs and environments that work for all students, to the greatest extent possible, without the need of adaptation. Such a
curriculum must be accessible and applicable to students, teachers, and parents with different backgrounds, learning styles, abilities, and disabilities in widely varied learning contexts.

universal donor -- someone who can donate blood to anyone else, with few rare exceptions. The blood type of a universal donor is O-. Conversely a universal recipient can safely be
given blood from anyone, with a few rare exceptions. The blood type for a universal recipient is
AB+. See blood types for more information.

universal infection control precautions -- special measures taken when handling bodily fluids, including careful hand-washing, wearing latex gloves, disinfecting surfaces, and proper
disposal of contaminated objects.

universal newborn hearing screening -- program for testing babies' hearing soon after they are born.

universal norms -- average or standard performance level of children of a particular age.

universal plasma donor -- Type AB+ blood, since AB blood has antigens on red blood cells but none in the plasma. See blood types.

universal recipient -- Type AB, with some exceptions. See blood types and universal donor above.

universal red blood cell donor -- Type O blood, since O blood has no A or B antigens on the red blood cells but has both in the plasma. See blood types.

universal screening -- screening of everyone, particularly newborns, to determine the existence or risk of a disability.

unobtrusive -- being inconspicuous, as in remaining in the background while observing children.

unoccupied play -- not interested in play, wanders around room.

unrequited love -- love that is not returned, not reciprocated.

unresolved/disorganized attachment -- adults with this attachment classification are confused or disoriented when speaking about the loss of a loved one or about past traumas, such
as physical or sexual abuse. During discourses of loss or abuse, the adult shows a striking lapse in the monitoring of reasoning or discourse. This adult may lapse into prolonged silence or
eulogistic speech as the interview progresses.

unsaturated -- in this context, a type of fatty acid in the diet that has been linked to heart disease in susceptible individuals.

unsaturated fatty acid -- a type of dietary fat, certain kinds of which have been linked to heart disease.

unstable -- decomposing readily; highly or violently reactive; decaying with relatively short lifetime (subatomic particles); radioactive.

untoward -- difficult to guide, manage, or work with; unruly, intractable; not favorable; adverse, unpropitious; improper; indecorous.

ununbium (Uub) -- atomic number 112, former name of copernicium, symbol Cn.

ununhexium (Uuh) -- atomic number 116, former name of livermorium, symbol Lv.

ununnilium (Uun) -- atomic number 110, former name of darmstadtium, symbol Ds.

ununoctium -- atomic number 118, symbol Uuo; temporary name for this transactinide element, radioactive, unstable; only 3 or 4 atoms have been detected; made by bombarding
californium with calcium which, the first time or so, produced 3 atoms of ununoctium, each of which decayed in 0.9 milliseconds into an atom of ununhexium; possibly really discovered by
and his group in 2002 in Russia ...  

ununpentium -- atomic number 115, symbol Uup; a temporary name for a synthetic superheavy element; first observed in 2003; made by bombarding americium with calcium; first time it
produced 4 atoms of ununpentium that decayed in approximately 100 milliseconds; radioactive, duh.

ununquadium (Uuq) -- atomic number 114, former name of flerovium, symbol Fl.

ununseptium -- atomic number 117, symbol Uus; a temporary name of a superheavy synthetic element, the 2nd heaviest element of all created; first announced in 2010 when it was claimed
to have been created by  smashing berkelium with calcium; also radioactive, naturally.

ununtrium -- atomic number 113, symbol Uut; only 14 atoms have been observed to date; temporary name of a synthetic element, heaviest member of the group 13 elements; first detected
in 2003 in the decay of ununpentium; radioactive.

unununium -- atomic number 111, former name of roentgenium, symbol Rg.

upper extremity proximal stability --
includes joint range or motion and fine motor manipulation of objects and coordination.

upward evaluation -- assessment procedure in which employees evaluate their superiors.

upward gaze paralysis -- can be indicative of several different syndromes including Fisher's syndrome.

uranium -- atomic number 92, symbol U; a heavy, silvery-white metallic element, radioactive and toxic, easily oxidized; occurs in several minerals including
uraninite. pitchblende, autunite, and carnotite; used for research, nuclear fuels, nuclear weapons; discovered by
Sir William Herschel in 1781; named after the
planet Uranus.

uranophobia -- fear of heaven.

Uranus --  the 7th planet from the sun, the third-largest; named for the Greek diety of the sky Uranus; Sir William Herschel announced its discovery on March
13, 1781; ice giant like Neptune; has a ring system of 13 rings and 27 moons (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Puck, Perdita, Cupid, Mab, Margaret,
Belinda, Caliban, Sycorax, Prospero, Setebos, Stephano, Trinculo, Francisco, Ferdinand, Cordelia, Ophelia, Bianca, Cressida, Desdemona, Juliet, Portia, Rosalind,
etc.); revolves around the sun once every 84 earth years; about 3 billion km (20 AU) from the sun.
See picture.

urban legend --
unverifiable story or rumor spread orally, via newspapers, or via the Internet. The settings and concerns are contemporary.

urban tribe -- an intricate community of young people who live and work together in various combinations, form regular rituals, and provide the support of an
extended family.

urbane -- notably polite or polished in manner.

urea -- end product of protein metabolism.

ureter – one of a pair of tubes that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder; (see illustration).

ureterostomy --
surgical procedure creating an outlet for the ureters through the abdominal wall.

urethra -- the tubular structure in men and women that carries urine from the bladder to an external opening. In men, semen passes through this duct before
(See illustrations at the end of the page.)

urinary system (or tract) --
the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. It includes 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, the bladder, the urethra, and 2
sphincter muscles.

urinary tract infection (UTI) -- an infection that begins in the urinary system, which is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Any part can
become infected, but most infections involve the bladder and urethra. Women are at greater risk for a UTI. Symptoms are a
strong, persistent urge to urinate; a burning sensation when urinating; passing frequent, small amounts of urine; urine that
appears cloudy; urine that is bright pink or cola colored; strong smelling urine; pelvic pain in women; rectal pain in men. They
bacterial in origin, but can be caused by STDs such as herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.

urogenital tract -- see genitourinary tract; the system of organs comprising those concerned with the production and
excretion of urine and those concerned with reproduction.

urophobia -- fear of urinating.

Ursa Major -- a constellation also known as the Great Bear, visible
throughout the year in the northern hemisphere, dominated by the
asterism the Big Dipper; 18 stars have planets; one of the 48
constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy; see picture.

Ursa Minor --
a constellation also called the Little Bear, in the northern
sky; dominated by the asterism the Little Dipper; one of the 48
constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy; contains
Polaris (the North Star); 1 star with planets;
see picture of the Little

usquebaugh --

ut -- a syllable representing the tone C, otherwise represented by do, in the French system of solmization; UT means Universal Time, Utah, or University of Tennessee (or Texas, or whatever

uterus -- an organ within the female pelvic cavity in which the fertilized egg develops into the fetus. Also called the womb. (see ----------->>)

Usher syndrome --
Approximately 10 subtypes exist; all have progressive sensorineural deafness, nystagmus, retinitis
pigmentosa, central nervous system defects (e.g., loss of smell, vertigo, epilepsy). Type 1 is characterized by profound hearing
, absent vestibular function, and retinitis pigmentosa in childhood. Individuals with Type 2 have normal vestibular function and less
hearing loss with onset of retinitis pigmentosa in the second decade. Type 3 can be differentiated by the presence of a
loss of hearing. Associated complications: ataxia, psychosis, cataracts, occasional intellectual disability; more than 50%
of adults with a combination of
congenital blindness and deafness have Usher syndrome. Cause: seven chromosome loci (5 genes)
have been identified for Type 1 alone (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, SANS). Three loci have been identified for type 2, although only
one gene has been identified USH2A. One loci has been identified for type 3;
autosomal recessive; a cause of deaf-blindness. Usher
syndrome is the most common eye/ear disorder. It is estimated that 10% of all children with
sensorineural hearing loss have Usher

usury -- the lending of money with an interest charge for its use, usually exorbitant; an unconscionable or exorbitant rate or amount of interest in excess of a legal rate.

utilitarian marriage -- a marriage based on convenience.

utilization deficiency -- the inability to improve performance even with consistent use of a mental strategy.

uveal tract -- second layer of the eye that provides nutrition to it.

uveitis -- swelling and irritation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye. The uvea provides most of the blood supply to the retina. Symptoms are blurred vision, dark floating spots in the
vision, eye pain, redness of the eye, and sensitivity to light. It can be caused by
autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, infection, or exposure to toxins.

uxoricide -- the murder of one's wife.
vaccines -- consist of either active viral replications with decreased virulence or an inactive virus introduced into the body to activate the immune system to produce antibodies, preventing
acute infection. (vaccinate)

vacillate -- to waver between actions or decisions; to hesitate.

vacuity -- emptiness; absence; lack of matter in a space; vacuum.

vacuole -- a small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste.

vacuum extractor -- a plastic cup attacked to a suction tube, used to help deliver a baby. (See illustration.)

vade mecum (vay-dee-MEE-kum) --
a book for ready reference; manual; something regularly carried about by a person.

vagaries -- unpredictable or erratic actions, occurrences, courses, or instances; whimsical, wild, or unusual ideas, desires, or actions.

vagina -- the expandable passageway that leads from the uterus to the vulva in the female; acts as the birth canal during childbirth
and receives the erect penis during sexual intercourse (See illustration).

vaginosis (bacterial vaginosis) --
a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and
replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning.

