Questions for Assessment First Exercise --

1. What is shown in the opening scene?

2. What instrument is shown?

3. What is the name of this video clip?

4. How many hammers are there?

5. What is underneath the harp?

6. How many instruments can you hear in this video?

7. What is above the harp?

8. What is on the sides of the harp?

9. How many bows are there?

10. What color is the background?

11. What is covering the floor?

12. How long is this video?

13. Which instrument plays the longest?

14. Which instrument plays the last note?

15. What moon phase is shown at the end?

16. List the names of the instruments ACTUALLY playing, not
the symbolized ones.

1. Define the following terms:
  alternative assessment
  performance assessment
  authentic assessment
  informal assessment
  formative assessment
  summative assessment
  essential learnings
  early learning standards
  mandated testing
  standardized testing

2. From reading the definitions, what do you think is the difference between screening and
diagnostic assessment procedures?

3. Go to
Developmental Red Flags and read the introductory  section and the section for social -
emotional development. React to this reading in your journal. What are some other typical red
flags which you may notice in a child or in a child's permanent file?

4.    Read  through chapter 2. Write your general reaction to the chapter.

5. Start a section of your notebook where you list assessment types. Under each heading (today
you would write in "anecdotal recording") write the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
Do you believe that  this kind of assessment type will be useful for you in your work with children?

6. Add Class List Logs to your assessment type section (from chapter 1). How about portfolios?
Are you going to add them too?

7. Do exercises 1, 2, 3, and 4 on page 52.     

8. CAREFULLY look over the TOPICS in OBSERVATION on pages 56 and 57. Write down what
is asked of you to write, but THEN, consider this whole section through the lens of being ETHICAL.
What do you think are your ethical responsibilities in assessing children? Do you believe that you
also have LEGAL or PROFESSIONAL responsibilities in assessing children? Think about this,
then give tell me your thoughts.

1. Chapter 3 is about using CHECKLISTS!!! Make sure that you add CHECKLISTS to the section of your notebook for assessment types. List the advantages and
disadvantages of CHECKLISTS.

2. Read Chapter 3. Thoughts?? Please tell.

3. An important part of using checklists (and of all assessments) is being sure that you are being OBJECTIVE. This is harder than it sounds. DO the exercise on page 73.
THINK carefully while you make your initial answers, then read through the reasoning given for the answers. How did you do?

4. Write down in your journal why it is so important to be OBJECTIVE.

5. Consistent with the theme of objectivity, READ CAREFULLY the TOPICS in OBSERVATION on pages 78 and 79. These are matters that you must face. Respond and/or
react in your journal.

PUT YOUR NOTEBOOKS IN MY BOX by 12:00 on FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 29. I will return them by Monday, October 2. THANKS!! I LOVE YOU!!
NOW I want you to take this test. Obviously, this is open book, right? Because there is no way for me to check to see if you are looking in
your book or not. Just answer the questions below. Some are in your book. Some answers may have to be found on this website. When
you are done, list the answers on a separate document and email them to me. When I get your tests graded, I will give you a new link for
the next assignments. You have one week to take this test. Have your answers emailed to me no later than midnight, Friday, OCTOBER

1. List 16 reasons why a teacher must be observant of his/her class at all times.

2. A new teacher gets a large box on her first day of work before school starts. In the box are 15 separate files with students' names on them. In each file she finds pictures
(child-drawn); journaling samples; audio tapes; teacher notes: anecdotal records, participation charts, interviews, records for math, science, social studies, and health; health
records; and photographs. What kind of files is she looking at?

3. List the people who can make additions to a child's portfolio: (there are 6 answers)

4. What are some things which should never be included in a child's portfolio?

5. Who has legal access to a child's portfolio?

6. List at least SIX ethical guidelines for assessment of children.

7. Which assessment type would be useful if you were wanting to determine which children in your class can use scissors properly?

8. Which assessment type would be useful if you were concerned about a particular child and her temper tantrums during free play time?

