Sa -- So (S, part 1)
sable -- black; type of animal with a deep, black pelt.

sacral nerves -- control the foot muscles.

sacrosanct -- extremely sacred or inviolable; not to be entered or trespassed upon; above or beyond criticism, change, or interference.

sacrum -- a large triangular bone at the base of the lower spine. Its upper part joins the lumbar vertebrae and its narrow lower part joins
coccyx. The sides are connected to the pelvis. The sacrum is very strong and rarely fractures. The five vertebrae that make up the
sacrum are separated in early life, but gradually become fused between the 18th and 30th years.
(See picture.)

sadism --
the derivation of pleasure as a result of inflicting pain or watching pain inflicted on others; sexual gratification gained through
causing pain or degradation to others; extreme cruelty.

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome -- short stature, brachycephaly (foreshortenend skull), acrocephaly, radioulnar synostosis (fusion of lower arm bones), syndactyly of the second and third
fingers and third and fourth toes, fifth finger
clinodactyly, craniosynostosis, small ears, flat facies with long pointed nose and low hairline and facial asymmetry, shallow asymmetric eye
orbits with
hypertelorism, late closing fontanels, deafness, strabismus, proptosis, lacrimal (tear) duct anomalies. Caused by mutations in the TWIST transcription factor gene on
chromosome 7q21;
autosomal dominant.

safe-haven laws -- also called abandoned baby laws, laws in 42 states that allow a person -- anonymously and without fear of prosecution -- to leave an
unwanted newborn at a hospital emergency room, fire station, or other designated place.

safety and security needs -- Maslow: the second level in his hierarchy of needs: includes safe circumstances, security, protection, stability, structure,
order, limits, home, job security, nest egg, a good retirement plan, insurance, etc.

sagacious -- of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment; discerning.

Sagittarius -- a constellation of the zodiac, containing the galactic center; name is Latin for the archer; lies between Ophiuchus and Capricornus; 24 of its
stars have planets.
See picture.

saguaro --
a tall columnar usually sparsely-branched cactus in dry areas of southwestern United States and Mexico that bears white flowers and a scaly
reddish edible fruit and that may attain a height of up to 50 feet.

SAH -- see subarachnoid hemorrhage.

salaam -- a ceremonious act of deference or obeisance, especially a low bow performed while placing the right palm on the forehead.

salicylates -- any of a group of analgesics or painkilling drugs, that are derivatives of salicylic acid. The best known is
acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Now often made synthetically, they were originally derived from salicin, the active ingredient in
willow bark, used for centuries in the treatment of pain and fever. Salicylates also occur naturally in many plants used as foods
(e.g., strawberries, almonds, tomatoes). Methyl salicylate is the main component of wintergreen, sweet birch, gautheria, and
betula oils; the compound is used in rubbing liniments to soothe muscular aches and as a flavoring. Sodium salicylate,
traditionally used in the treatment of arthritis, is also used in dyes and as a nonedible preservative. In general, salicylates,
especially aspirin, are used medically to reduce fever and inflammation and to relieve headache, menstrual pain, and pain in nerves, muscles, and joints. Because of the effects of salicylates
on blood platelets and clotting, aspirin is often prescribed prophylactically for those at risk of stroke or heart attack. Salicylates are useful, relatively safe drugs, but normal doses can cause

disturbances in sensitive patients and large doses can be toxic or fatal, especially to children. (See diagram.)

salient --
jutting forward beyond a line; standing out conspicuously; prominent; especially of notable significance.

saline -- salty; pertaining to salt.

salivary glands -- glands that produce saliva and secrete amylase (an enzyme that breaks down starch).

sallow -- of a sickly yellowish hue or complexion.

salmonella infection -- infection caused by a rod-shaped bacterium of the genus pathogen. (See picture).

salmonellosis --
a bacterial infection that is spread through contaminated drinking water, food or milk, or contact with other infected persons. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, nausea, and
(see same picture, above).

salubrious --
health-giving; healthy; healthful; relating to good health.

salve -- remedial lotion or substance to soothe or allay.

salvo -- a simultaneous discharge of guns or bombs; a sudden burst; a spirited attack.

samara -- a dry, indehiscent, usually one-seeded, winged fruit (as of an ash or elm tree).

samarium -- atomic number 62, symbol Sm; a silvery or pale gray, lustrous, metallic rare-earth element found in monazite and bastnaesite; used in laser materials, glass, and as a neutron
absorber; discovered by
Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1879.

sample -- the small group of the population to be studied.

samsara -- the cycle of rebirth in which all humans and animals are trapped until they are able to reach enlightenment, according to Buddhist teachings (see

sanctimonious --
making a show of being morally superior to other people.

sandwich generation -- parents, usually in their 50s and older, who are simultaneously responsible for child rearing and for caring for
their own aging parents; individuals who are "caught in the middle" between two generations.
(See cartoon).

sandwiching --
presenting an issue of concern with positive statements preceding and following the concern.

Sanfilipo syndrome (MPS III) -- see mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS).

sangfroid -- coolness of mind, calmness, composure; French, literally, cold blood; imperterbability.

sanguine -- of a healthy reddish color; ruddy; blood-red; of the color of blood.

sanguinolency -- addiction to bloodshed.

sanitized -- cleaned or sterilized.

sanitizing solution -- a solution of diluted chlorine bleach (1/4 cup chlorine to 1 gallon water), used to sanitize utensils and work surfaces.

santification -- a form of grief in which one focuses only on the positive memories of the deceased loved one.

sapience -- rationality, compare sentience; wisdom or sagacity.

sapphire -- bright blue; valuable gemstone of a bright yet deep blue.

sarcomeres -- the contractile units of the myofibril (the basic unit of muscle contraction). (See illustration by Robert Finkbeiner. The blue dots are calcium ions, which initiate the

sarcophagus --
a stone coffin.

sarcostyle -- see myofibril.

sardonyx -- type of stone (onyx) with sandy bands.

sarmassophobia -- fear of love-play.

Sarnat neurological score -- the most popular system for grading the severity of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE); it ranges from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe) in neonates.

sartorial -- of or relating to tailoring, clothes, or style of dress.

satellite -- celestial body that orbits a planet; a moon; object designed to orbit a planet.

satiation -- situation in which a stimulus no longer stimulates because of repeated exposure.  

satiety -- the state of being satisfied; surfeit.

satire -- a literary  work that uses humor to highlight a human or societal failing with the intention of inspiring improvement.

Saturated fatty acid (SFA) -- in this context, a type of fatty acid in the diet that has been linked to heart disease less frequently than unsaturated fatty acids.  

Saturday -- the 7th day of the week; named for Saturn and associated with the Greek god Kronou and the Roman God Saturni. These were gods of the harvest. Saturday correlated with
the color violet, the spleen in the body, and the metal lead (plumbum), with the chemical symbol

Saturn -- the sixth planet in our solar system from the sun; second largest (largest is Jupiter); named for the Roman god Saturn; gas giant with a radius 9 times that of earth; core likely of
iron, nickel, and rock, surrounded by metallic hydrogen, then liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, and outer gaseous layer; has a ring system consisting of 9 continuous main rings; 62 known
moons (over 200 observed): Titan, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Mimas, Enceladus, Methone, Pallene, Polyceuces, Daphnis, Anthe, Aegaeon, Iapetus, Telesto, Calypso, Helene, Hyperion, Pan,
Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Ijiraq, Kiviuq, Paaliaq, Siarnaq, Tarqeq, Albiorix, Bebhionn, Erriapus, Tarvos, Aegir, Bergelmir, Bestla, Farbauti, Fenrir, Fornjot, Greip, Hati,
Hyrrokkin, Jarnsaxa, Kari, Loge, Mundilfari, Narvi, Phoebe, Skathi, Skoll, Surtur, Suttungr, Thrymr, Ymir, Albiorix, Bebhionn, and lots more (some listed are Trojan moons, meaning that they
orbit one of Saturn's moons); distance from Saturn to the sun is over 1.4 billion kilometers; takes 10,759 earth days for Saturn to orbit once around the sun; Saturn has been known since
prehistoric times.

saucy -- impudent, flippant, bold and lively, smart-looking.

savants -- Individuals who are unusually knowledgeable about one particular subject but are lacking in other areas of cognitive skill.  

saver -- a person whose money-handling style is characterized by compulsive saving, often to the point of having little money free for the essentials.

Sb -- atomic number 51, symbol for antimony.

scabies -- a contagious skin disease caused by a species of mite. Symptoms are itching, rashes, sores, and thin pencil like lines on the skin. It is treated with prescription medicated creams.

scaffolding -- A Vygotskian concept referring to the assistance rendered to the learner by adults or peers, which allows the person to function independently; providing, then gradually
removing, external supports for learning. For example, gradually lessening teaching-directed support over a teaching session to allow child-directed performance. This term is always credited
Vygotsky, but was not coined by him, but by some poor nameless schmuck, unknown.

scala media -- a fluid-filled cavity within the cochlea of the ear.

scald -- to rinse with boiling water.

scales -- things that cover fish; do re mi fa so la ti do; things that say how much you weigh.

scandium -- atomic number 21, symbol Sc; a rare, light-weight silvery-white metallic element found in various rare minerals and separated as a by
product in the processing of certain uranium ores; used as a tracer in studies of oil wells and pipelines; discovered by
Lars Nilson in 1879; name is for

scapegoating -- the blaming of one particular family member for nearly everything that goes wrong in that family.

scapula -- the shoulder blade, the familiar flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder. (See picture.)

scaramouch (SKAIR-uh-moosh) --
a stock character in the Italian commedia dell'arte that burlesques the Spanish don and is
characterized by boastfulness and cowardliness; a cowardly buffoon; rascal; scamp; "Scaramouch, scaramouch, will you do the fandango?
Thunderbolt and lightning very very frightening me! Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo Galileo figaro ... Magnifico ... But I'm but a poor boy and
nobody loves me. He's just a poor boy from a poor family. Spare him his life from this monstrosity  ..." (
Freddie Mercury). See picture.

scarlet --
a bright-red color.

scarlet fever -- a strep infection that manifests with a fever, sore throat, and a rash. The rash has been described as "sandpapery". The
rash can last for more than a week. As it fades, peeling may occur. Other symptoms are abdominal pain, bright red color in the creases of
the underarm and groin, chills, general
malaise, headache, muscle ache, swollen red tongue, and vomiting. It can be treated with

scarlet pimpernel -- a European pimpernel naturalized in North America and having scarlet, white, or purplish flowers that close in cloudy weather; a person who rescues others from mortal
danger by smuggling them across a border.

scatophobia -- fear of excrement.

scelerophobia -- fear of bad men.

scepter -- a rod or wand, usually adorned in regalia.

schadenfreude -- pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others.

schedule of reinforcement (or punishment) -- the timing of patterns of stimuli following operant behaviors.

schefflera -- a type of shrubby, tropical plant which is cultivated for its showy foliage.