vagus nerves -- the Xth pair of cranial nerves; supplies the heart, lungs, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and viscera.

vainglorious -- filled with excessive elation or pride over one's own achievements, abilities, etc.; a boastful vanity; empty pomp or
show; ostentation.

valance -- an ornamental drapery hung across a top edge, as of a bed, table, or canopy.

vale -- the world; life; mortal or earthly life.

valgus -- condition in which the distal body part is angled away from the mid-line.

valiant -- possessing valor; brave; marked by or done with valor.

valid -- Founded on truth or fact; a test that measures what it purports to measure.

validated practices -- thoroughly researched or evidence-based practices; scientifically validated instruction.

validation -- the process of ensuring that a research instrument measures what it is intended to measure.

validity -- the extent to which any assessment technique fulfills the purpose for which it is intended; it measures what it purports to measure.

valorous -- possessing or acting with bravery or boldness; courageous; marked by, exhibiting, or carried out with courage or determination; heroic.

value maturity -- an individual's awareness of and confidence in the goals and ideas he or she holds in highest priority.

values -- personal, lasting, deeply held basic beliefs about what is good, desirable, and important in life.

values autonomy -- the capacity to make judgments and choices about personal beliefs and principles.

vamoose -- to depart quickly.

vampires -- mythological or folkloric animated corpses who subsist by feeding on the life essence (generally the blood) of living creatures. They are most commonly thought of as evil spirits
or demons that leave their graves at night to seek and enslave their victims. It was once thought that the victims themselves became vampires. Vampires can be warded off with a variety of
charms, amulets, and herbs, and can be killed by driving a stake through the heart or through cremation. Sometimes a vampire assumes the shape of a bat or wolf. A group of vampires is
called a clot. A vampire baby is called a suckling.

vanadium -- atomic number 23, symbol V; a bright white, soft, ductile. toxic metallic element; found in vanadinite and carnotite among others; used in rust-resistance, carbon stabilizer,
titanium-steel bonding agent, and a catalyst; discovered in 1830 by
Nils Sefstrom in 1830; named for Vanadis, a Scandinavian goddess.

vanguard -- the troops moving at the head of an army; the forefront of an action or movement.

vanilla -- flavored with the extract of the vanilla bean; lacking distinction; plain, ordinary, conventional.

vapid -- lacking or having lost life, sharpness, or flavor; insipid; flat; without liveliness or spirit; dull or tedious.

variable -- factor that can be varied or manipulated in an experiment.

variable coarctation of the aorta -- coarctation – contraction of the walls of a vessel – such as the aorta.

variable schedule of reinforcement -- a schedule of reinforcement in which deliveries of reinforcement vary based on responses over time.

varicella zoster -- the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles; related to herpes.

variegated -- having discrete markings of different colors; various, diverse, varied.

varus -- condition in which the distal body part is angled toward the mid-line.

vascular event -- a stroke or heart attack. Also called a cerebrovascular event (brain) or cardiovascular event (heart).

vascular system -- made of the vessels that carry blood: arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart; veins carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart.

vas deferens (vas deferentia, plural) -- the tube connecting the testes with the urethra. The vas deferens is a coiled duct that conveys sperm from the
epididymis to the ejaculatory duct and the urethra.

vasectomy -- a male sterilization procedure in which the vasa deferentia are severed and tied. (See cartoon.)

vasoactive drugs --
vasodilators, nitric oxide, adenosine, nitroglycerine, sodium nitroprusside, hydralazine, phentolamine, vasoconstrictors, methoxamine,
metaraminol, ephedrine, vassopressin.

vasoconstriction -- a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels.

vasoconstrictor -- chemical that causes blood vessels to decrease in diameter.  

vasopressin -- a stress-related hormone that is responsible partly for our aggression.

VATER association (VACTERL association) -- Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Tracheoesophageal fistula (i.e., connection between trachea and esophagus), Esophageal
Radial (arm) abnormalities, and Renal (kidney) anomalies. Ear anomalies, facial clefting, genitourinary anomalies, limb defects; respiratory, cardiac, and renal
abnormalities can be severe. Intelligence is usually not affected. Cause: unknown; usually sporadic, no recognized genetic or
teratogenic cause; rare families with autosomal recessive

vaticinate -- prophesy, prognosticate, augur, foretell. (vaticination)

vaudeville -- a bygone slapstick era of specific comedic style.

vaunting -- having a boastfully proud disposition; marked by boastful pride.

vavasor -- superior vassal with other vassals beneath. A vassal is a bondsman, slave, subordinate, or dependent.

veela -- In the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling, veelas are beautiful, young, semi-human, semi-magical women whose dance and appearance are magically seductive to almost all
males, similar to sirens. When they are angry, their faces turn into cruelly-beaked bird heads  and long scaly wings burst from their shoulders. They can shoot fire with their hands.
Additionally, a veela may be a Slavic fairy that can take the form of birds. They sometimes appear as mountain nymphs, young and beautiful, clad in white, with long flying hair. They shoot
deadly arrows at men, and sometimes carry off children. They are natural guardians of trees, streams, and flowers. They are extremely jealous of other beautiful women. Their moods are as
changeable as the weather and they can both cause and cure illnesses. They have fair complexions and curly reddish-brown hair which falls to their feet. They wear whimmering white
clothing or coverings of green leaves. People born on Tuesday or Sunday can see veelas more easily than others.A group of veelas is called an allurement. A veela baby is a flower. (group
and baby names by our children's lit classes.)

vegetarian -- an herbivore.

veins -- receive blood from the capillaries after the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide has taken place. They transport waste-rich (and oxygen poor) blood back to the lungs and

velleity -- flimsy wish or desire; perfunctory hope or dream.

vellum -- mammal skin prepared for writing or printing.

velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) -- see chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndromes.

velvet -- soft type of material.

venal -- capable of being bought or obtained for money or other valuable consideration; open to corrupt influence and especially bribery; originating in, characterized by, or associated with
corrupt bribery.

veneer -- thin surface layer; superficial layer as an enhancement to inferior material.

venerate -- to regard with reverential respect or with admiring deference; to honor (as an icon or relic) with a ritual act of devotion.

venial -- pardonable; easily excused or pardoned; trivial.

Venn diagrams -- intersecting shapes that show how concepts are similar and how they are different.

ventilator -- a machine that provides a mixture of air and oxygen to an individual in respiratory failure. The oxygen content,
pressure, volume, and frequency of respirators can be adjusted.

ventricles -- small cavities, especially in the heart or brain.

ventricular hypertrophy -- the enlargement of the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart.

ventricular septal defect -- an abnormal opening in the septum separating the ventricles, permitting blood to flow from the
left ventricle to the right ventricle and to recirculate through the
pulmonary artery and lungs. Large defects can lead to
congestive heart failure, respiratory tract infections, rapid breathing, poor weight gain, restlessness, irritability, bacterial
endocarditis, pulmonary vascular obstructive disease, and aortic regurgitation.  (See illustration--------------->>.)

ventricular system --
interconnecting cavities of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid. Blockage leads to

ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VP shunt) -- plastic tube connecting a cerebral ventricle with the abdominal cavity; used to
hydrocephalus. (See illustration.)

ventriloquist --
puppeteer utilizing vocal techniques and manipulations.

venules -- a small vein, especially one joining capillaries to larger veins.

Venus -- the 2nd planet from the sun, revolves around the sun in 224.7 days and 67.2 million miles away from the sun; named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love
and beauty; the 2nd most bright object in the night sky (after the moon); terrestrial; a little bit smaller than Earth; no moon.

venustaphobia -- fear of beautiful women.

veracity -- truth; state of being true; trueness.

veranda -- open, roofed porch or portico on the outside of a building.

verb -- a word that conveys action or a state of being.

verbal apraxia -- see developmental verbal apraxia or apraxia.

verbal assault -- to attack another individual with words.

verbal communication -- use of written or oral communication.

verbal dyspraxia -- a motor speech disorder, also called apraxia or developmental verbal apraxia or developmental verbal dyspraxia. Difficulty producing sounds, syllables, and
words because of incorrect placement of the structures of speech (e.g., lips, tongue, jaw). This affects the ability to say certain sounds or sound combinations and sequence the sounds into
words and sentences. This is
neurologically based. It can be present at birth or acquired due to brain damage.

verbalisms --
excessive use of speech (wordiness) in which individuals use words that have little meaning to them.

verbal/linguistic learner -- in Gardner's theory, this learner is oriented toward language, words, reading, and writing. Often called the "word player." This learner has the capacity to use
language, to express thoughts, to understand others, etc.

verbophobia -- fear of words.

verbose -- using or containing a great and usually an excessive number of words; wordy.

veridical (vuh-RID-ih-kul) -- truthful, veracious, not illusory, genuine.

verisimilitude -- the appearance or semblance of truth or reality in a fictional medium.

vermicular (ver-MIK-yuh-ler) -- resembling a worm or form in motion; of, relating to, or caused by worms

vermiphobia -- fear of worms.

vermis -- a portion of the cerebellum that appears to be underdeveloped in children with autism.

vernal --
pertaining to spring.

vernix caseosa -- a white, cheeselike substance that covers the fetus and prevents the skin from chapping due to constant exposure to amniotic fluid.

veropharyngeal -- of or relating to the soft palate and pharynx.

verse -- a division of a poem.

vertebrae -- the individual bones in the flexible column that defines vertebrate animals. The vertebral column encases and protects the spinal cord, which runs from the base of the cranium
down the dorsal side reaching the
pelvis, and into the tail.

vertebral arches -- the bony arches projecting from the body of the vertebra.