9. Which assessment type would be useful if you were wanting to observe each child's separation style when they are dropped off at school in the morning?

10. Which assessment type would be useful if you were wanting to assess how often children threw toys during free play time?

Fill in the blanks with the correct terminology found in this list:

accountability                                                              alternative assessment
assessment                                                                  at risk
authentic assessment                                               diagnostic assessment
due process                                                                 early learning standards
equal protection under the law                               essential learnings
established risk                                                           formative assessment
Head Start                                                                     inclusion
informal assessment                                                 mandated testing
No Child Left Behind                                                 performance assessment
privacy                                                                           red flags  
reliability                                                                        screening                                                                      
special needs                                                               standardized testing                                                  
standards                                                                      summative assessment                                            
validity                                                                            PL 94-142                                                                      
PL 99-457                                                                      PL 101-476                                                                    
PL 105-17                                                                      PL 108-446

11. ______________________ process of determining students' current functioning levels; all forms of measurement and appraisal, including tests, observations, interviews,
and reports from knowledgeable sources, recorded and integrated in an organized manner and used in planning.

12. ______________________ The identification of developmental problems or the potential for such problems; a procedure in which children are examined or tested to
identify children with high-risks, who are then referred for more intensive assessment; brief, relatively inexpensive standardized procedures designed to quickly appraise a
large number of children to find out which ones should be referred for further assessment.

13. ______________________ testing or used to determine areas of weakness; an in-depth appraisal of an individual child by a specialist, frequently after a child has been
identified by a screening process or a teacher.

14. ______________________ almost any type of assessment other than standardized tests and similar developmental inventories and achievement tests.

15. ______________________ the opposite of formal assessment (standardized and other published instruments)

16. ______________________ a specific type of alternative assessment in which children demonstrate a skill or create a product that shows their learning.

17. ______________________ Ongoing assessment process that occurs within the student's natural environment and includes observation of a student's performance as
well as the necessary supports for the student. Authentic assessment also includes work samples that the student has produced.

18. ______________________ gathering information that is then used to shape and improve -- to help the formation of -- an instructional program.

. _________________________ evaluation that is done at the end of a period of time, such as at the end of the school year or the end of a research project, to determine the
effectiveness of a program.

20. ______________________ state expectations of students' learning

21. ______________________ being held responsible for something, such as holding schools, administrators, and teachers responsible for student achievement.

_________________________ testing in public schools that is required at certain grade levels; mandated assessment times are set up by individual states in K -- 12

_________________________ what each state specifies as expectations for students' learning in kindergarten through high school.

24.  ______________________ every state that funds prekindergarten programs has specified what children are expected to learn in those programs.

25. ______________________ Method of evaluating ability level using a fixed methodology and normative data; a test with specific characteristics: 1) developed according
to APA/AERA guidelines with high levels of reliability and validity; 2) prescribed methods for administration and security; and 3) scoring systems based on comparisons with
other people or to a specified criterion.

26. ______________________ Federal school reform legislation reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education act and including increased school accountability
for student learning, more choices for parents and students, greater flexibility for schools in the use of funds, and an emphasis on early reading intervention.

27. ______________________ A federally funded program aimed at young children in poverty; designed to increase the chances of success in school and opportunities for
achievement.; compensatory education program started in 1965.

28. ______________________ In actions by the government, an individual should enjoy the same rights and receive the same benefits or burdens as all other citizens unless
there is a valid reason why the person should not.

29. ______________________ the right to protest and be heard prior to any action taken with respect to people or their dependent children.

30. ______________________ an individual's right to choose whether, when, and how behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions are to be shared with others.

31. ______________________ Education of the Handicapped Act of 1975, later renamed Education of All Handicapped Children Act, and currently called the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act; protects the educational rights of students with disabilities. This law guarantees free, appropriate, public educations in the least restrictive
environment. The disability categories set forth by this law were mental retardation, orthopedic impairment, deaf-blindness, deafness, severe emotional disturbance, hearing
impairment, multiple disabilities, other health impairment, specific learning disability, speech or language impairment, and visual impairment including blindness.