Scheie syndrome -- see MPS I or Hurler syndrome (or Hurler-Scheie syndrome) or mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS); a cause of deaf-blindness.

schema --
symbol in art that is repeated over and over representing a real object; patterns of behavior into which experiences are assimilated and coordinated -- ways of thinking and

schematic -- stage in which symbolic representations go through modifications as child develops cognitively.  

schematic consistency -- the tendency of children's behavior and thinking to match their schemas.  

schemes (schemas) -- cognitive guides, or blueprints, for processing information about the world; Piaget.  

schizencephaly -- a severely malformed brain with clefts formed because of a neuronal migrational defect during early embryogenesis.  

schizophrenia -- a psychiatric disorder with characteristic psychotic symptoms (i.e., prominent delusions, hallucinations, catatonic behavior, and/or flat affect).
(See picture of the beauteous Russell Crowe.)

schmuck --
a common perjorative of Yiddish origin.

school administrator -- principals, assistant principals, directors, superintendents, etc. As team members, these people work with the team to
ensure that resources are used appropriately; and is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the teams' decisions are implemented properly.
Also the money people.

school counselor -- professional who works with all students, including those with disabilities, to solve problems related to the social or
affective domains.
(See photograph.)

school nurse --
professional responsible for all students in a school, including those with disabilities, who conducts vision and hearing screenings, ensures all
immunization records are on file, provides routine assistance for ill students, manages the distribution of medications students may take, and contributes information
to other professionals about students' medical conditions.
(See picture.)

school phobia --
an extreme fear associated with school environments.

school psychologist -- professional licensed to administer intelligence tests and other assessments that are used to determine whether a student is eligible to receive special
education services; also communicates this information to parents and assists teacher in addressing social and behavioral problems. As a team member, this person selects, administers,
and interprets appropriate psychological, educational, and behavioral assessment instruments; consults directly with team members concerning the student's overall educational
development; directly observes the student's performance in the classroom; and assists in the design of appropriate behavioral management programs in the school and home.

school readiness --
ability to cope physically, socially, emotionally, and academically with a school environment.

school social worker -- professional who coordinates the efforts of educators, families, and outside agency personnel to
ensure that students receive all the support they need.
(See photograph.)

schoolwide assistance teams (SWATS) --
groups of professionals, students, and/or parents working together to solve
problems, develop instructional  strategies, and support classroom teachers.

schoolwide enrichment model -- promotes challenging, high-end learning across a range of school types, levels, and demographic differences by creating services that can be integrated
across the curriculum to assist all students, not just students who are gifted.

schtick -- a little, piece; small indefinite amount or quantity; a contrived and often used bit of business that a performer uses to steal attention; incidental activity performed by an actor for
dramatic effect; a prank or piece of clowning; a cunning or deceitful action or device.

scialytic -- dispersing or dismissing shadows, typically with light, often of a lamp.

science -- the activity of finding order in nature.

science/discovery area -- An activity area in an early childhood classroom, which may include live plants, live animals, objects found in nature, and other scientific equipment.

scientific concepts -- concepts mastered through instruction. Once these concepts are acquired, children are consciously aware of what they know and can articulate their understanding
with verbal definitions.

scilicet -- to wit; that is; namely.

scintilla -- an infinitesimal item or mote; tiny thing.

scintillate -- to emit sparks; spark; to emit quick flashes as if throwing off sparks; sparkle; scintillating; very clever, amusing, and interesting.

scion -- an heir or descendant; a twig or shoot used for grafting, of a tree, shrub, or plant.

sciophobia, sciaphobia -- fear of shadows.

scissoring -- a common gait disturbance of cerebral palsy which results from increased tone in the muscles on the inner aspect of the thigh that tend to pull the legs together and turn the
legs inward, causing the child's legs to resemble the movement of scissors.

scissoring skills -- a developmental skill, made up of a sequence of skills, beginning as early as age two, in a child's first attempt at tearing.

sclera -- the white, outer layer of the eyeball (see picture).

sclerocornea --
a congenital anomaly in which all or part of the cornea is opaque and resembles the sclera.

scleroderma -- a widespread connective tissue disease that involves changes in the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs. Symptoms include blanching,
blueness, or redness of fingers and toes in response to heat and cold; hair loss; skin hardness; abnormally dark or light skin; skin thickening; shiny hands and
forearm; small white lumps beneath the skin; tight and mask-like facial skin; ulcerations on fingertips or toes; joint pain; numbness and pain in the feet; pain, stiffness,
and swelling of fingers and joints; wrist pain; dry cough; shortness of breath; constipation; diarrhea; difficulty swallowing;
esophageal reflux; weight loss; eye burning,
itching, and discharge. Cause is unknown.

sclerosis -- pathological hardening of tissue especially from overgrowth of fibrous tissue or increase in interstitial tissue.

sclerotic -- being or related to the sclera; of, relating to, or affected with sclerosis.

scoleciphobia -- fear of worms.

scoliosis -- lateral curvature of the spine (see illustration); cause unknown or multifactorial.

scopophobia, scoptophobia -- fear of being stared at.

scoring rubric -- a fixed scale and a list of characteristics describing performance for each of the points on the scale. Usually one level of the rubric is considered the
acceptable level of performance.

Scorpius -- one of the constellations of the zodiac; name is Latin for scorpion; lies between Libra and Sagittarius; Antares (star) part of the
constellation; 14 of the stars have planets.
See picture.

scotophobia --
fear of darkness.

scow -- a large flat bottom boat with square ends.

screening -- The identification of developmental problems or the potential for such problems; a procedure in which children are examined or tested
to identify children with high-risks, who are then referred for more intensive
assessment; brief, relatively inexpensive standardized procedures
designed to quickly appraise a large number of children to find out which ones should be referred for further
assessment. Part 1 of the 3-part assessment process: screening, eligibility,
program planning

screen memories -- Freud: memory fragments that cover a child's earliest and forgotten sexual fantasies.

scribble stage -- the first stage in the development of art beginning with a child's first scribbles, usually at about one and one-half to two years.

scribbling -- experiments with drawing media, can be uncontrolled or controlled (doodling). (See picture.)

scriptitation --
a 17th century word meaning continual writing.

scripts -- general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation. A basic means through which children organize and interpret repeated events.

scrofungulus -- a contagious disease among wizards caused by an unknown magical bug. (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling)

scrotum -- the pouch or sac of skin behind the penis that holds the testes, the two male gonads.

scullery -- a small room adjoining a kitchen, in which dishwashing and other kitchen chores are done.

scythe -- agricultural implement with a long, curving blade fastened to a long handle.

SDH -- see subdural hemorrhage.

seaborgium -- atomic number 106, symbol Sg; formerly called unnilhexium (Unh); an artificially produced, transuranic, radioactive element; produced by bombarding californium with
oxygen ions or bombarding lead with chromium ions; most long-lived isotopes ave half lives of less than 20 seconds; discovered by
Albert Ghiorso in 1974; named for Glenn T. Seaborg,
who discovered many of the transuranium elements.

sea change -- a marked change; transformation.

seamless delivery system -- early intervention that is provided without disruption for children from birth to age 6.

seas -- a large body of saline water that may be connected to the ocean or may be a large saline lake that has no natural outlet; there are lots and lots of seas, for example, the Adriatic Sea,
Mediterranean Sea, Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Sargasso Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Bering Sea, Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, and lots and lots more.

seasonal asthma -- can be triggered by trees, grasses, or flowers that release pollen into the atmosphere or by a particular climate.

sebaceous glands -- microscopic glands in the skin which excrete sebum.

seborrheic dermatitis -- dandruff.

sebum -- an oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands that helps prevent skin and hair from drying out.

secondarily generalized seizure -- Seizures of this kind start as a partial seizure, starting in one limited area of the brain. But it quickly spreads throughout the brain. The generalized,
convulsive phase lasts no more than a few minutes.

secondary -- 1) occurring as a consequence of a primary disorder; 2) pertaining to the permanent teeth.

secondary circular reactions -- repetitive actions focused on the qualities of objects, such as the noises they make or their shapes and colors; Piaget.

secondary disabilities -- Developmental problems that may result from a primary disability, which increases delay.

secondary elaboration -- Freud: the dreamer's tendency to fill in gaps in the dream and explain its mysteries in order to understand it better. This usually leads to significant
misunderstandings of the dream's true latent content.

secondary infertility -- the difficulties some couples face when they try to have additional children.

secondary prevention -- Refers to the prevention of conditions that may be disabling at a later date -- early intervention services are provided before the conditions worsen or before
other areas of development are affected.

secondary process -- Freud: the ego's reality-testing and energy-binding capability. In other words, thinking and reasoning. See primary process.

secondary process thinking -- thinking that is associated with cognitive processes and is goal oriented and intentional.