vertebral column -- encases and protects the spinal cord; see spine.

vertex presentation -- downward position of the infant's head during vaginal delivery.

vertiginous -- whirling, spinning, rotary; affected with vertigo; dizzy; liable or threatening to cause vertigo; apt to change quickly; unstable.

vertigo -- the feeling that the environment is moving or spinning. It describes an illusion of moving. When it feels as if you yourself are moving, it is called subjective vertigo, and the
perception that the surroundings are moving is called objective vertigo.

verve -- energy; brio; élan; vigor; joie de vivre.

very low birth weight -- less than 1500 grams (3 pounds 5 ounces).

vesicles -- small fluid-containing elevations in the upper layer of skin, as seen in chicken pox.

vesicostomy -- the surgical creation of an opening for the bladder to empty its contents through the abdominal wall.

vesicular transport -- see transcytosis.

vespertine (VESS-per-tyne) -- of, relating to, or occurring in the evening; active, flowering, or flourishing in the evening.

vestibular -- the system found in the inner ear that helps maintain balance and judge a person's position in space, even with the eyes shut. (See-------->.)

vestibular apparatus or mechanism --
 three ring-shaped bodies located in the labyrinth of the ear that are involved in maintenance of balance and sensations of the body's movement
through space. The three
semicircular canals are filled with fluid, and aid in maintaining equilibrium.  (See illustration above.)

vestibular schwannomas --
a benign, slow-growing tumor that develops from the vestibular and cochlear nerves supplying the inner ear. It results from an overproduction of Schwann
cells (cells that normally wrap around nerve fibers to support and insulate nerves). As the tumor grows, it presses against the nerves, usually causing unilateral hearing loss,
tinnitus, and
dizzyness/loss of balance. It can press against the facial nerve, causing facial weakness or

vestibule -- a small entryway between the outer door and the interior of a building; a small cavity or space at the entrance to a canal, such as that in the inner ear.

vestibulocochlear -- the VIIIth pair of cranial nerves; supply the cochlea and semicircular canals of the inner ear and contribute to the sense of hearing; also called auditory nerves.

vestige -- a mark or visible sign left by something that existed before; a minute remaining amount.

vestigial -- of, relating to, or constituting a vestige (trace, mark, or sign left by something).

vestiophobia -- fear of clothing.

vesuviate -- to erupt; explode; fulminate.

vetanda -- taboo or forbidden things or topics.

vetricophobia -- fear of a stepfather.

vexation -- the act of annoying, irritating, or vexing; quality or condition of being vexed.

viable -- the age at which a fetus has the potential to survive outside the womb; about 22 to 26 weeks.

vibrotactile hearing aid -- an aid for the profoundly deaf worn on the wrist and vibrating slightly, giving the wearer additional speech information.

vicarage -- an official residence provided by a church for its parson or vicar or rector.

vicarious learning -- indirect learning that takes place without direct reinforcement or direct imitation.

vicariously -- experienced or realized through the imagination or the participation of another, rather than from doing it oneself, as in learning vicariously about something by listening to a

vicarious reinforcement -- learning by watching the consequences of other people's behaviors.

vicennial -- happening every 20 years.

viceroy -- governor; representative of a sovereign.

vicious -- having the nature of vice; evil; immoral; depraved.

vicissitude -- the quality or state of being changeable; mutability; an unexpected change or fluctuation; a difficulty or hardship usually beyond one's control.

victimizer -- one who victimizes others. Children who grow up with violence often learn the potential for victimizing others as adults.

victuals -- food; provisions; food cache; pabulum; comestibles; nutrients.

videlicet -- to wit; that is; namely.

video recorder -- device that makes a taped reproduction of image and sound.

vigesimal -- based on, pertaining to, or related to 20.

vignette -- a sketch; brief literary or visual event; description; tableau.

vilify -- to make vicious and defamatory statements about; degrade.

villain -- dramatic or fictional character who is typically at odds with the hero.

villi -- tiny vascular projections coming from the embryo that become part of the placenta; singular, villus.

vincible -- able to be harmed; vulnerable, susceptible, or vulnerable.

vindictive -- disposed to seek revenge; revengeful; marked by or resulting from a desire to hurt; spiteful.

viniculum -- fastening.

vinyl -- a type of multi-use plastic resin.

viola -- a bowed string instrument, the middle voice of the violin family, between the violin and the cello; between 1 and 4 inches longer than the body of a full-sized violin.

violation of expectation record -- a method in which researchers habituate infants to a physical event and then determine whether they recover responsiveness to (look longer at) a
possible event (a variation of the first event that conforms to physical laws) or an impossible event (a variation that violates physical laws). Recovery to the impossible event suggests
awareness of that aspect of physical reality.

violence -- the threat of or infliction of physical or emotional harm on a person.

violence between parents -- in some states, it is considered child abuse when there is violence between parents or other adults in the home, even without any physical violence directed
toward the child.

violet -- a shade of deep purple.

violin -- a bowed string instrument.

viral hepatitis -- a liver infection caused by any of three viruses: hepatitis A, B, and C. The B virus and the C virus are most likely transmitted sexually, because they are found in the
saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, and blood. Hepatitis A usually enters the body in food contaminated with fecal matter and is not considered to be a
sexually transmitted disease.

viral infections -- infections caused by a virus that can be fatal to children with deficient immune systems (e.g., pediatric AIDS); a cold.

virga -- wisps of precipitation evaporating before reaching the ground.

virgin -- male or female, who has not had penetrative sexual intercourse. An intact hymen indicates a female's virginity. Hymen repairs are possible. However, the hymen may be virtually
absent or stretched and the female may still be a virgin.

virgivitiphobia -- fear of rape.

Virgo -- a constellation of the zodiac, lying between Leo and Libra; second largest constellation after Hydra; brightest star Spica which can be found by following the curve of the Big Dipper to
Arcturus and then following the same curve to Spica ("follow the arc to Arcturus and speed on to Spica"); 26 stars with planets.

viridian -- a type of blue-green pigment.

virtual visitation -- the use of such online tools as videoconferencing, webcams, and other wired technologies with which a noncustodial parent can visit his or her child(ren).

virtuoso -- ace; someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field, especially music.

viruses -- the smallest known types of infectious agents that invade cells, take over, and make copies of themselves.

vis-á-vis -- "face to face;" opposite to; in relation to; in regard to; a meeting of two people.

visceral -- pertaining to the viscera, or the organs in the abdominal cavity; relating to deep emotions opposed to the intellect.

vision; visual sense -- the ability to see. It is the sense least developed at birth.

vision impairment -- a condition characterized by a loss of visual acuity, where the eye does not see objects as clearly as usual, or a loss of visual field, where the eye cannot see as wide
an area as usual without moving the eyes or turning the head.

vision motor deficit -- the inability to process visual information that allows for successful movement.

visitation schedules -- the days and times on which the noncustodial parent is allowed to visit the children.

vista -- view; prospect; perspective; spectrum of peripheral boundaries.

visual acuity -- clarity or sharpness of vision. Normal acuity is 20/20 vision.

visual arc -- an angle formed at the retina by the meeting of lines drawn from the periphery of the viewed object.

visual cliff apparatus -- a two-level "cliff" with a checkerboard pattern, covered with Plexiglas, used to create an illusion of depth. Used to measure a young child's depth perception;
designed by
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk.

visual cortex -- the visual center of the brain, located in the occipital lobe.

visual discrimination -- distinguishing one visual stimulus from another.

visual disturbances -- impairments in vision that, even with correction, affect educational performance, access to the community, and independence.

visual efficiency -- how well a person can use sight, influenced by acuity and peripheral vision.

visual field -- range in which an individual can see objects centrally or peripherally also called field of vision.

visual impairment -- Any level of vision loss that has an impact on an individual's ability to complete daily tasks; this term is often used to include both blindness and low vision.

visual impairment, including blindness -- an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. This term includes both partial sight and
blindness; a category of

visual impairment (VI) specialist --
individual with extensive knowledge of visual impairments who usually takes a lead role in the assessment of students with visual impairments, who
manages and delivers special education services to these students, and who provides consultation to other professionals who work with students with
visual impairments.

visually challenged -- those whose visual impairments, even when corrected, adversely affect their learning. With minor modifications, a movement education program can meet the
needs of a child with
visual impairments.

visually track --
watch or follow an object using the eyes.

visual motor skills -- the ability to process visual information that allows for successful movement.

visual perceptual deficits -- inability to process a physical response to visual stimulation needed for such skills as reading and writing from left to right.

visual-perceptual motor skills -- the ability to process visual information that allows for successful movement.

visual perceptual skills -- physical response to visual stimulation that will be needed for such skills as reading and writing from left to right.

visual sensory problems -- sensory problems associated with autism: tunnel vision, reliance on peripheral vision, difficulty discriminating background from foreground, sensitivity to
light, inability to focus on changing visuals, visual overload, inability to listen and look at once.

visual spatial learner -- in Gardner's theory, this learner is imaginative, creative, oriented toward colors and pictures. Often called the "visualizer." This learner has the capacity to perceive
the visual world accurately, to perform transformations and modifications upon one's initial perceptions, and is able to recreate aspects of one's visual experience, even in the absence of
relevant physical stimuli.

visual spatial skills -- a set of mental processes that allow us to perceive, interpret and act on visual stimuli in our environment.  

visurient -- hungry for visual stimuli; pertaining to the desire evoked from vision.

vitality -- exuberant physical strength or mental vigor; capacity for survival or for the continuation of a meaningful or purposeless existence; power to live and grow; vital force or principle; the
peculiarity distinguishing the living from the nonliving.