32. ______________________ In 1986, this law extended the requirements of PL 94-142 to include children birth to 3 years old; amended 94-142. This reauthorization set
up early intervention services (discretionary program), Individualized Family Service Plans, and Child Find.

33. ______________________ The Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1990, which changed the terminology from handicap to disability, added autism and  traumatic brain
injury as categories, required transition services, emphasized the role of parents, and recognized the importance of assistive devices.

34. ______________________ A reauthorization of IDEA, 1997. This reauthorization defined the term "developmentally delayed" for very young children, and authorized that
ADD and ADHD be included under "other health impairments" disability category.

35. ______________________ Reauthorization of IDEA, 2004. This reauthorization made the requirement that special education teachers should be highly qualified and
made the law more compatible with No Child Left Behind.

36. ______________________ Describing a child with exposure to certain adverse conditions and circumstances known to have a high probability of resulting in learning
and developmental difficulties.

37. ______________________ youngsters with a diagnosed medical disorder of known etiology and predictable prognosis or outcome.

38. ______________________ Children with special needs attend preschool, child-care, and recreational programs with typically developing peers; belief system shared by
every member of a school as a learning community; often based on a mission statement or vision, emphasizing the commitment to educate ALL students so that they can
reach their full potential; including children with disabilities or developmental delays in the educational setting where they would have been if they did not have a disability or

39. ______________________ Behaviors or conditions pertaining to a child that may be a cue to a future problem; red flags warn early childhood educators to stop, look,
and think, or at least make note.

40. ______________________ the extent to which any assessment technique yields results that are accurate and consistent over time.

41. ______________________ the extent to which any assessment technique fulfills the purpose for which it is intended.

The last 9 questions have to do with ethics. I know that this is on your test twice, but I want to impress upon you the importance of being
entirely ethical in your professional life, especially in this profession, in which you have children in their most formative years. Choose
your answers from this list:

accuracy, bias, culture, data collection, data recording, developmentally appropriate practice, labeling, objectivity, trustworthiness  

42. ______________________ Early childhood professionals should gear classroom activities, materials, and curricula to acknowledge and respect THIS, which is the
different ethnicities that are represented in the classroom and community.
Implications for assessment:
    a. Assume that there will be sociocultural influences on children's actions in the classroom.
    b. Distinguish social, cultural, language, and ethnic differences from deficits or disabilities.
    c. Involve parents and the community.
    d. Use multiple assessment measures and forms in a supportive, familiar context.
    e. Appreciate and accommodate the similarities and differences among children's cultures.

43. ______________________ This quality of a professional means detached, impersonal, unprejudiced, data-only recordings. Always try to obtain and use facts,
information, or data without distortion by personal feelings or prejudice. Lack of this happens when personal experiences or characteristics strongly influence perceptions of

44. ______________________ Assigning an individual to a group (e.g., Latino) or marking names on objects (e.g., toy car); the assigning of a disability label such as deaf or
mentally retarded. This activity should be avoided as much as possible, with the exception of providing proper services or in communications with other professionals or
families. In these cases, all communication should be as respectfully done as possible. Labeling can give a false impression that a real and unchanging characteristic has
been identified, and can stick to a child for years regardless of its accuracy. Labels usually have connotations, often negative, that may set up inappropriate expectations about
individual children. YOU MUST AVOID THIS IN BOTH RECORDED DATA AND IN INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS. Educators are not authorized to diagnose a disability,

45. ______________________ To do this accurately and fairly, the assessment or descriptions should focus on the facts and details of what is occurring with as little
interpretation and filtering of information as possible. The observer captures what is seen and heard without analyzing the information. An inference is an interpretation of a
child's behavior and may include speculation about the child's possible feelings, intentions, motivations, thinking processes, attitudes, or dispositions. In other words, when you
do this, remember to SEPARATE the FACTS from the ASSUMPTIONS. (Remember that assumptions make an assum out of p and tion.)