secondary reinforcers -- Sometimes called a conditioned reinforcer because it has been paired with a primary reinforcer to
acquire reinforcing value (e./g., stickers, tokens, and praise).

secondary sexual characteristics -- features that are outward manifestations of sexual development but are not directly involved in
reproduction, such as breasts, facial and body hair, and an adult body shape.
(See illustration.)

secondary social supports --
formal sources of support, such as health care providers, educators, and therapists, that are usually
more temporary than primary social supports.

secondhand smoke -- smoke that is released into the air by someone smoking.

second level of inclusion -- this level in the inclusion spectrum is the second most inclusive. Fewer children are in this level than
level one. In this level, the child spends his/her entire day in
general education but the special education teacher acts in a
consulting role to provide assistance to the
general education teacher.

second shift -- the housework and child care that employed women do after returning home from their jobs.

second-parent adoption -- also known as co-parent adoption, situation in which the gay or lesbian partner of a biological or adoptive parent is given full legal status as the child's second

secretin -- hormone produced in the duodenum that stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

secretory glands (exocrine gland) -- gland that discharges secretions, usually through a tube or a duct, onto a surface. Examples are sweat glands (sweat onto the skin), digestive
glands (digestive juices onto walls of intestines) or endocrine glands that release hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 -- Federal civil rights law protecting individuals with functional disabilities. Provides protection for some students not eligible for services
IDEA. This kind of funding is for children who are affected by a disorder included in other health impairments, but whose educational performance is not generally affected by the

secular -- worldly or temporal; not related to any religious order or congregation; not ecclesiastical or clerical; not bound by monastic vows or rules.

secular trends in physical growth -- changes in body size from one generation to the next.

secure attachment -- the quality of attachment characterizing infants who are distressed by parental separation but are easily comforted by the parent when she returns. Approximately
65% of babies assessed showed this type of
attachment. The baby prefers the parent as a secure base for exploring the room. Baby prefers parent over stranger. Baby may show distress
when separated from parent. Baby seeks proximity and contact with parent on reunion (in the
Strange Situation assessment tool).

secure autonomous attachment -- Adults have detailed and thoughtful memories of a loving childhood and good relationships with their parents. Autonomous adults speak about their
parents’ positive influence on their development. Their interview is coherent, collaborative.

secure base -- to a securely attached infant, the parent represents a secure presence from which the infant can explore their environment, with returns to the parent for touches, kisses, or
just checking.

sedentary -- unusually slow or sluggish; a life-style that implies a general lack of physical activity.

segmentation -- dividing into sections or units or segments; saying each individual sound in a spoken word, which helps children acquire the alphabetical principle. It is a necessary step
toward understanding how the sounds in the words map onto, or correspond to, the letters of the alphabet.

segmented intestinal atresia -- segmented – a component, portion, or part of a structure; atresia – the absence of a normal body opening, duct, or canal; this means a segment of
blocked intestine.

Seeing Essential English, Signing Exact English (SEE2) -- a sign system used in the US that borrows sign from ASL and then adds signs that correspond to English morphemes.

segregated classes -- classes used exclusively for students who have special needs.

segregation -- isolation of an ethnic group within the dominant culture.

seisen -- the possession of lands or chattels; the possession of a freehold estate in land by one having title thereto.

seizure -- Neurological condition in which damage to the brain leads to sudden, uncontrollable bursts of electrical activity that may be seen as seizures; epilepsy; a spontaneous,
abnormal discharge of the electrical impulses of the brain. There are many kinds of seizures, but there are two main categories:
partial and generalized.

seizure disorder -- sudden alteration of consciousness resulting in involuntary motor or sensory responses caused by abnormal brain activity. Also called epilepsy.

seizures with primarily altered consciousness -- seizures that affect large areas of the brain and may manifest in limited activity (absence seizures) or extreme motor behaviors (tonic-
clonic seizures).

seizure threshold -- tolerance level of brain for electrical activity. If level of tolerance is exceeded, a seizure occurs.  

selaphobia --
fear of flashes.

selcouth -- unusual; rare, unique, or strange.

selective attention -- attending that often does not focus on centrally important tasks or information.  

selective listening --
focusing only on one sound in an environment, such as the teacher's voice.  

selective method --
the recording instrument dictates what is to be observed.  

selective mutism -- A persistent refusal to talk in typical school, social, or work environments. This disorder is really quite rare, occurring less than 1% of the time in psychiatric referrals, but
it may significantly affect the child's social and educational functioning. This disorder is most commonly found in children, characterized by a persistent failure to speak in select settings, which
continues for more than 1 month. These children understand spoken language and have the ability to speak normally. In typical cases, they speak to their parents and a few selected others.
Sometimes, they do not speak to certain individuals in the home. Most are unable to speak at school, and in other major social situations. Generally, most function normally in other ways,
although some may have additional disabilities. Most learn age-appropriate skills and academics. Currently, selective mutism, through published studies, appears to be related to severe
anxiety, shyness, and social anxiety. Selective mutism may be associated to a variety of things, but the exact cause is yet unknown.

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) -- a group of psychoactive drugs, an example being fluoxetine (Prozac) used to treat depression.

selenian -- designating, relating to, pertaining to, or of the moon.

selenium -- atomic number 34, symbol Se; a red powder or black vitreous or gray crystal, nonmetallic element; resembles sulfur; used in rectifiers, as a semiconductor, xerography,
photography, solar cells; occurs freely in volcanic areas and in sulphide ores; discovered by
John Berzelius in 1817; from the Greek word for moon.

selenophobia -- fear of the moon.

self-abuse -- form of self stimulation including hitting, pinching, scratching, or biting one's self.  

self-actualization -- the set of principles set forth by Abraham Maslow for a person's wellness or ability to be the most
that a person can be; the state of being that results from having met all the basic and growth needs.
(See 2 illustrations.)

self-advocacy --
extent to which a student can identify supports needed to succeed and communicate that information
effectively to others, including teachers and employers.

self-analysis -- Freud: Freud conducted a long analysis of himself during the time he formulated the first psychoanalytic
concepts. He believed much could be learned by analyzing oneself, but that being analyzed by someone else was
necessary due to the many resistances and blind spots that occur in the course of self-observation. Asked about the
number of analytic pioneers who had not been analyzed, he replied that they definitely weren't the better for it.

self archetype -- Jung: the ultimate unity of the personality and this is symbolized by the circle, the cross, and the
mandala figures.

self-awareness -- an awareness of one's own personality or individuality; in teaching terms, an ability to understand
one's self and assess personal strengths and weaknesses.

self-care -- a current description for latchkey children; ability to eat, toilet, dress, keep clean, and keep safe; children
who look after themselves during after-school hours.

self-care skills -- ability to take care of one's basic needs including using the toilet, bathing, dressing, and eating.

self-concept -- a person's view and opinion of self; in young children, the concept of self develops as they interact with
the environment (objects, people, etc.); self-concept can be inferred in how children carry themselves, approach situations,
use expressive materials such as art, etc; the qualities one attributes to one's self, self-identity.

self-confidence -- a measure of how a person feels about himself or herself and the ability to control things in his or her

self-conscious emotions -- emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. Examples are shame,
embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride.

self-contained classroom -- a special classroom, usually located within a large educational setting, that provides
intensive, specialized instruction.

self-control -- the capacity to resist an impulse to engage in socially disapproved behavior.

self-correcting -- materials or experiences that are built or arranged so that the person using them can act automatically to correct errors, without needing another person to check or point
out mistakes.

self-defeating behavior -- knowingly doing things that will cause failure or trouble.

self-determination -- Rights of students with disabilities to make plans for their lives that reflect their wishes and those of their families, not just those of professionals; the ability of a person
to consider options and make appropriate choices.

self-directed speech -- mental activity that enables individuals to reflect on how they are doing, to problem solve, and to follow instructions; also called self-talk or private speech.

self-disclosure -- revealing to another person personal information or feelings that an individual could not otherwise learn.  

self-esteem -- the valuing of that knowledge based on self and social comparisons; the value we place on ourselves; how much we like or dislike who we are; self-respect.  

self-esteem needs --
Maslow: the fourth level of his hierarchy of needs. This level consists of lower and higher esteem needs. Lower esteem needs are needs for the respect of others,
status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, dignity, appreciation, dominance. The higher esteem needs are the needs for self-esteem, confidence, competence, achievement,
mastery, independence, and freedom.

self-fulfilling prophecy -- The idea that professionals and others create disabilities or learning problems in students who are not disabled by treating then as though they are disabled; an
expectation that individuals who are labeled will achieve at a predetermined level.

self-handicapping strategy -- process of intentionally interfering with one's own best performance.

self-help skills -- The ability to take care of one's own needs: self-feeding, toileting, dressing, and other socially prescribed routines.

self-image -- the evaluation of oneself based on the words of significant others.

self-initiated activities -- activities the child selects or creates.

self-instructional training -- a cognitive-behavioral intervention that teaches impulsive, not self-controlled, and inattentive children to talk to themselves through modeling and direct
instruction. Has not been effective in reducing
impulsivity and improving task accuracy.

self-monitoring strategies -- strategies that enable students to learn to collect data on their progress toward educational goals. They can do this through various formats, such as by
charting their progress on a sheet of graph paper or completing  a checklist.

self-regulation -- the term used to describe a child's capacity to plan and guide the self. A disposition or part of the personality (rather than a skill or behavior such as self-control), self-
regulation is a way of monitoring one's own activity flexibly over changing circumstances.

self regulation of affect, motivation, and arousal -- an executive function that refers to being less objective and more emotional in responding to events, understanding the effect of
one's behavior on others, and generating energy and enthusiasm to carry out behavior.

self-report -- a type of research in which the participants provide information about themselves through such means as questionnaires and interviews.

self-report data -- in research studies, verbal information provided by study participants.

self-revelation -- a second stage in the development of love in which the partners provide information about themselves.