vitalized couple -- a type of premarital and married couple that is characterized by many couple strengths, high marital satisfaction, and a low risk of divorce.

vital marriage -- marriage in which the partners are intensely bound together.

vital statistics -- information about birth, death, illness, marriage, divorce, and major life events in a population.

vitamins -- organic substances needed in very small amounts to regulate many metabolic functions in the body.

vitamin A -- a group of compounds that play an important role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, cell division, cell differentiation, and fighting infections. Vitamin A promotes healthy
surface linings of the eyes, respiratory system, urinary tract, and intestinal tracts and helps the skin and
mucous membranes function as a barrier to bacteria and viruses. Vitamin A is
found in liver, whole milk, fortified food products, whole eggs, colorful fruits and vegetables (carrots, cantaloupes, sweet potatoes, spinach, etc.), and lots more. Vitamin A deficiency can
night blindness, blindness, infectious diseases, pneumonia, and others.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats
and proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are
water-soluble. Thiamine is considered an anti-stress vitamin because it may strengthen the
immune system and improve the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions. It was the first B
vitamin discovered. Thiamine plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions. Symptoms of a thiamine deficiency are fatigue, irritability, depression, and abdominal discomfort. Thiamine is
used to treat
beriberi. Thiamine is found in pork and organ meat, whole-grain or enriched cereals and rice, legumes, wheat germ, bran, brewer's yeast, and blackstrap molasses.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) -- one of the 8 B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats
and proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are
water-soluble. Riboflavin acts as an
antioxident by scavenging damaging particles in the body known as free radicals, which can damage cells and DNA, and contribute to aging and a
number of health conditions, such as heart disease and cancer. Riboflavin is needed to help the body convert vitamin B6 and
folate into active forms. It is important for body growth and red
blood cell production. Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are fatigue, slowed growth, digestive problems, cracks and sores around the corners of the mouth, swollen magenta tongue, eye
fatigue, swollen sore throat, and sensitivity to light. Riboflavin is found in brewer's yeast, almonds, organ meats, whole grains, wheat germ, wild rice, mushrooms, soybeans, milk, yogurt, eggs,
broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach.

vitamin B3 (niacin) -- one of 8 B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is "burned" to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and
protein. They are necessary for healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. Niacin helps the body
make various sex-related and stress-related hormones. It is effective in improving circulation and in reducing
cholesterol levels in the blood. All B vitamins are water-soluble, so the body
does not store them. Vitamin B3 deficiency can cause indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, depression,
pellagra, and others. Vitamin B3 is found in beets, brewer's yeast, beef liver,
beef kidneys, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, and peanuts. Many foods are fortified with vitamin B3.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body
metabolize fats and proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All
B vitamins are water-soluble. Vitamin B5 is important in the secretion of
hormones, and possibly to help prevent wrinkles and graying hair. Symptoms of a vitamin B5 deficiency are fatigue,
headaches, nausea, tingling in the hands, depression, personality changes and cardiac instability. Vitamin B5 is found in beef, brewer's yeast, eggs, fresh vegetables, kidney, legumes, liver,
mushrooms, nuts, pork, saltwater fish, whole rye flour, and whole wheat.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, or pyridoxine hydrochloride) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to
produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly
and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are water-soluble. Vitamin B6 is essential for protein
metabolism, red blood cell metabolism, the function of the nervous and
immune systems, and for the conversion of
tryptophan to niacin. It also helps maintain blood sugar levels. A vitamin B6 deficiency can result in anemia. Vitamin B6 is found in fortified
cereals, beans, meat, poultry, fish, and some fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin B7 (biotin) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and
proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are water-
soluble. Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of
fatty acids, the transfer of carbon dioxide, maintaining a steady blood sugar, strengthening hair and nails. Biotin is found in
egg yolk, liver, and some vegetables.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body metabolize fats
and proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All B vitamins are
water-soluble. Folic acid plays an important role in mental and emotional health. It aids in the production of
DNA and RNA, and is important for rapid growth (infancy, adolescence,
pregnancy). It helps regulate the formation of
red blood cells and helps iron function properly in the body. Folic acid deficiency can be caused by alcoholism, irritable bowel syndrome,
celiac disease. Folic acid deficiency can cause poor growth, tongue inflammation, gingivitis, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, diarrhea, irritability, forgetfulness, and mental
sluggishness. A deficiency of folic acid in
pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of neural tube defects, including cleft palate, spina bifida, and brain
damage. Folic acid can be found in spinach, dark leafy greens, asparagus, turnips, beets, mustard greens, Brussels sprouts, lima beans, soybeans, beef liver, brewer's yeast, root
vegetables, whole grains, wheat germ, bulgar wheat, kidney beans, white beans, mung beans, salmon, orange juice, avocado, and milk.

Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins) -- one of the B vitamins; helps the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned up to produce energy. B vitamins also help the body
metabolize fats and  proteins. They are necessary for healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. They also help the nervous system  function properly and are necessary for optimal brain function. All
B vitamins are water-soluble, however, Vitamin B12 can be stored  for years in the liver. A deficiency of Vitamin B12 can cause
anemia, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, weakness,
and loss of balance. Vitamin B12 is found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk, and milk products.

Vitamin D -- a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is also produced by sunlight. Vitamin D is essential for
promoting calcium absorption in the gut, maintaining proper calcium levels in the blood, and bone growth. A deficiency of Vitamin D causes rickets and
osteomalacia. Sources of Vitamin D
are sunlight, tuna, salmon, mackerel, and fish liver oils.

Vitamin E -- a fat-soluble vitamin found in many foods, fats, and oils. It is an antioxident. Vitamin E is important in the formation of red blood cells and helps the body use Vitamin K.
Symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency are muscle weakness, loss of muscle mass, abnormal eye movements, impaired vision, and unsteady gait. Vitamin E is found in liver, eggs, nuts, sunflower
seeds, corn-oil margarine, mayonnaise, dark green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, avocado, asparagus, and yams.

Vitamin K -- a fat-soluble vitamin that helps blood clot properly. It also plays an important role in bone health. Vitamin K is found in beef liver, green tea, turnip greens, broccoli, kale, spinach,
cabbage, asparagus, and dark green lettuce.

vitiate -- to impair, spoil, or to reduce the quality of; to make worse, worsen.

vitiligo -- a skin disease marked by patches of lack of pigment.

vitreous humor -- the gelatinous content of the eye located between the lens and the retina.

vituperate -- to abuse or censure severely or abusively; to use harsh condemnatory language.

vivacity -- brio; esprit; alacrity.

vivify -- to invigorate; revive; energize; galvanize.

vivisepulture -- the act of being buried alive or burying alive.

VLBW -- see very low birth weight.

vlophobia --
fear of forests or wood.

vocabulary -- the meaning of words; the set of words a person is familiar with in a language. Vocabulary grows and evolves with age and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for
communication and acquiring knowledge. A person's vocabulary is defined as all the words known and used by him/her. Vocabulary can include: ~heard the word but cannot define it;
~recognize the word due to context or tone of voice; ~able to use the word but cannot clearly explain it; ~fluent with the word, its use and definition. Reading vocabulary is usually the largest
part of a person's vocabulary -- all the words s/he can recognize when reading. Other types of vocabularies are listening, writing, and speaking. If you go here, you can take some vocabulary

vocal folds -- vocal cords -- the paired bands of muscle tissue positioned over the trachea (windpipe) that come together and vibrate to make speech sounds.

vocal play -- parent and infant imitating each others' sounds.

vocal symbols -- words children use to express themselves.

vocalization -- utterances and sounds children make as they learn to speak.

vocational rehabilitation -- a government-sponsored program to help people with disabilities find employment consistent with their needs and abilities.

vocational rehabilitation counselor -- a professional who provides training, career counseling, and job placement services.

vociferous -- marked by or given to vehement insistent outcry; loud; stentorian; vehement; angrily impassioned.

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome -- a rare disorder of the eyes characterized by bilateral uveitis (inflammation of the uveal tract consisting of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid),
alopecia, poliosis (depigmented eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair), vitiligo (a skin disease with depigmentation) and hearing loss. The most notable symptom is a rapid loss of vision.
Initially it is characterized by severe headache, deep pain in the eye, vertigo, and nausea. The other eye may become affected about 2 weeks later. The
retina may detach, and hearing
may become apparent. Facial nerve palsies (weakness) and rigidity as well as gait disturbance can occur. A cause of deaf-blindness.

voice --
a sound described in terms of quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and duration produced by vibrations of the lungs, larynx, or pharynx.

voice disorder -- a condition in which an individual habitually speaks with a voice that differs in pitch, loudness, or quality from the voices of others of the same sex and age in a particular
cultural group.

voice disturbances -- may occur for a variety of reasons. Any change in the shape or functioning of the vocal cords will cause a voice disturbance. The vocal cords sit above the trachea,
and air from the lungs cause them to vibrate, producing the sounds of one's voice. There are five categories of conditions that can interfere with vocal cord vibration: 1) structural changes of
the vocal cords, such as growths (
polyps, cysts, papilloma, or granuloma) can distort the straight edges of the cords; 2) neurogenic voice disorders, caused by brain/nervous system
damage or malfunction, include vocal fold paralysis, vocal tremor, and
spasmodic dysphonia which can interfere with normal vibrations. Neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis,
multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease can paralyze the vocal cords; 3) diseases such as respiratory infections, allergies, and esophageal reflux
disorder can cause swelling of the vocal cords and prevent normal vibrations; 4) vocal abuse (excessive or loud talking, excessive caffeine or alcohol intake, lack of water consumption,
exposure to fumes, smoking, etc.) can cause swollen vocal cords or growths on the folds; and 5)
idiopathic voice disorders (unknown origin).