46. ______________________ This should be an objective, accurate recording of what occurred. Record information in precise terms in the sequence in which it happened.
Include the setting and the context, the people involved, where the child is, time of day, activity. Include your name as the one gathering assessment data. As much as possible,
capture what children actually SAY rather than paraphrasing. Don't make inferences or draw conclusions.

47. ______________________ These two terms (#47 and #48) refer to the statistical terminology validity and reliability. For THIS question, we look at the word RELIABILITY
-- is this test able to be trusted, is it reproducible, is it consistent and dependent??

48. ______________________ For THIS question, we look at the word VALIDITY -- does this test measure what it says it measures -- is it accurate and reasonable and fair?

49. ______________________ This word refers to a test, procedure, result, or use that unfairly discriminates against one group in favor of another. It is a complex concept,
not easily simplified, and involves not only tests and assessment procedures, but also use of the results. The over-placement of young minority group children in special  
education classes on the basis of test results is a frequently cited example of this.

50. ______________________ Use of strategies and approaches based on day-to-day decisions about individual students within the context of their families and cultural and
social values, guidelines set forth by the National Association for the Education of young Children (NAEYC) for early childhood curriculum. The guidelines emphasize
exploratory play, a child-initiated curriculum, a naturalistic setting, and child problem solving.

GOOD WORK LADIES!!!!! Take a breather for an hour!! NOW BACK TO WORK!!! hee hee
YOUR TEST IS DUE THIS DAY ALSO!!!! (see box below)

1. Add Running Records to your pages about assessment types, and add advantages and disadvantages.

2. Also add Frequency Counts from Chapter 5, adding advantages and disadvantages.

3. Now THOROUGHLY read through chapters 4 and 5.

4. Running Records, while very detailed, are nevertheless one of the most intensive types of assessment that you could use as a teacher. I want you to watch
this video and
keep a running record of all that goes on. Only watch it once while you take notes. When it is over, draw a line, and then write notes: possibly things you didn't have time to write
or some impressions (anecdotal recordings). REMEMBER to remain OBJECTIVE and to describe ONLY EXACTLY WHAT YOU SAW. If you were really using Running
Records to keep track of a child, unless you have videotaped the incident, you will only have ONE CHANCE to observe and write.

5. Running records should be timed exactly and should have a definite starting and ending point. To maintain your own sanity, what is the maximum amount of time you would
be able to keep a running record?

6. Look at the sample running records on pages 100, 101, and 102. Do you see anything wrong with these running records? List here what you find wrong. Also list here what
you find right.

7. Go to Chapter 5 now. Frequency counts are easy to calculate if you are closely observant. They are useful if you are watching for a certain behavior in a particular child. Only
do frequency counts on one child at a time if you are looking for specific behaviors relevant to that one child. Or you can do frequency counts in a certain area of the classroom
or during a specified activity.

8. Look carefully over the section "Using Frequency Count to Document Frequently Occurring Behaviors" on page 121.  From your experience working with children, could you
add to this list?

9. In your book, you are asked to look at the frequency count example on page 122 and see what sense can be made of it. Do look this over and give me your initial response.
NOW, what do you see that is wrong with this example? What kind of reaction might a teacher have by looking at this data to the following children:

10. Define the following terms:
  accountability                        No Child Left Behind (2002)
  Head Start                             Equal protection under the law
  Due Process                         Privacy
  PL 94-142 (1975)                 PL 99-457 (1986)
  PL 101-476 (1990)               PL 105-17 (1997)
  PL 108-446 (2004)               special needs
  at risk                                      established risk      
  red flags                                  inclusion
  validity                                     reliability

Now go to your test.
Your new assignments will be at this new link: HERE.