self-stimulation -- repetitive behaviors that have no apparent purpose other than providing the person with some type of stimulation.

self-talk -- guiding one's own behavior by talking to one's self.

selenium -- a chemical element, atomic number 34 (Se), an atomic mass of 78.96. It is a nonmetal, chemically related to sulfur and tellurium, and rarely occurs in its elemental state in
nature. Dietary selenium comes from nuts, cereals, meat, fish, and eggs. It is an essential micronutrient for humans. It aids in
thyroid gland functioning. It may inhibit Hashimoto's disease.
It also plays a role in the
immune system and metabolism.   

semantic bootstrapping -- figuring out grammatical rules by relying on word meanings.

semantics -- the study of and conventions governing meaning of words.

semblance -- apparent form of something, especially when the reality is different.

semicircular canals -- three canals in the temporal bone that lie approximately at right angles to one another, containing receptors for
equilibrium, specifically for rotation. These canals are filled with fluid and are part of the vestibular system, along with the vestibule. (See

semi-independent apartment or home --
a model for providing housing for persons with disabilities who may require less supervision and

semi-open adoptions -- adoptions in which the biological and the adoptive parents exchange information such as photographs or letters,
but don't otherwise communicate.

semiotician -- one who studies, applies, or explains the theories of semiotics.

semordnilap -- spells "palindromes" backwards. It means a word that spells a different word backward such as stressed -- desserts; gateman -- nametag; was -- saw; lived -- devil, etc.

sempiternal -- eternal, endless, lasting forever, ceaseless.

senescence -- biological aging or the changes in an organism as it ages and matures; aging (noun). (senescent, adj.; senesce, verb).

senility -- the mental and physical deterioration associated with aging.

sensiblest -- most sensible (acting or exhibiting good sense).

sensitive caregiving -- care-giving involving prompt, consistent, and appropriate responding to infant signals.

sensitive or critical period -- A time in which a child is particularly responsive or able to master a new skill or learn a new thing.

sensitivity -- A screening instrument's ability to identify children who need additional assessment.

sensorimotor -- Piaget's term for the first major stage of cognitive development from birth to about 18 months; infant moves from reflexive
to voluntary behavior.

sensorineural hearing loss -- Permanent hearing loss that is caused by failure of or damage to the auditory fibers in the inner ear (cochlea)
and/or damage to the
neural system; hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or inner ear; sensorineural hearing loss occurs
due to a defect in the
inner ear or along the auditory nerve. It can also be caused by brain damage. Other causes are presbycusis (hearing
loss associated with ageing), noise exposure, acoustic
neuromas, drugs, mumps, measles, and Meniere's disease. Sensorineural hearing
loss is generally not curable, but can be treated (but not fixed) medically or surgically.
(See illustration.)

sensory --
having to do with the senses or sensation, as in an awareness of the world as it looks, sounds, feels, smells, and tastes.

sensory aphasia -- difficulty understanding language because of the inability to hear words correctly. Speech may be understandable, but utterances may be meaningless -- words strung
together seemingly at random. Speech may be fluent, but the words may be jargon. Also called
Wernicke's aphasia or fluent aphasia.

sensory area -- portion of the classroom where students use their senses to learn (e.g., sensory table or science center).

sensory deficit -- A loss in one or more of the five senses -- sight, hearing, taste, smell, or touch.  

sensory delays --
see sensory impairments.

sensory development --
optimizes a student's ability to utilize the senses of residual sight and hearing, as well as the tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetic senses.  

sensory impairments --
Impairment that affects the ability to sense the environment through a specific sensory modality such as hearing or vision. A child with Down syndrome may have
refractive errors, strabismus, blepharitis, tear duct obstruction, cataracts, and ptosis.

sensory integration -- The process of more than one sense working together to understand a sensory message and to translate the message into appropriate action.

sensory integration skills -- the ability to process sensory information for functional use in all areas of daily activities.

sensory integration therapy (SI therapy) -- therapy that uses controlled sensory stimulation combined with a meaningful adaptive response to achieve changes in learning and behavior.
A common method used in
occupational therapy.

sensory neurons --  nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.

sensory neuropathy -- see peripheral neuropathy.

sensory play -- This activity area often has a sensory table with cups, spoons, sponges, and shovels (to name a few) to play in such things as rice, beans, shaving cream, snow, dirt,
macaroni, clay, sand, water, etc.

sensory qualities -- aspects that appeal to sight, sound, taste, feel, and smell.

sensory register -- in information processing, that part of the mental system in which sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly before they decay or are transferred to
, or short-term memory.

sensory system -- Any one of several ways individual receive information or input from their environment.

sensory table -- table designed to allow children to use tactile and visual senses to learn.

sentences -- the largest independent units of grammar, beginning with a capital letter and ending with a period, question mark, or exclamation point; independent in thought or idea; has a
subject, predicate, verb.

sentient -- aware; characterized by the ability to feel or perceive; conscious.

separated -- identifying only with one's ethnic culture and rejecting the majority culture; when a couple moves to separate residences, may lead to divorce.

separation -- cessation of cohabitation; the state in which married partners no longer live together.

separation anxiety -- distress when a parent leaves an infant's presence, beginning at 8 or 9 months, and usually disappearing about 24 months.

separation anxiety disorder -- developmentally inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from those to whom the individual is attached, as evidenced by
three (or more) of the following: 1) recurrent excessive distress when separation from home or major
attachment figures occurs or is anticipated; 2) persistent and excessive worry about
losing, or about possible harm befalling, major attachment figures; 3) persistent and excessive worry that an untoward event will lead to separation from a major
attachment figure (e.g.,
getting lost or being kidnapped); 4)persistent reluctance or refusal to go to school or elsewhere because of fear of separation; 5) persistently and excessively fearful or reluctant to be alone
or without major
attachment figures at home or without significant adults in other settings; 6) persistence reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure or
to sleep away from home; 7) repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation; and 8) repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, stomachaches, nausea, or
vomiting) when separation from major
attachment figures occurs or is anticipated. This must last for at least 4 weeks, and begin before age 18.

separation distress -- term given to the psychological state following separation, which may feature feelings of depression, loss, and anxiety, as well as intense loneliness.

separation process -- the act and procedure that occur when parents leave a child at school.

separation protest -- Displeasure the infant displays between eight and twelve months (approximately) when mother or caregiver leaves.

sepia -- a dark brown ink or pigment; a dark grayish yellow brown to dark or moderate olive brown.

sepsis -- infection that has spread throughout the bloodstream and can be life threatening; also called blood poisoning.

septic arthritis -- infectious arthritis.  

septicemia --
presence of bacteria in the blood; associated with severe disease.  

septophobia --
fear of decaying matter.

septum -- a thin partition or membrane between two body cavities or soft masses of tissues.

sequacious -- pertaining to sequence or order; following.

sequence -- succession; an arrangement, either a related or continuous series.

sequential component (or stage component) -- the component of a theory that addresses the pattern of progression of an organism through different and increasingly adaptive
developmental stages.

sequential learning --
learning based on a method of consecutive steps; an arrangement of concepts or ideas in a succession of related steps so that what is learned results in continuous

sequential modification -- if desired changes in behavior are not observed to occur across settings and behaviors, concrete steps are taken to introduce the effective intervention (e.g.,
positive reinforcement) to each of the behaviors or settings to which transfer of effects is inadequate.

sequester -- to relegate to a small space; to cause to withdraw into seclusion.

seraglio -- harem, harem house, brothel; living quarters thereof.

seraphim -- six-winged angels.
serenade -- courtesy performance given to honor or express love for someone; to serenade.

serendipity -- occurrence and progress of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way.

serenity -- calmness, tranquility, relaxation.

serial marriage -- also called serial monogamy, participation in a sequence of marital partnerships, one at a time.

serial monogamy -- see serial marriage.  

seriation --
the ability to order objects by some standard rule, height, weight, shade, tone, etc; see ordering. (See picture.)  

seriously emotionally disturbed --
classification of US Department of Education referring to social emotional disabilities.

serotonin -- a common neurotransmitter, most responsible for inducing relaxation and regulating mood and sleep. Antidepressants like Prozac usually suppress the absorption of
serotonin, making it more active.

serotonin reuptake inhibitors -- a groups of psychoactive drugs, an example being fluoxetine (Prozac) used to treat depression.

serrated -- saw-toothed or notched.

serum -- plasma minus its clotting proteins. (See picture.)

serum creatine kinase --
creatine kinase is an enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and
phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine. THAT in the serum?

service animals -- animals (dogs, monkeys, guide dogs) trained to serve the individual needs of people with disabilities; also known as assistance

service coordinator -- An interdisciplinary team member responsible for integrating services and keeping the family informed and involved; person who organizes, coordinates, and
sustains a network of formal and informal support and activities to maximize the functioning of people with special needs.

service delivery model -- A formal plan devised by the various agencies involved in providing services to a given child and family.

service learning -- a method for students to develop newly acquired skills by active participation and structured reflection in organized opportunities to meet community needs.

service manager -- see service coordinator.

service plan --
a plan for intervention services that will be provided for a child.