voice problems -- abnormal acoustic qualities in a person's speech.

voice response -- valuing the relationship and being invested in it but feeling that it has problems that need to be discussed.

voice synthesizer -- computer that can produce spoken words; type of assistive technology often used by people with severe communication disabilities.

volatile --
easily aroused; tending to erupt into violent action or explosive speech or behavior.

volition -- an act of making a choice or decision; also: a choice or decision made; the power of choosing or determining; will.

volte-face (vawlt-FAHSS) -- a reversal in policy; about face.

voluble -- marked by a ready flow of speech; fluent.

voluminous -- having great volume, fullness, size, or number; large.

voluntary muscle -- striated muscle that can be controlled voluntarily

voluntary motor response -- responses that the individual controls.

voluntary stable singles -- people who are satisfied not to be married.

voluntary temporary singles -- people who are open to marriage but for whom seeking a mate is a lower priority than are other activities, such as
gaining an education, starting a career, or self-development.

vomer bone -- the unpaired flat bone that forms the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum. See the exceptionally cool video from

Von Recklinghausen disease --
see neurofibromatosis (See illustration------------------->>.)

von Willebrand disease --
an inherited bleeding disorder in which there is either, or both, of the following: low levels of a protein for clotting and/or the said
protein doesn't function normally. The protein is called von Willebrand factor.

vorpal sword, vorpal blade -- in Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll: may mean deadly or sharp; may refer to the material the sword is made of; may be taking
letters alternately from 'verbal' and 'gospel';
Carroll: "I am afraid I can't explain 'vorpal blade' for you -- nor yet 'tulgey wood.'"

vouchsafe -- give or grant something to someone in a gracious or condescending manner; reveal or disclose information.

vowel -- a sound made by the relatively free movement of air through the mouth, usually forming the main sound of the vowels: a, e, i, o, and u. Each vowel has a long sound and a short
sound. The long sound is the same as its name. Every vowel makes a third sound, the schwa. This is the sound of a vowel that is unstressed in an unstressed syllable. There are also some
more advanced vowel sounds beyond the long, short, and schwa. For instance, the a in father is different from the a in cat. Long a (ape) and short a (taxi); long e (needle), short e (elm); long
i (tile), short i (gift); long o (ghost), short o (hop); long u (salute), short u (cut); schwa (about, item, gallop, circus). Sometimes y substitutes for i and is a vowel then. Sometimes w substitutes
for u and is considered a vowel when it does so. Y sometimes appears as the only vowel in a syllable (gym, why), whereas w never appears as a vowel all by itself. When it is a vowel, it always
follows an a (paw), an e (new), or o (grow). Vowel combinations: A: ay (play), ai (rain), aw (saw), augh (caught), wa (want), all (ball), ald (bald), alk (talk), alm (calm), alt (salt). E: ee (sleep), ea
(each), ea (dead), ea (break). I: ie (brief), ie or ye (tie, rye), igh (high), ign (sign), ind (kind). O: oo (food), oo (book), oa (oat), oe (doe), oi or oy (oil, boy), old or olk or olt (gold, folk, volt), oll
or ost (roll, most), oll or ost (doll, frost), ow or ou (how or round), ow or ou (own, soul), ou (you). U: ue (cue), ui (suit). R-controlled Vowels: ar (car), ar (care), ir (pier), ir or er or ur (turnip,
bird, fur, her), or (manor), er (butter). Irregular vowels: igh (high), ng (sing), ost (most or lost), ow (low or cow), ed (lifted, played, walked), oi (moist, boil), oo (book or loose), ous (nervous), au
(fault), sion or tion or cion (all pronounced shun), ough (bough, cough, hough, tough, thorough, thought, through). Complex vowel sounds: aw (awful, awe), oi (boil, poison, toilet, annoy), ou
(lighthouse, cow, flower, fountain), oo (took, pulley, platypus, pull, football, boot)

vow renewals -- ceremonies in which partners repeat their commitment to each other.

VP shunt -- see ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

vulnerability --
Lack of resistance or ability to recover from a damaging or traumatic experience.

vulcanize -- to subject or to undergo the process of treating crude or synthetic rubber or similar plastic material chemically to give it useful properties (as elasticity, strength, stability).

vulnerable adult -- a person who is either being mistreated or in danger of mistreatment and who, due to age and/or disability, is unable to protect him/herself.

vulpine -- of, relating to, or resembling a fox; crafty.

vulva -- the external female genitalia.
W -- symbol for tungsten, atomic number 74.

Waardenburg's syndrome -- Four clinical subtypes exist with types I and II accounting for the majority of the cases. Clinical features are widely spaced eyes (type I), heterochromia (irises
different colors), white hair forelock,  non-progressive
sensorineural hearing loss, musculoskeletal abnormalities (Type III). Types I and II have virtually identical clinical features with
the only distinguishing characteristic being
telecanthus (abnormally long distance from the inside corner of the eye to the nose) which is found in type I. Associated complications: impaired
vestibular function leading to
ataxia, premature graying, vitiligo (patches of skin depigmentation), occasional glaucoma. Cause: Type I and III: mutations in PAX3 gene on chromosome
2q35; type II: mutations in various genes, including the
microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene on chromosome 3p14.1--p12.3; autosomal dominant; a cause of deaf-
. Hearing loss may be unilateral or bilateral, but always sensorineural.

wait time -- the amount of time (~3 to 4 seconds) between when the student is asked a question and when the teacher provides the response if the student doesn't answer.

Walker Warburg Syndrome -- a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain and eye abnormalities. The incidence is 1.2 per 100,000 live
births. It is quite severe, and most children with this syndrome die before 3 years old. Symptoms are
hypotonia, muscle weakness, intellectual disability, seizures, hydrocephalus,
cerebellar malformations, eye abnormalities. Several mutations have been found in the POMT1 gene (9q34) on chromosome 9, POMT2 gene (14q24.3) on chromosome 14, and FKRP
genes (19q13.3) on chromosome 19.

wallaroo -- a reddish gray kangaroo, also called euro; either of the two kangaroos related to the wallaroo.

wan -- pallid; of a sickly complexion.

wane -- to decrease in size, extent, or degree; to fall gradually from power, prosperity, or influence.

warble -- trill; croon; purr; chirrup.

ward of the state -- PL 108-446 -- A child who, as determined by State of residence, is a foster child, ward of the State, or in custody of a public child welfare agency. Does not include
foster children whose foster parents meet
IDEA's "parent" definition.

wardrobe -- a room or closet where clothes are kept; a receptacle for clothes; a large trunk in which clothes can be hung upright; a collection of wearing apparel (as of one person or for one
activity); a collection of stage costumes and accessories; the department of a royal or noble household entrusted with the care of wearing apparel, jewels, and personal articles.

Warfarin Embryopathy -- see Fetal Warfarin Syndrome.

warlock -- a very old term with two different meanings. First, it is used to describe a wizard of unusually fierce appearance. It is also used as a title denoting particular bravery or skill. It
originally was used to denote one skilled in martial magic or duelling or as a title to a wizard who has performed a particularly astounding feat of bravery. It is sometimes, incorrectly,
interchanged with the word wizard. Warlocks are few and far between, but they usually mate with a witch or a human.  A group of warlocks is called a congeries. A warlock baby is called a
babbity (with a witch) or an infant (with a human).

War on Poverty -- legislation introduced by President Lyndon B. Johnson in the State of the Union address January 8, 1964, in an effort to reduce the national poverty rate of 19%.

wastrel -- a wasteful person; spendthrift; refuse; waste; a waif; abandoned child; an idler or good-for-nothing.

watershed area -- area of tissue lying between two major arteries and thus poorly supplied by blood.

watershed infarct -- injury to the brain due to lack of blood flow in brain tissues between interfacing blood vessels.

water soluble -- a substance that is capable of being dissolved in water. B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins, which means that they are not stored in the body and must be replaced every

wavelength -- the spatial period of the wave -- the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

weald -- a heavily wooded area; forest; a wild or uncultivated usually upland region.

wealth -- also called net worth; the monetary value of everything one owns -- such as property, stocks, and insurance -- minus debts.

weather -- state of the atmosphere at a given time and place.

Weaver syndrome -- micrognathia, distinctive chin with dimple, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, downslanting palpebral fissures, long philtrum, depressed nasal bridge, hoarse low-
pitched cry, deep set nails, accelerated growth with advanced bone age,
hypertonia, camptodactyly (permanently flexed fingers), intellectual disability. Cause: mutations have been
identified in the NSD1 gene on chromosome 5q35; select cases suggest
autosomal dominant inheritance, but most cases are isolated, suggesting new mutations.

webbing -- a process through which teachers create a diagram based on a topic or theme. It is a planning tool for curriculum and includes as many resources as teachers can name.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -- an individually administered measure of intelligence intended for children ages 6 to 16 years and 11 months. It is designed to measure human
intelligence as reflected in both verbal and nonverbal abilities.
David Wechsler developed the test. The test is used in placement of children in programs for gifted students as well as
programs for children who are
developmentally delayed. The test can also be used to indicate different kinds of brain damage.

wedge -- A therapeutic device to help a child maintain a position.