SES -- see socioeconomic status.

sesquipedalian --
having many syllables; long-winded with words; given to or typified by the use of long words.

sestina -- poem of six six-line stanzas and a three-line envoy.

setting event -- a stimulus event accompanied by a certain response.

seventh level of inclusion -- in the inclusion spectrum, this is the least inclusive one. In fact, this level is not considered inclusive. The fewest children with disabilities are in this level
than the other six. In this level, a child with a disability is educated through homebound or hospital instruction programs.

severe and multiple disabilities -- a cross-classification of disabilities that involves significant physical, sensory, intellectual, and/or social-interpersonal performance differences. The need
for extensive services and supports is evident in all environmental settings.

severed binuclear family -- divorced spouses who have a conflict-ridden relationship and a low level of interaction.

severe disabilities -- refers to children with disabilities, who, because of the intensity of their physical, mental, or emotional problems, need highly specialized education, social,
psychological, and medical services in order to maximize their full potential for useful and meaningful participation in society and for self-fulfillment.

severe emotional disturbance -- an original category of disability listed in PL 94-142. It was changed to emotional impairment or emotional disabilities (or emotional disturbance).

severe head or brain injuries -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

severe hearing loss --
severity of hearing loss: 50 to 70 dB; as with moderate hearing loss -- some conversational speech may be understood; hearing aids, classroom amplification,
academic supports, speech language therapy, tutoring, etc. are essential for educational progression.

severe intellectual disability -- generally considered to be between 25 and 35 IQ. Only 4% of individuals who are diagnosed with intellectual disability are considered severely mentally
retarded. A more respectful term than mental retardation is intellectual disability.       

sex -- being biologically male or female; sexual activity or behavior.

sex chromosomes -- the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which determines the gender of the child -- in females, XX; in males XY. (See picture of XY, a boy.)

sexism --
unjust discrimination based on a person's sex or the belief that only one sex is innately superior to the other.

sexist -- attitudes or behavior based on the traditional stereotype of sexual roles that includes a devaluation or discrimination based on a person's gender.

sex-linked gene -- a gene carried on one of the two X chromosomes in a female, which, if inherited by a daughter, results in an asymptomatic carrier state like her mother; if inherited by a
son, results in a medical condition not present in other family members.

sex-linked genetic disorder -- A disorder caused by a gene carried on one of the two X chromosomes in a female, which, if inherited by a daughter, results in an asymptomatic carrier
state like her mother (unless she also inherits it from her father); if inherited by a son, results in a medical condition not present in other family members.

sex-linked trait -- see X-linked trait.

sexophobia -- fear of the opposite sex.

sex ratio -- the relationship between the number of men and the number of women of a given age.  

sex role --
the behavior defined by biological restraints.  

sex-role identity --
socialized preference of behavior identified with one gender or the other.  

sex (or gender) segregation --
see gender segregation.

sex-role stereotyping -- a standardized mental picture or set of attitudes that represents an oversimplified opinion of people's abilities or behavior according to the sex; overgeneralizing a
person's skills or behavior on the bases of an inadequate standard of sex differences.

sexual abuse (child) -- A form of child maltreatment in which developmentally immature individuals unwillingly engage in sexual activities, which they do not fully comprehend or unable to
give informed consent.
Sexual abuse also includes sexual exploitation. Vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse; vaginal or anal penetrations; and other forms of inappropriate touching or
exhibitionism for sexual gratification.
Tennessee definition: "includes penetration or external touching of a child's intimate parts, oral sex with a child, indecent exposure or any other sexual
act performed in a child's presence for sexual gratification, sexual use of a child for prostitution, and the manufacturing of child pornography.
Child sexual abuse is also the  willful failure of
the child's caretaker to make a reasonable effort to stop child
sexual abuse by another person."

sexual abuse (intimate) -- threatening to harm your reputation; putting you down; getting back at you by refusing to have sex; treating you as a sex object; forcing you to look at
pornography; lack of intimacy; sleeping around; being rough; forcing certain positions; hounding you for sex; forcing you to have sex (rape); abusing children. Sexual abuse is not limited to
the behaviors listed here.

sexual assault -- legal term for rape.

sexual harassment --
the abuse of one's position of authority to force unwanted sexual attention on another person.

sexual identity -- the belief that a person has as to his or her own masculinity or femininity.

sexuality -- the set of beliefs, values, and behaviors by which one defines one's self as a sexual being. Freud: obtaining physical pleasure. A much wider notion than reproduction and one
that extends over the entire lifespan. It was apparently
Wilhelm Fleiss, an intelligent crank who became Freud's closest friend, who got him thinking about childhood sexuality. See eros.

sexually transmitted disease (STD) -- any of several highly contagious diseases that might be passed from one individual to another during sexual contact.  The major STDs are HIV
infection (which can lead to AIDS), chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes (HSV), human papilloma virus (HPV), viral hepatitis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis
(see cartoon).

sexual orientation --
a person's self-identification as a heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. (See picture.)

sexual reproduction --
male and female genes mix to produce offspring which inherit half their genes from each parent. (See

sexual revolution --
long-term changes in a culture's dominant sexual attitudes and behaviors.

sexual violence -- a sex act completed against a victim's will or when a victim is unable to consent due to age, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or
other drugs. It may involve actual or threatened physical force, use of guns or other weapons, coercion, intimidation or  pressure. Sexual violence also includes
intentional touching of the genitals, anus, groin, or breast  against a victim's will or when a victim is unable to consent; as well as voyeurism, exposure to exhibitionism, or undesired exposure
to pornography. The perpetrator of sexual violence may be a stranger, friend, family member, or intimate partner.

sforzando -- direction in music: suddenly or strongly accented.

sfumato -- definition or form without hasty outline by mind gradation from light to shadow.

shadow -- a shade within clear boundaries, produced by obscuration of light.

shadow archetype -- Jung: sex and life instincts. Derives from our pre-human, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-
conscious. This is the "dark side" of the ego, and the evil that we are capable of is often stored there. Symbols of the shadow archetype include the snake (as in the Garden of Eden), the
dragon, monsters, and demons. The shadow archetype often guards the entrance to a cave or pool of water, which symbolizes the
collective unconscious.

shadowing -- technique in which the instructor keeps his or her hands within an inch of the child's hands as the child proceeds to complete the task.  

shadow study -- a modified child study technique that profiles an individual at a given moment in time; similar to diary description, the shadow study is a narrative recorded as the behavior

shaggy-dog -- a long drawn-out circumstantial story concerning an inconsequential happening that is humorous to the teller but boring to the hearer; of, relating to, or being a similar
humorous story whose humor lies in the pointlessness or irrelevance of the punch line.

Shaken Baby Syndrome -- a type of brain injury in a child that results from the child being vigorously shaken; causes head trauma, internal bleeding, and sometimes death. Never, never,
never, never, never, never, never, never, ever shake a baby;

shallow -- lacking physical depth; lacking depth of intellect, emotion, or knowledge.

shaman -- a spiritual leader, most notably among Siberian, Central Asian, and Native American peoples, who is able to heal the sick and communicate with the world beyond. Among Native
Americans, a shaman is also called a
Medicine Man.

shape constancy -- perception of an object's shape as the same, despite changes in the shape
projected on the

shape poem -- see the wonderful illustrations from

shape-shifter -- a mythological creature that can change shape at will or in certain conditions.

shaping -- the process of rewarding behaviors that approximate the desired behavior.

shared accountability -- collaboration concept in which participants jointly accept the outcomes of
their decisions, positive or negative.  

shared decision making -- patient or proxy and physician participate together in committing to a treatment decision.  

shared resources -- collaboration concept in which each participant contributes something in order to foster shared ownership of the goal
that is the purpose of the collaboration.  

shared responsibility for key decisions -- collaboration concept in which participants jointly make critical decisions, but they often divide the labor for achieving them.  

shared writing -- an emergent literacy concept in which children dictate a story and the teacher writes it down. Then, the teacher reads the story back to the child and encourages the child
to read it aloud herself while it is fresh in her mind.

shawl scrotum -- a condition in which the scrotum surrounds the penis, resembling a "shawl". It is a characteristic of some syndromes such as Aarskog-Scott syndrome, Rubinstein-
Taybi syndrome, and others.

shebang -- a situation, organization, contrivance, or set of facts or things; everything (the whole shebang).

sheltered English -- an instructional approach that uses linguistic scaffolding to facilitate comprehension.

sheltered workshop -- a segregated vocational training and employment setting for people with disabilities.

shenanigans -- secret or dishonest activity or maneuvering; silly or high-spirited behavior; mischief.

sherbet balls -- also called Fizzing Whizzbees (HP, J.K. Rowling); large sherbet balls that will cause a person who sucks on them to float a few inches off the ground; dried Billywig stings
were part of the ingredients.

she suncheon -- baby Trayer speak for "cheese sandwich".

Shigella diarrhea -- an infection of the gastrointestinal tract due to a bacterium called shigella; causes bloody diarrhea and can be associated with
febrile seizures. (See picture -- shigella is bright pink.)

shilly-shally --
to show hesitation or lack of decisiveness or resolution.

shigellosis -- what that says right above. Symptoms are acute abdominal pain or cramping, acute fever, blood or mucus or pus in the stool, crampy
rectal pain, nausea and vomiting, and bloody diarrhea.

shimmer -- to shine with a subdued, flickering, or wavering light.

shimmy -- abnormal vibration or wobbling, as of the wheels of an automobile; a dance popular in the 1920s; a chemise.

shingles -- a painful, blistering skin rash due to varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chicken pox. Symptoms are one-sided pain, tingling, or burning. Red patches on the skin,
followed by small blisters, form in most people. The blisters break, forming small ulcers that begin to dry and form crusts that fall off in 2 to 3 weeks. The rash usually appears on a narrow
area from the spine around to the front of the belly or chest. It may also involve the face, eyes, mouth, and ears. Other symptoms are abdominal pain, chills, drooping eyelid, fever and chills,
malaise, genital lesions, headache, hearing loss, joint pain, loss of eye motion, swollen glands, taste problems, and vision problems. Shingles usually disappears on its own.

shivaree (shiv-uh-REE) -- a noisy mock serenade to a newly married couple.

shiver -- a tremble; to tremble, shudder, or shake.

shock -- when a child is born with a disability, parents sometimes go through several stages similar to grief. In this stage (shock), the parents feel a sense of intense disbelief, distinguished
variously by feelings of
anxiety, guilt, numbness, confusion, helplessness, anger, disbelief, denial, and despair. Also there may be feelings of detachment, bewilderment, or
bereavement. See grief.

short attention span -- an inability to focus one's attention on a task for more than a few seconds or minutes.