Wednesday -- the middle day of the week; named for Mercury and associated with the Greek god Hermes and the Roman god Mercuris. These were gods of wisdom. Wednesday relates
to the color green, the lungs, the metallic element mercury, and the chemical symbol

weekly menus -- menus that are written to be served on a weekly basis.

weight bearing -- supporting his or her own weight in different positions.

weighted decision making -- when some members of a group receive priority in voting, so that their votes count more heavily in decision making than other members' votes.

welfare -- government aid to those who can't support themselves.

welkin -- the vault of the sky; firmament; heaven; the upper atmosphere.

well child -- a child in a good physical, mental, social, and emotional state.

welter -- writhe; toss; wallow; to become deeply sunk, soaked, or involved; to be in turmoil.

weltschmerz (VELT-shmairts) -- mental depression or apathy caused by comparison of the actual state of the world with an ideal state; a mood of sentimental sadness.

werewolf -- also known as a lycanthrope, a mythological human who shapeshifts into a wolf-like creature due to being bitten by another werewolf. The transformation is associated with the
full moon. At any other time, a werewolf is a completely normal human being. A group of werewolves is called a hirsute. A werewolf baby is called a baldwin.

Werner's syndrome -- an inherited disease that rapidly ages patients, starting in the early teens. It is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder. It affects an estimated 1/200,000
people in the United States. In Japan, it occurs 1/20,000 to 1/40,000. Characteristics: dramatic, rapid appearance of features associated with normal aging. Additionally, there appears to be
no growth spurt at adolescence, and by the 20s, graying and loss of hair; hoarse voice; thin, hardened skin; a bird-like facial appearance; thin arms and legs; thick trunk due to abnormal fat
deposition. As the syndrome progresses, the patient shows
cataracts, skin ulcers, type 2 diabetes, diminished fertility, artherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and cancers. Expected lifespan is
late 40s or early 50s. Caused by the WRN gene on the short arm of chromosome 8.

Wernicke's aphasia -- difficulty understanding language because of the inability to hear words correctly (not deafness). Speech may be understandable,
but utterances meaningless: words strung together seemingly at random; speech may be fluent, words not real (jargon). Also called
sensory aphasia or
fluent aphasia.

Wernicke's area -- A language structure located in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for interpreting
(See illustration----------->>.)

wet nursing --
the practice of hiring a woman who has recently given birth to breastfeed another's baby.

wheel theory -- a theory of the origin of love; it suggests that love develops and is maintained through four stages: 1) rapport; 2) self-revelation; 3) mutual dependency; and 4) intimacy
needs fulfillment.  Developed by
Ira Reiss.

wherewithal -- the money or other means needed for a particular purpose.

whiffling -- a word used in Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll (Came whiffling through the tulgey wood ...), not a word invented by him, but meant blowing unsteadily in short puffs; slang for being
variable and evasive; also earlier whiffling meant smoking and drinking.

whilom -- formerly; former; erstwhile.

whimsy -- quaint or fanciful idea; a whim; capricious humor or playful disposition.

whippersnapper -- a person regarded as insignificant and pretentious; cheeky; often a young one; also called whipster.

Whipple's disease --
a rare bacterial infection primarily affecting the small intestine. It can also affect the heart, lungs, brain, joints, and eyes. Left untreated, it is fatal. It is caused by the
Tropheryma whipplei bacteria. Classic signs and symptoms of Whipple's disease are joint pain, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain and bloating, fever, fatigue, and
anemia. Less
common are darkening of the skin, enlarged
lymph nodes, chronic cough, chest pain, pericarditis, heart failure, vision problems, dementia, facial numbness, headache, muscle weakness
or twitching, difficulty walking, and memory problems.

whipworm infections -- an infection caused by the roundworm Trichocephalus trichiura. Children can become infected if they swallow soil contaminated with whipworm eggs. The eggs
hatch and stick to the wall of the
large intestine. Symptoms are blood diarrhea, iron-deficiency anemia, fecal incontinence, and rectal prolapse.

whirligig -- a child's toy having a whirling motion; one that continuously whirls or changes; a whirling or circling course (as of events).

whisper -- soft speech produced without a full voice; something uttered very softly.

white blood cells -- one of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are several types, but the most common are lymphocytes and neutrophils. Lymphocytes are made in
spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland.  They identify foreign substances from bacteria or viruses and produce antibodies to target them. Neutrophils are made in the bone
marrow and circulate in the bloodstream. They move out of the blood vessels into the infected tissue to attack the bacteria. The pus in an abscess is made up
largely of neutrophils. White blood cells are also called

white cane -- see Hoover cane or long cane. A tool that can be used for a person with visual impairments to achieve independence; also a symbol for
citizens who are
blind in our society. Historically, the cane, staff, and stick have acted as traveling aids for people who were blind or visually impaired. James
of Bristol, England claimed to have invented the white cane in 1921. In 1931, Guilly d'Herbemont launched a scheme for a national white stick
movement for people in France who were blind. England soon followed. In the United States, the Lions Club International began a national program promoting
the use of white canes in 1931.
Dr. Richard Hoover developed the "long cane". October 15 is White Cane Safety Day. A person who is both deaf and blind
carries a white cane with red stripes. See illustration.

white forelock --
also called poliosis, a tuft of hair along the frontal hairline may be permanently white. It is a congenital condition, often inherited and may be
unassociated with other defects. Rarely, it may be associated with Waardenburg syndrome or

white matter --
brain matter that consists largely of myelinated nerve fibers.

white pupil -- the human pupil is normally black. In flash photographs, it may appear red. If the pupil appears white, it is cause for concern. There are
many different causes of a white pupil. It can be caused by
cataracts or a cloudy cornea. Other causes are Coat's disease, coloboma, congenital
cataracts, persistent primary hyperplastic vitreous, retinoblastoma, toxocara canis, or uveitis.

whole grains -- grain products that have not been refined; they contain all parts of the kernel of grain.

whole language -- the area of graphic language development that refers to a particular way in which language, particularly reading and writing, is
learned; whole language refers to that movement within primary education that emphasizes an integrated and literary-based approach rather than a
phonics, decoding-skills approach; an
approach to beginning reading instruction that parallels children's natural language learning and uses reading materials that are whole and meaningful.

wholeness -- a characteristic of systems; general systems theorists believe that the whole is more than the sum of its parts.

whole-task sequence -- the teaching of all the steps in a task analysis each time the child practices a target skill.

why tales -- see pourquoi tales.

WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) -- a federal program that provides food supplements for pregnant women, infants, and children to age 5.

widdendream -- (noun) a state of mental disturbance or confusion.

widdershins -- in a left-handed, wrong, or contrary direction; counterclockwise.

widow -- wife who outlives her husband.

widower -- husband who outlives his wife.

wife-dominant power pattern -- a power pattern in a marriage in which the woman is the boss.

wifty -- eccentrically silly, giddy, or inane; ditzy.

Winkies -- residents of the Winkie Country in the Land of Oz (Frank Baum). They prefer the color yellow. They were enslaved for many years by the Wicked Witch of the West. They asked
the Tin Woodsman to be their emperor and so he said OK.

wildcatter -- one that drills wells in the hope of finding oil in territory not known to be an oil field; one that promotes unsafe and unreliable enterprises, especially one that sells stocks in such

William syndrome (Hypercalcemis-Elfin Facies syndrome) -- characteristic "elfin" facies (full lips and cheeks, fullness of area around the eyes); short stature; star-like pattern to iris;
hoarse voice;
communication delay in early childhood, followed by increasing verbal abilities later in life; characteristic friendly, talkative, extroverted personality; congenital heart defect;
supravalvular aortic stenosis; hypercalcemia (increased blood calcium level); stenosis (stricture) of blood vessels; kidney anomalies; hypertension; joint contractures; mild to
intellectual disability (but  with a characteristic strength in verbal abilities). Cause: microdeletion of a segment of chromosome 7q11.23 consisting of approximately 25 genes;
dominant; all cases are the result of a new mutation.

will o' wisp -- also called will-o'-the-wisp, corpse candle, jack-o'-lantern, friar's lantern, gunderslislik, hobby lantern, and wisp, or are thought to be ghosts or fairies. A hinkypunk is closely
related  It is a folkloric depiction of a ghostly light sometimes seen at night or twilight over bogs, swamps, and marshes. It looks like a flickering lamp and is sometimes said to recede when
approached. A group of will o' wisps is a wink o'. A will o' wisp baby is a flicker.

Wilms tumor -- a tumor that originates in the kidneys – also called nephroblastoma.

Wilson's disease -- liver dysfunction, jaundice, Kayser-Fleischer ring on cornea, low serum ceruloplasmin (enzyme important in regulation of copper in body), movement disorders,
dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) or other oral-motor dysfunction, progressive liver disease, neurological problems (inability to pronounce words, lack of coordination, mania, depression,
psychosis); if left untreated, death from liver failure within 1 -- 3 years of onset. Cause: mutations in the copper metabolism gene, ATP7B, on chromosome 13q14.3 -- q21.1 lead to an
intracellular accumulation of copper in the liver, kidney, and placenta;
autosomal recessive.

winceyette -- cotton cloth; cloth made of cotton that has a raised surface.

winnow -- to filter out; to remove unnecessary or undesirable parts.

wiseacre -- one who pretends to knowledge or cleverness; especially: smart aleck.

wishful singles -- unmarried persons who hope to marry in the near future and are actively trying to find a suitable mate.

wisteria -- a genus of twisting, woody, and climbing vines; flowers are purple and pendulous; flowers in the spring, just before or as the leaves open.
See picture of flowers.

wistful --
full of yearning or desire tinged with melancholy; also: inspiring such yearning; musingly sad; pensive.

witch -- A woman who is credited with supernatural powers or magic. Witches are seen in different ways in different cultures. Some witches are
considered neighborhood or social witches who curse neighbors for some wrongdoing. There are also witches who are called magical or sorcerer;
night or supernatural; or white witches. Probably the most obvious characteristic of a witch is the ability to cast a spell. A group of witches is a coven.
A witch baby is a babbity.

wit-work -- Freud: the process by which a denied impulse (invariably hostile or obscene) is converted into a joke. Similar to dreamwork.

wizard -- a magician, mage, sorcerer, warlock; or a person (usually a man) that practices magic. Sometimes a wizard is considered a wise old man and acts as a mentor. Sometimes they are
considered villains, ogres, or monsters. They commonly wear robes or cloaks and pointed hats. A group of wizards is a leash. A wizard baby is a babbity.

woebegone -- strongly afflicted with woe; woeful; exhibiting great woe, sorrow, or misery; being in a sorry state.