short gut (bowel) syndrome -- a condition in which the bowel is not as long as normal, either because of surgery or a congenital defect. Because the bowel has less surface area to
absorb nutrients, it can result in
malabsorption syndrome.

short-term memory -- the part of the information processing system that holds information long enough for the person to evaluate and selectively act on the input. Also called working

short-term objective -- descriptions of a step followed in order to achieve an annual goal on an IEP; sometimes called a benchmark.

shoulder blades -- see scapula.

shrivel --
to wither due to lack of moisture; to cause to contract; to cause to lose momentum.

shunt -- A tube implanted into the brain (cerebral ventricle) to allow proper circulation and drainage of fluids within the skull. It is
connected into the abdominal cavity. Used to treat
hydrocephalus. (See picture -- "Ventriculoperitoneal shunt...")

shyness --
hesitance in social situations, self-consciousness.

sibilant -- hissing; making a sound that resembles hissing.

sibling abuse -- physical violence between siblings; probably the most common form of abuse among children.

siblings -- offspring (brothers and sisters) of the same biological parents. When a child in the family has a disability, siblings may
feel responsibilities or fears, loneliness, anxiety, guilt, and envy. However, siblings are one of the best resources and supports for a
child with a disability. Parental attitudes affect sibling attitudes.

sibling rivalry -- Freud: based in what Freud, who'd been a Mama's boy, saw as the result of children's overriding egotism. See

sibyl -- prophetess; fortune-teller; female prognosticator.

sic -- intentionally so written.

Sickle cell anemia -- an inherited disease that has a profound effect on the structure and functioning of red blood cells. The red blood cells become sticky,
hard, and shaped like crescents or sickles, blocking the flow of blood. This can cause pain and damage to the system. The body destroys sickle red blood cells
quickly, but cannot make replacements quickly enough, which leads to
anemia (see illustration); autosomal recessive.

sidereal -- of, related, pertaining to, or determined by the stars of constellations.

sideroblastic anemia -- an X-linked disorder that prevents developing red blood cells (erythroblasts) from making enough hemoglobin, which is the  protein
that carries oxygen in the blood.  A person with this disorder appears pale; other symptoms are fatigue, dizziness, a rapid heartbeat, pale skin, enlarged liver and
spleen (
hepatosplenomegaly), eventual heart disease and liver damage (cirrhosis). The disorder leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. It
is caused by mutations on the ALAS2 gene on the X-chromosome;
X-linked recessive.

siderodromophobia -- fear of railroads.

siderophobia -- fear of stars.

side-sitting -- position in which the knees are bent and both legs are to one side.

sidle -- walk in a furtive or timid manner, especially obliquely or roundabout.

sienna -- yellowish brown; a type of clay.

sierra -- ridge of a mountain or mountains.

sigil -- a seal, signet, or glyph; sign or image considered magical.

sigmoid -- curved like the letter C; curved in two directions like the letter S; of, relating to, or being the sigmoid colon (part of the intestine).

sign -- a symbolic tool (such as a word or an image) used to influence the thinking and behavior of another person or the self. (See illustration.)

signed English --
translation of English into a form of manual communication; not ASL.

signed stimulus -- a stimulus that has a value to the organism that other stimuli do not have.

significant others -- people who are instrumental in the process through which we learn the meaning of symbols and appropriate ways to behave in our society, and develop a sense of our

signing -- a system of hand gestures used for communication; non-oral communication systems such as fingerspelling or ASL.

sign language -- a systematic and complex combination of hand movements that communicate whole words and complete thoughts rather than individual letters. An example is American
Sign Language (ASL). Also, signing into another's hands are used by people who are deaf-blind.

sign systems --
systems of communication that create visual equivalents of oral language through manual gestures. For example, fingerspelling incorporates all
26 letters of the English alphabet, and each letter is signed independently on one hand to form words.

sikh -- a member of the Sikh religious group which was formed in the 15th century from Hinduism and Islam in north India, in the Punjab region. (See picture.)

silence --
state or quality of soundlessness; lack of sound.

silent asthma -- asthma attacks with very little or no prior warning or wheezing. This kind of asthma is usually severe and can be life-threatening.

silent treatment -- a version of passive-aggression in which one either ignores one's partner or says things are all right while sending nonverbal signals that they
are not.

silhouette -- a picture as an outline, often a human profile, filled in by a solid color.

silicon -- atomic number 14, symbol Si; a brittle, grey, nonmetallic element occurring extensively in the earth's crust in silica and silicates, having both an amorphous and a crystalline
allotrope; used in glass, semiconducting devices, concrete, brick, refractories, pottery, and silicones; discovered by
Jons Berzelius in 1823; second most abundant element (after oxygen).

silly season -- a period (as late summer) when the mass media often focus on trivial or frivolous matters for lack of major news stories; a period marked by frivolous, outlandish, or illogically
activity or behavior.

silkscreen -- stencil method of printing, in which a design is put on silk or other fine mesh.

silver -- shimmering gray color; a type of metal; atomic number 47, symbol Ag; a lustrous white, ductile, malleable metallic element, occurring in ores such as argentite; used in coins,
photography, jewelry, tableware, dental and soldering alloys, electrical outlets; a commodity or medium of exchange; has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal; known to
the ancients; name from the Old English Word seolfor and the symbol from the Latin word argentum; a kind of salmon (also called

Silver-Russell syndrome -- see Russell-Silver syndrome.

Simian crease -- A single transverse crease on the palm of one or both hands (instead of the typical 2  creases). The term is considered passé and
disrespectful. The more appropriate term is
single palmar crease. (See illustration.)

simile --
comparisons using the words "as" or "like." An example is: "His feet were as big as boats."

simple absence seizures -- seizures in which the person just stares, lasting less that 10 seconds, usually, but can be as long as 20.
They begin and end suddenly. During the seizure, awareness and responsiveness are impaired.

simple partial seizures -- Seizures characterized by alertness and lack of memory loss. The person may get a feeling of déjà vu, may have stomach discomfort, may feel anxious or smell
odd odors. Doctors often divide simple partial seizures into categories depending on the symptom. Motor seizures cause a change in muscle activities. Sensory seizures can cause a change
in any one of the senses: hear clicking or ringing (etc.), taste things that aren't there, feel a sensation of numbness, feel pain, feel as if they are floating or spinning, may have
hallucinations, or may have illusions. Autonomic seizures cause changes in the part of the nervous system that automatically controls bodily functions, and may cause strange or
unpleasant feelings in the stomach, chest, head, heart rate, breathing rate, sweating, or goose bumps.
Psychic seizures change how people think, feel, or experience things. They may
have memory problems, garbled speech, inability to find the right word, trouble understanding spoken or written language. They may feel fear, depression, or happiness with no reason. They
may feel
déjà vu, ("this has happened before") or jamais vu ("this is new to me, though familiar").

simple stepfamily -- a stepfamily that includes children from only one parent.

simpleton -- a person who is felt to be deficient in judgment, good sense, or intelligence: a fool.

simplicity -- a theory's parsimony, or lack of complexity; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured.

simulacrum -- an image or representation; false, unreal, or vague simulation or semblance.

simultaneous/successive acquisition -- the two major ways second-language learning occurs. Simultaneous acquisition occurs if a child is exposed to two languages from birth.
Successive acquisition occurs as a child with one language begins to learn another language.

sinecure -- an easy occupation or one which requires almost no responsibility.

single -- among heterosexuals, the never-married, the widowed, or the divorced. (See a single man in "looking" pose.)

singlehood --
the state of being unmarried, divorced, or unattached to another person.

single nucelotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -- DNA sequence variations.

single-parent family -- family structure in which children live only with their mother or with their father. (See single-father family.)

single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) --
an imaging technique that permits the study of the metabolism of a body organ, most commonly the brain.

single remarriages -- marriages in which only one of the partners was previously married.

single service model -- professionals who work predominantly in isolation.

singultus -- a rarely used word for a hiccup.

sinistrophobia -- fear of left (things to the left).

sinophobia -- fear of China (or Chinese).

sinus -- air cavities in the cranial bones, especially those near the nose and connecting to it; a sack or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the
destruction of tissue; a chronically infected tract such as a passage between an
abscess and the skin.

sinusitis -- an inflammation of the sinuses that occurs with a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection. Symptoms are bad breath, loss of smell, cough, fatigue, not feeling well, fever,
headache, nasal congestion and discharge, and sore throat.

siphon -- to suck through; to absorb through an appendage.

siren -- an enchantress (a dangerous bird-woman) who lured sailors with enchanting music and voices to shipwreck on the rocky coast of her island. A group of sirens is a wail. A siren baby
is a beep.

Sirenian -- any of an order (Sirenia) of aquatic herbivorous mammals (as a manatee, dugong, or Stellar's sea cow) that have large forelimbs resembling paddles, no hind limbs, and a
flattened tail resembling a fin.

sirenomelia -- congenital anomaly in which there is complete fusion of the lower extremities and no feet. (See illustration.)

Sirius --
the brightest star in the night sky; a part of the constellation Canus Major; binary
star: white main sequence and white dwarf; 8.6 light years from earth; gradually moving
toward our Solar System, so it will increase in brightness over the next 60,000 years; twice as
massive as our sun;
see chart showing the placement of Sirius in the night sky.

sirocco --
hot, humid south or southeast wind of southern Italy.

sisyphean -- of, relating to, or suggestive of the labors of Sisyphus; specifically, requiring
continual and often ineffective effort.

"Sit and watch" -- a mild form of time-out in which the teacher asks the misbehaving child
to sit at the edge of an activity for a minute or two to observe the appropriate play of peers.

SI therapy -- see sensory integration therapy.

sitophobia, sitiophobia --
fear of food.

sittella -- a small, gregarious songbird.

six stations (processes) of divorce -- According to Paul Bohannon's psychological model: emotional, legal, economic, co-parental, community, and psychic.

sixth level of inclusion -- in the inclusion spectrum, this is the sixth most inclusive, but this is not considered inclusive. Fewer children are in this level than the previous 5 levels of
inclusion. In this level, the child is placed in a school for children with disabilities.

size constancy -- perception of an object's size as the same, despite changes in the size of its retinal image.

Sjögren’s Syndrome -- a chronic autoimmune disease. Symptoms are dry eyes, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, heartburn, recurrent bronchitis, pneumonia, arthritis, muscle pain, abnormal
liver function, vaginal dryness, painful intercourse, peripheral neuropathy, stomach upset, gastroparesis, pancreatitis, dry skin, dental decay, mouth sores, dry nose, recurrent sinusitis, nose
bleeds, concentration and memory loss. There is no known cause.

skald -- oral poet in medieval Norway, Denmark, and Iceland. Also called bard. (See picture.)  

skeletal age --
an estimate of physical maturity based on development of the bones of the body.  

skeletal connective tissue --
a connective tissue in which the ground substance or matrix is composed of elastin, which is impregnated with salts of calcium and
magnesium. Skeletal tissue is of two kinds, bone and cartilage.

skeletal dysplasia -- more than 380 conditions that involve abnormally developed bones and connective tissues. In general, the term is associated with abnormalities
in the size and shape of arms, legs, the trunk, or the skull. A person with skeletal dysplasia may be unusually short with limbs that unusually are out of proportion to the
rest of the body. Skeletal dysplasia is sometimes called
dwarfism. Others called skeletal abnormalities are short arms and trunk, bowlegs, waddling gait
macrocephaly, craniosynostosis, wormian bones, polydactyly, chest anomalies, abnormal fingernails and toenails, cataracts, myopia, cleft palate,
deafness, hydrocephaly, porencephaly, hydraencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus,
developmental delays, and intellectual disability. The and several disorders are genetically inherited differently, according to the particular condition;
autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive.                                      

skeletal muscle --
this kind of muscle is attached to bone, mostly in the legs, arms, abdomen, chest, neck, and face. Skeletal muscles are called striated,                                         
striated, because they are made up of fibers that have horizontal stripes when viewed under a microscope. They hold the skeleton together, give the the                                                   
body shape, and help the body with everyday movements. They are
voluntary muscles. They can contract quickly and powerfully, but tire quickly easily                                               and
have to rest between  workouts.                                          

skeletal muscle fiber --  see skeletal muscle.

skeleton --
a matrix made of bones which forms the shape and form for the body as well as supporting, protecting, allowing bodily movement, producing                                        blood, and
storing minerals. The muscular and skeletal systems work together via
tendons, ligaments, bones, muscles, and joints. Blood cells are produced in the
bone marrow. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the
liver. Bones store minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. There are 206 bones in the human skeleton (208 if the sternum is considered as three
See picture.

skilled dialogue --
a strategy that involves anchored understanding (having a compassionate understanding of differences that comes from truly getting
to know someone) and third space (a situation in which people creatively restate each other's diverse perspectives in order to reach a new perspective without abandoning individual points of

skiboo --
a hired assassin.

skin conditions -- common skin conditions, mostly of immune origin, include eczema, inflammation of the lips, dry and scaly skin, fungal infections of the nails, dandruff, patches of
depigmentation, dryness of the eyes, sweat gland cysts, and alopecia (hair loss).  

skinfold --
a measurement of the amount of fat under the skin; also referred to as fat-fold measurement.

skirmish -- a minor battle in war, as one between small forces or between large forces avoiding direct conflict; a minor conflict or dispute.

skosh -- a bit, a jot, a little.

skull -- a bony structure in the head that supports the face and protects the brain from injury. The skull is made up of 22 bones,
cranial and 14 facial. The cranial bones are: the frontal, the left and right parietal, the left and right temporal, the
occipital, the sphenoid, and the ethmoid. The facial bones are: the mandible, the right and left maxilla, the left and right
palatine, the left and right zygomatic, the left and right nasal, the left and right lacrimal, and the vomer. Except for the
mandible, all of the bones are joined by
sutures. (See picture.)

skull fracture --
a break, crack, or split of the skull resulting from a violent blow or other serious impact to the head. (See

slang --
an extremely informal style of language which uses a distinctive range of
vocabulary particular to the group of people speaking.

slaphappy -- dazed and confused; happy-go-lucky.

slate and stylus -- a tool used by people who are blind to write short notes to
themselves. It consists of a slate, a hinged metal plate, and a stylus (a small awl) that is
used to punch the dots of a message in
Braille on a piece of paper inserted into the

slattern -- an untidy, dirty woman; a slovenly woman or girl.

sleep -- state of slumber; position of rest for the physical and mental health of a living being.

sleep apnea -- brief periods of arrested breathing during sleep, most commonly found in premature infants and in older children and adults with morbid obesity.

sleep disorders -- a common associated complication of autism; 50% to 70% of all children with autism have this complication -- night waking, delayed sleep onset, early morning waking
which are all related with daytime inattention and irritability.

sleep myoclonus -- sudden jerking movements of the body associated with various sleep stages that may be confused with a seizure.

slender -- long and thin; tall.

slice -- a thin section of something; to slash or remove a small section of.

slight hearing loss -- severity of hearing loss: 15 to 25 dB (at 500 to 2000 Hz); usually no effect on development, especially if the loss is transitory.

slippery slope -- argumentation fallacy whereby one fails to see that the first step in a possible series of steps does not lead inevitably to subsequent ones.
(See illustration.)

slither --
to glide or slide like a reptile.

slithy -- from Jabberwocky, Lewis Carroll: "'That will do very well,' said Alice: and 'slithy'? 'Well, 'slithy' means 'lithe and slimy.' 'Lithe' is the same as 'active.' You see it's like a portmanteau
-- there are two meanings packed into one word.'"

slow-to-warm-up child -- a child whose temperament is characterized by inactivity; mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli; negative mood; and slow adjustment when faced with new

SLP -- see speech and language pathologist.

sluggard --
an idle person; slothful; lazy.

sluice -- artificial channel for conducting water, with a valve or gate to regulate the flow.

slurred speech -- see dysarthria.

Sly syndrome (MPS VII) -- see mucopolysaccaridoses (MPS).

Small "C" creativity -- creativity that involves ideas or products which are new to the person, but only to the person. An example is a child's use of blending
finger paint colors.

small for date infant --
infant whose birth weight is below normal when length of pregnancy is accounted for; also called small for gestational age (SGA).   

small group activities --
interactions that occur in groups of two to five children.

small intestine -- a long, narrow, folded or coiled tube extending from the stomach to the large intestine. It is the region where most digestion and
absorption of food takes place. It is about 22 to 25 feet long. The small intestine has three parts: the
duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.

Small Magellanic Cloud -- a dwarf galaxy, with a diameter of about 7,000 light years;
contains several hundred million stars; about 200,000 light years away from the Milky Way;
only visible in the Southern Hemisphere.
See picture showing the Milky Way (large arc)
and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds on the left.

small muscle (
fine motor) -- muscles that control the hands and fingers.

smells and food allergies -- sensory problems associated with autism: extreme sensitivity
to smells; children with
autism are more likely to have food allergies.

smithereens -- small pieces, bits.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome -- microcephaly, short nose with upturned nostrils, low serum
cholesterol, syndactyly of second and third toes, genitourinary abnormalities, renal
anomalies, lung malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, hypotonia, moderate to
intellectual disability, motor and language delay, seizures, feeding difficulties and
photosensitivity, occasional heart defect. Specific behavioral features include:
irritability, sleep disturbance, self-injurious behavior. Cause: defect in cholesterol metabolism (conversion of 7-DHC to cholesterol) caused by mutations in the sterol delta-7-reductase gene
on chromosome 11q12--q13. Clinical features result from deficiency of cholesterols as well as toxic accumulation of 7-DHC;
autosomal recessive; a cause of deaf-blindness.

Smith-Magenis syndrome --
short stature, brachycephaly, cleft palate, congenital heart defect, myopia, mid-face hypoplasia, prominent chin, varying degrees of intellectual
genital or vertebral anomalies, scoliosis, hearing impairment, self-injurious behavior, other behavior problems. Cause: microdeletion at chromosome 17p11.2; most cases are new
mutations with
autosomal dominant when passed from an affected individual.

smolder -- to burn without an accompanying flame; to undergo slow and compressed combustion.

smolt -- a young salmon at the stage intermediate between the parr and the grilse, when it becomes covered with silvery scales and first migrates from fresh water to the sea.

smooth muscle (or involuntary muscle) -- this kind of muscle is made of fibers, but they are smooth, not striated like skeletal muscles. They are generally involuntary. Examples are the
walls of the stomach and intestines and the walls of blood vessels. These muscles take longer to contract than skeletal muscles, but can stay contracted for a long time, because they don't
tire easily.

Sn -- atomic number 50, symbol for tin.

snaffle -- to obtain especially by devious or irregular means.

snapdragon -- a widely cultivated Mediterranean herb having showy racemes of two-lipped, variously colored flowers.

Snellen test -- a test of visual acuity. (See picture.)  

snicker-snack! --
from Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky; what the vorpal blade went when the beamish boy was slaying the Jabberwock. Possibly related to  
the large knife, the scickersnee.

snitch -- an informant or someone that tells on someone else. A golden snitch is a ball in quidditch -- the little gold one that Harry catches (Harry Potter series,
J.K. Rowling). In quidditch, the game continues until the snitch is caught. Catching the snitch earns 150 points for that seeker's team.

snitty -- disagreeably ill-tempered.

snotulous -- snotty.

snow dome effect -- used to describe the emotional "ups and downs" of families with children with disabilities.  

snowdrop --
a bulbous Eurasian plant with solitary, nodding white flowers that bloom in early spring.