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome -- hypertelorism, characteristic broad beaked nose, microcephaly, marked intrauterine growth retardation and premature birth, ear anomalies, severe
intellectual disability with reductions in receptive language and expressive language, hypotonia, psychomotor delays, growth delay, renal anomalies, hypodontia (decreased
number of teeth) resulting in feeding problems,
seizures, occasional heart defect or cleft palate.  Cause: partial deletion of short arm of chromosome 4; some research shows that the
HOX7 gene may be responsible as well as the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate -1 gene (WHSC1); occurs as a result of a new mutation.

women -- Freud: needier, more demanding of affection, less governed by conscience, more prone to neurosis and hysteria, fundamentally passive, more narcissistic. For more about
this, see
projection. (In all fairness, it should be noted that Freud, a strong advocate for women becoming analysts, worked actively and vocally against attempts to block women from
entering his profession.)

women's safe house --  a place whose location is known only to residents and shelter workers; a private home that provides temporary housing for abused women.

women's shelter -- also called victim shelter; provides not only food and accommodation but also other help such as money, food stamps,
counseling, and legal, medical, and employment assistance.

wonder tales -- another term for fairy tales. This term is considered more accurate than fairy tales, because it encapsulates the essence of this
story type, which involves magic or enchantment, while fairies seldom appear in fairy tales.

Woodstock Music and Art Fair -- just called Woodstock or the Woodstock Festival; a music festival billed as "an aquarian exposition: 3 days of
peace and music"; held at
Max Yasgur's dairy farm in White Lake, New York from August 15 to August 18, 1969.  32 artists (Richie Havens, Swami
, Country Joe McDonald, John B. Sebastian, Sweetwater, Incredible String Band, Bert Sommer, Tim Hardin, Ravi Shankar,
Melanie, Arlo Guthrie, Joan Baez, Quill, Keef Hartley Band, Santana, Canned Heat, Grateful Dead, Mountain, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Sly
& the Family Stone,
Janis Joplin, The Who, Jefferson Airplane, Joe Cocker, Country Joe and the Fish, Ten Years After, the Band, Blood Sweat and
Johnny Winter, Crosby Stills Nash and Young, Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Sha-Na-Na, Jimi Hendrix) performed for about half a million
Bob Dylan, Beatles (John Lennon), Jeff Beck Group, Doors, Led Zeppelin, Byrds, Chicago, Tommy James and the Shondells, Moody
Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, Arthur Lee and Love, Free, Mind Garage, Spirit, Joni Mitchell, Lighthouse, Roy Rogers, Procol
, and Jethro Tull declined to perform. See poster.

woolgathering -
indulgence in idle daydreaming.

word -- a series of letters. Each word has to have at least one vowel. Each syllable is made by blending the sounds of each component. Here are the
rules: 1. C followed by E, I, or Y usually has the soft sound of S (cyst). 2. G followed by E, I, or Y usually has the soft sound of J (gym). 3. Digraphs
count as one sound and one letter and are never separated (ch, sh, th, ph, wh). 4. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short (fat, bed). 5. When a
syllable ends in a silent E, that is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long (make, gene). 6. When a syllable has two vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second silent
(pain, eat) (Diphthongs don’t follow this rule). 7. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long (me, my). 8. When a vowel is followed by an R in the same
syllable, that vowel is R-controlled, not long nor short. See vowels. 9. Words can have prefixes or suffixes added, which modifies their meaning (use, usable).        

word family -- a base word and its derivatives.

word pictures -- descriptions of children that depict, in words, norms of development.

wordplay -- all of these things: acrostics, adjectives, adverbs, alliteration, alphabet, anagrams, anaphora, antithesis, antonyms, aphorisms, apostrophe, assonance, autoantonym, ballads,
blends, chiasmus, cinquain, clerihew, compound words, clitics, consonants, dialects, diamantes, digraphs, diphthongs, doggerels, double entendres, doublets, epiphoras, epistrophes,
euphemisms, figurative language, fingerplays, free verse, gerunds, graphemes, haikus, homographs, homonyms, homophones, hyperbole, idiolects, idioms, improbable words, imagery, irony,
jargon, limericks, litotes, metaphors, metonymy, nonsense verse, nouns, onopmatopoeia, oxymorons, palindromes, paradox, personification, phonemes, phonics, phonohtsmd, poetry,
polysemy, prefixes, pronouns, puns, rhetoric, rhyme, rhythm, riddles, rime, semordnilap, shape poems, simile, slang, sonnets, spoonerisms, stories, storytelling, suffixes, syllables, symbolism,
synecdoche, synonyms, syntax, tongue-twisters, verbs, vowels, words, ... that can be used to have fun with words. The definitions of all of those words are on this website.     

working, or short-term, memory -- in information processing, the part of the mental system where we actively "work" on a limited amount of information, applying mental strategies to
ensure it will be retained. The information is held long enough for the person to evaluate and selectively act on the input.

working portfolio -- a type of child portfolio that is used and added onto regularly, documenting a child's skills and behavior over time.
Rather than one that collects only a child's exemplary work or everything a child has done, this type of portfolio attempts to capture key
documentation to demonstrate a child's growth.

work samples -- method that preserves the child's work as a documentation of development. Ex. Drawings, writings, constructions, media
preserved work, such as audio or video recordings or photographs.

wormian bones -- small irregular bones sometimes formed in the sutures of the cranium. Wormian bones are unusual, but not rare.
Wormian bones are a marker for various diseases (
osteogenesis imperfecta, rickets, Menkes syndrome, hypoparathyroidism,
Down syndrome among others). See illustration.

wraith --
the exact likeness of a living person seen usually just before death as an apparition; a ghost, spectre, apparition, or spirit; an
insubstantial form or semblance; shadow; a barely visible gaseous or vaporous column. A wraith usually denotes dangerous or ominous
beings. They have black cloaks and skeletal bodies, and are generally believed to be messengers of death. A group of wraiths is a shadow. A wraith baby is a murky.

wraparound approach (WRAP) -- care that provides comprehensive services to youth and their families, addressing individual and family needs through flexible approaches coordinated
and orchestrated by a team of caring professionals and paraprofessionals.

writing -- the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs and symbols. Writing is part of literacy, along with reading, speaking, and listening. There are
five stages in the development of writing: 1) the use of straight or curved lines that only the writer can interpret, and even then, not for long; 2) the writing of letters in different combinations to
represent words; 3) the attempt to assign a sound value to these "letters"; 4) the combining of letters to represent sounds rather than the use of single letters to stand for syllables; and 5) the
use of invented spelling, gradually replaced by conventional.

W sitting -- sitting with knees together and feet out to the side.

wuthering -- of a wind: blowing strongly with a roaring sound; a place characterized by such a sound.

wyvern -- a type of dragon, typically portrayed without legs; a two-legged dragon having wings and a barbed tail.
xanthoma -- a skin condition in which fat builds up under the surface of the skin. It looks like a sore or bump under the skin. It is usually flat, soft to the touch, and yellow in color. It has sharp,
distinct edges. A xanthoma is non-cancerous and painless, but may be a sign of another medical condition.

xanthelasmas -- a xanthoma of the eyelid.

X chromosome -- one of two sex-determining chromosomes; the other is a Y chromosome. Two X chromosomes make a girl; an X and a Y make a boy.

xenodochial -- friendly or especially kind to strangers or foreigners.

xenoglossy -- language learned spontaneously and without prior knowledge.

xenomorph -- an endoparasitoid creature. Xenomorphs are not intelligent, but very violent and destructive. They live together kuje bees -- several warriors and a single queen. After the
larva are hatched, they are violently implanted into a living host before erupting from the host's chest. Xenomorphs are the aliens that are the primary antagonists in the Alien movies. A group
of xenomorphs is a slither. A xenomorph baby is a larva.

xenon -- atomic number 54, symbol Xe; a colorless, odorless, highly unreactive gaseous element found in minute quantities in the atmosphere; extracted from liquefied air and used in
stroboscopic, bactericidal, and laser-pumping lamps; discovered in 1898 by
Sir William Ramsay; from the Greek word xenon which means stranger.

xenophobia -- fear of strangers or foreigners.

xerophobia -- fear of dryness and dry places.

xerophthalmia -- a condition caused by vitamin A deficiency that can lead to blindness. It is the leading cause of acquired blindness in children worldwide. Approximately 70% of the
500,000 children who become
blind each year do so because of xerophthalmia.

xerosis -- dry skin.

xiphoid process -- a pointed cartilage attached to the lower end of the sternum. It is cartilagenous early in life but may become ossified (bony) in adults. See

X-linked ALD --
see adrenoleukodystrophy.

X-linked inheritance -- a pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected.

X-linked dominant trait (XLD) --  A mode of inheritance in which a gene on the X chromosome is dominant. Females can be more frequently affected than males since they have two X
chromosomes that could potentially carry the abnormal gene, whereas a male has only one. The affected X is NEVER passed from father to son, but to affected daughters. If a son inherits
the disorder from his mother, it seems to be more severe or fatal.

X-linked recessive trait (XLR) - A trait transmitted by a gene located on the X chromosome. It is passed by a carrier mother to an affected son; or to a daughter, who is then also a carrier.
Alternately, if the gene is located on the (affected) father's X chromosome, it cannot be passed to his son but to a carrier daughter, unless the mother is also a carrier, and the daughter gets
her carrier X. This makes this daughter affected.

x-ray -- a form of electromagnetic radiation. An x-ray machine sends individual x-ray particles, called photons, that pass through the body. Then a computer
or special film is used to record the images that are created. Structures that are dense, like bones, will block most of the x-ray particles and will appear white.
Metal and contrast material (such as special dyes used to highlight areas of the body) will also appear white. Structures containing air will be black, and muscle,
fat, and fluid will appear as shades of gray.
See Homer.

XX --
the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which determines gender: in this case, a GIRL.

XXX (trisomy X, 47,XXX); XXXX (tetrasomy X); and XXXXX (pentasomy X) syndromes -- females with XXX generally have above-average stature but
otherwise typical physical appearance; 70% have significant
learning disabilities; language delay/problems are also present in some girls. Significant
malformations have been described in some girls including gonadal
dysgenesis (nonfunctional ovaries), dysmorphic facial appearance, atrophic or dysplastic (absent or shrunken)
kidneys, and vaginal and uterine malformations. XXXX syndrome is associated with a mildly unusual facial appearance,
behavioral problems, and moderate intellectual disability. XXXXX
syndrome presents with severe
intellectual disability and multiple physical defects. Associated complications: infertility, delayed pubertal development. Cause: nondisjunction during
meiosis; new mutations, usually nondisjunction chromosomal abnormality, may recur in families in presence of parental translocation.

XXY syndrome -- see Klinefelter syndrome.

XY --
the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which determines gender: in this case, a BOY.

xylography -- the art of making engravings on wood especially for printing.

xylophobia -- fear of forests or wood.

xysti -- (plural) covered portico of a gymnasium.

XYY syndrome -- subtle findings, including tall stature, severe acne, large teeth, poor fine motor coordination, learning disabilities, language delay, varying degrees of behavioral
including tantrums and aggression, increased risk for autism. Cause: extra Y chromosome resulting from nondisjunction, new mutation, usually nondisjunction
chromosomal abnormality, may recur in families in presence of parental

yawp -- to make a raucous noise; squawk; clamor; complain.

yearly -- how often IEPs and IFSPs have to be reviewed and updated.

yegg -- a thief, especially a burglar or a safecracker.

yellow bone marrow -- bone marrow that mostly stores fats. Yellow bone marrow is found at the ends of long bones . It replaces red marrow in the long bones after the fifth year of life.
In adults, red marrow remains chiefly in the ribs, the vertebrae, the pelvic bones, and the skull.

yemeles (yeem-lis) -- (adjective) careless, heedless, negligent.

yeti -- native to Tibet. A yeti is very tall (up to 15 feet), white furred, related to trolls. They fear fire, but will attempt to attack and eat any human (or anything else) that they meet. No witch or
wizard has ever been able to study a yeti at close range. Also called the Abominable Snowman, Bigfoot, or Sasquatch. A group of yetis is an absence. A yeti baby is a footling.

yips -- a state of nervous tension affecting an athlete in the performance of a crucial action.

youth -- a broad, nonspecific term for the younger generation -- children, adolescents, and young adults.

yowl -- to utter a loud long cry of grief, pain, or distress; to wail; wail.

ytterbium -- atomic number 70, symbol Yb; a soft, bright, silvery rare-earth element used as an x-ray source, in some laser materials and some alloys; occurs in gadolinite, monazite, yttria,
and xenotime; discovered in 1878 by
Jean de Marignac.

yttrium -- atomic number 39, symbol Y; a silvery metallic element, not a rare earth but occurring in nearly all rare-earth minerals; used in metallurgical applications, alloys, lasters, catalyst;
discovered by
Johann Gadolin in 1794, named for Ytterby, a town in Sweden.

zeitgeist -- the general intellectual, moral, and cultural climate of an era.

Zellweger syndrome -- The most severe of the peroxisomal disorders; affected infants have intrauterine growth retardation, characteristic facies (high forehead, upslanting
palpebral fissures, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, and epicanthal folds), hypotonia, eye abnormalities (cataracts, glaucoma, corneal clouding, retinitis pigmentosa), early
onset of
seizures. Death occurs by one year of age in most cases. Associated complications: severe feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, liver disease, occasional cardiac disease,
contractures, kidney cysts. Cause: impaired peroxisome synthesis caused by mutations in a number of genes, including peroxin-1 (PEX1) at chromosome 7q21--q22, peroxin-5
(PEX5) at chromosome 12, peroxin-2 (PEX2) at chromosome 8, peroxin-6 (PEX6) at chromosome 6, and peroxin-12 (PEX12). (The
peroxisome is a cellular organelle involved in processing
fatty acids.)
autosomal recessive.  Also known as cerebrohepatorenal syndrome.

zelophobia -- fear of jealousy.

zenith -- the point of the celestial sphere that is directly opposite the nadir and vertically above the observer.

zephyr -- slight burst of gentle wind; gentle breeze.

zero-exclusion principle -- the principle that no person with a disability can be rejected for a service, regardless of the disabling condition.

zero reject-- Core principle of IDEA specifying that no student with a disability, regardless of its nature or severity, can be denied an education.

zero-sum game -- a game in which one side's margin of victory equals the other side's margin of defeat, producing a final sum of zero; what one person wins, the other loses.

zeroth -- being numbered zero in a series; of, relating to, or being a zero.

zero tolerance -- an approach whereby the consequences for a student's misbehavior are predetermined, and no individual reasons or circumstances are

zibeline (ZIB-uh-leen) -- a soft lustrous wool fabric with mohair, alpaca, or camel's hair.

ziggurat -- a Mesopotamian temple tower in the shape of a pyramid with stepped, rather than smooth sides. Both Assyrians and Babylonians built ziggurats;
(see picture).

zinc --
atomic number 30, symbol Zn; a bluish-white, lustrous, metallic element that is brittle at room temperature, but malleable with heating; used in alloys including brass, bronze, solders,
nickel silver, in galvanizing iron, for electric fuses, anodes, meter cases, roofing, gutters, and other household objects; discovered in 1746 by
Andreas Marggraf; obtained from zinc blend,

zirconium -- atomic number 40, symbol Zr; a lustrous, grayish-white, strong, ductile metallic element obtained primarily from zircon; used in ceramic and refractory compounts, as an alloying
agent, and in nuclear reactors; discovered by
Martin Klaproth in 1789.

zitella -- maiden; unmarried woman, bachelorette.

zombie -- a reanimated dead or mindless being, hungry for flesh, or a human being who is being controlled by someone else by use of magic. Zombies are referred to as "wandering
sickness", a highly contagious viral plague, infecting others on contact. They can be "killed" by a blow to the head or being set on fire. A group of zombies is a plague. A zombie baby is a

zone of proximal development (ZPD) -- a concept from the Vygotskian theory of child development and learning. The zone encompasses the area of development that is emerging. The
lower level of the zone is what a child can do independently. The higher level is what a child can do with maximum assistance.

zone teaching-- a strategy in which each teacher is responsible for an area of the classroom.

zoophobia -- fear of animals.

Zoroaster -- also known as Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastrianism.

zounds -- a word used to express anger, surprise, or indignation; a mild oath indicating surprise, indignation, etc.

zwieback -- a usually sweetened bread enriched with eggs that is baked and then sliced and toasted until dry and crisp.

zygomatic bone -- one of two facial bones in the front of the skull that makes up the cheekbone and the outside portion of the eye
socket. It connects to the
temporal bone, the frontal bone, the maxilla and the sphenoid bones, one on each side of the face.
They are roughly diamond-shaped.
See picture.

zygote --
the newly fertilized cell formed by the union of the sperm and ovum at conception (see picture).

Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer -- (ZIFT) --
fertilization procedure whereby the mother's egg and the father's sperm are collected and placed in a laboratory dish. Then 1 day after
fertilization takes place, the zygote is then placed in the woman's fallopian tubes.

zyzzyva -- a type of weevil.
Diagrams of the
urethra and
the female
A  B   C   D    E    F    G    H    I    JKL    M     NO    PQ    
R    Sa--So    Sp--Sz    T   U--Z (here).
So, what is the speed of dark?  -- Steven Wright

I didn't attend the funeral but I sent a nice letter saying I
approved of it.  --Mark Twain

(About a glass of water) I mixed this myself. Two parts H, one part
O. I don't trust anybody! --Steven Wright

When I get real bored, I like to drive downtown and get a great
parking spot, then sit in my car and count how many people ask
me if I'm leaving. --Steven Wright

I put instant coffee in a microwave and almost went back in time.   
--Steven Wright

Last night I stayed up late playing poker with Tarot cards. I got a
full house and four people died. --Steven Wright

When angry, count to 4. When very angry, swear.
--Mark Twain