SNPs -- see single nucleotide polymorphisms.

sobriquet --
nickname; moniker; adopted name.

soceraphobia -- fear of parents-in-law.

social abuse -- putting you down or ignoring you in public; not letting you see your friends; not being nice to your friends; making a scene; change of personality with others; not taking
responsibility for children; embarrassing you in front of the children; using children as a weapon; choosing friends or family over you. Social abuse is not limited to the behaviors listed here.

social action -- individual or group behavior that involves interaction with other individuals or groups; especially organized action toward social reform.

social adjustment -- abilities needed for adjustment to new situations and for regularity of behavior patterns.

social affective play -- interaction between adult and child that elicits pleasure responses from the child.

social and cultural appropriateness -- a component of the developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) guidelines, which calls for curriculum and learning experience to be based on
each child's unique social and cultural experiences.

social and emotional skills -- a broad range of behaviors that describe how children interact with others and react in social situations.

social capital -- available resources provided by efforts, knowledge, and relationships of people.

social cognition -- the application of thinking to personal and social behavior; giving meaning to social experience.

social communicative competence -- the ability to effectively convey an intended message to others.

social comparisons -- judgments of appearance, abilities, and behavior, in relation to those of others.

social competence -- ability to maintain interactions, to have friends.

social construction framework -- a conceptual framework that proposes that human beings are profoundly immersed in the social world and that our understanding of this world and that
our understanding of this world and beliefs about this world are social products.

social-constructivist classroom -- a classroom in which children participate in a wider range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct
understandings. As children appropriate (take for themselves) knowledge and strategies generated from working together, they advance in cognitive and social development and become
competent, contributing members of their cultural community.

social context -- everything in the environment that has been directly or indirectly influenced by the culture, including people (parents, teacher, peers), and materials (books, learning
materials and supplies, equipment).

social-conventional domain -- issues and actions that are defined as right or wrong because of a social agreement that they are so.

social conventional knowledge -- information gathered from influential adults about general rules of conduct acceptable to that group.

social development -- The development of skills necessary for relationships: sharing, caring, manners, cooperation, conflict resolution, talking, listening, among others.

social/ecological system -- an organization that provides structure for human interactions, for defining individual and group roles, for establishing expectations about behavior, and for
specifying individual and group responsibilities in a social environment. Also called a social system. The system is ecological; changes in one individual or element in the environment often
spell changes for other individuals within the system.

social-emotional development -- development of processes related to interactions with other people. A delay in social and/or emotional development is one of the 5 criteria for defining
developmental delay.

social emotional disorders -- see personality disorders.

social engagement -- ability to maintain interactions; to have friends.  

social environment --
all the factors, both positive and negative, in society that impact individuals and their relationships such as mass media, the Internet, changing gender roles, and
growing urban crowding.  

social event -- an interaction between living organisms.  

social exchange perspective --
sociological approach that proposes that people's interactions represent the efforts of each person to maximize his or her benefits and minimize cost.  

social experiences --
events occurring in the presence of other people.  

social history -- historical research devoted primarily to the lives of ordinary people.  

social incompatibility -- a category of factors characterized by discrepancy in age, educational aspirations, or religious orientations that contribute to the termination of a relationship.

social initiative -- eliciting an interaction with another person.

social institution -- the patterned, regular way in which a society has organized to meet its basic needs.

social integration -- the degree of cohesion and strength of social bonds that people have with one another and with their community.

social interaction theories -- theories that emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interaction.

socialist feminism -- movement that advocates government support for parental leave and child care to enable women to achieve a better quality of life.

sociality -- being social; sociability; the tendency to form communities and societies.

socialization -- the process of learning the skills, appropriate behaviors, and expectations of being part of a group, particularly society at large.

socialized -- behavior learned to adapt to the expectations of the social group.

socialized aggression -- participation in a delinquent subculture that involves activities such as gang behavior, cooperative stealing, and truancy.

social knowledge -- one of the three types of knowledge in Piaget's theory; that knowledge that is learned about and from other people, such as family and ethnic culture, group behavior,
social mores, etc.

social learning -- any acquired skills or knowledge having to do with interacting with others; in Bandura's theory, social learning happens when children watch other people directly  or in
books or film.

social learning theory -- a theory that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning, in the development of behavior. Its most recent revision stresses the importance of
thinking in social learning and is called social-cognitive theory.

socially deviant -- refers to atypical behavior that is different from the social norm; behavior not expected in a given situation; inappropriate or maladaptive behavior.

social interactionist -- emphasizing the social purposes for language and the impetus it gives the child to learn language to get things done and participate in a social group.

social maladjustment -- a pattern of willful refusal to conform to acceptable standards of conduct that includes conduct disorders and oppositional defiant disorder. Students who are
socially maladjusted put their own needs above all others and do not show genuine signs of guilt or remorse.

social mores -- standards of conduct and behavior that are determined by society, as opposed to those established by family or personal preference.

social network -- a wide range of individuals and institutions with whom the family connects and maintains relationships.

social or emotional development -- one of the five areas of delay (others are adaptive development, cognitive development, communication development, and physical
development including vision or hearing) that defines a developmental delay, according to PL 105-17.

social perspective taking --
the ability to move away from one's own perspective and recognize what others perceive.  

social play -- is divided into six categories: unoccupied behavior, onlooker behavior, solitary play, parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play.  

social problem solving -- resolving social conflicts in ways that are both acceptable to others and beneficial to the self. Involves noticing and accurately interpreting social cues, formulating
goals that enhance relationships, generating and evaluating problem-solving strategies, and enacting a response.  

social referencing -- the process used to gauge one's own response to a situation by relying on another person's emotional reaction, such as a child who looks to a teacher after falling
down before crying or getting up.  

social reinforcement -- The positive or negative feedback that children receive from adults and peers that leads to further learning, either appropriate or inappropriate.  

social services -- support systems society organized to contribute to solving or preventing social problems.  

social skills -- strategies children learn to enable them to respond appropriately in many environments.

social smile -- the smile evoked by the stimulus of the human face. First appears between 6 and 10 weeks.

social status hypothesis -- a theoretical proposition which explains married women's greater likelihood of being depressed in terms of the limited satisfaction they may find in the traditional
roles of homemaker and mother.

social story -- individual text or story that describes a specific social situation from the student's perspective; its purpose is to help the student know how to respond appropriately to the
described situation.

social stratification -- the patterned ways in which privileges and rewards are distributed in a society, resulting in social class or strata.

social support network -- an interdependent group of family members, friends, and acquaintances that a person can draw on for support when facing problems.

social symptoms -- one of the three major characteristics of autism (along with communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors): tremendous difficulty learning to engage in the give-
and-take of everyday human interaction. Even in the first few months of life, many children with autism avoid eye contact and do not interact. They seem indifferent to other people, and often
seem to prefer being alone. They may resist attention or passively accept hugs and cuddling. Parents who look forward to the joys of cuddling, teaching, and playing with their child may feel
crushed by this lack of the expected and typical attachment behavior. Children with
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are slower in learning to interpret what others are thinking or feeling.
Subtle social cues, whether a smile, wink, or a grimace, may have little meaning. Although not universal, it is common for people with ASD to have difficulty regulating their emotions. This can
take the form of immature behavior such as crying in class or verbal outbursts that seem inappropriate to those around them. The individual with ASD might also be disruptive and physically
aggressive at times, making social relationships still more difficult. They have a tendency to "lose control" particularly when they're in a strange or overwhelming environment, or when angry
or frustrated. They may at times break things, attack others, or hurt themselves. In their frustration, some bang their heads, pull their hair, or bite their arms. A child with autism may also have
diminished eye contact, decreased use of facial expression, or increased or absent gestures.

social system -- one of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; encompasses the influence of the community, laws, economic resources, educational
opportunities, and other external factors on the family.

social work -- profession that coordinates the acquisition of social services and involves a service coordinator.

social worker -- A professional that coordinates the acquisition of social services for children with disabilities and their families (see--->>>).  

sociobiology --
the field of study of  gender differences that suggests that our social behavior -- and gender behavior -- results from biological differences.

sociocentric -- oriented toward or focused on one's social group rather than on one's self.

sociocultural -- aspects of theory or development that refer to the social and cultural issues; key descriptor of Vygotsky's theory of development.

sociocultural theory -- Vygotsky's theory, in which children are assumed to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues
with more knowledgeable members of society.

sociodramatic play -- fantasy play episode with others involved; acting out imaginary and everyday roles; common ages 2 -- 7 years.

socioeconomic status (SES) -- a measure of a family's social position and economic well-being that combines three interrelated, but not completely overlapping, variables: 1) years of
education; 2) the prestige of and skill required by one's job; and 3) income, which measures economic status.

sociolinguistics -- the study of language in use in all the possible social contexts.

sociopath (pscyhopath) -- common features include: glibness and superficial charm; manipulative (never recognize rights of others; appear charming, but are covertly hostile and
domineering; see victims as merely instruments to be used; dominating, humiliating to victims); grandiose sense of self; pathological lying (though extremely convincing and even able to pass
lie-detector tests); lack of remorse, shame, or guilt; shallow emotions (warmth, joy, love, and compassion generally have an ulterior motive; unmoved); incapacity to love; need for stimulation;
callousness/lack of empathy; poor behavioral control/impulsive nature (rage, abuse); early behavioral problems/juvenile delinquency (cruelty to animals, people, stealing);
irresponsibility/unreliability; promiscuous sexual behavior and infidelity; lack of a realistic life plan/parasitic lifestyle; criminal or entrepreneurial versatility (changes image as needed to avoid
prosecution; changes life story readily). Other related qualities: contemptuous of those who seek to understand them; do not believe that there is anything wrong; authoritarian; secretive;
paranoid; conventional appearance; extreme narcissism and grandiosity; may state readily that their goal is to rule the world.

sociophobia -- fear of society.

sockeye -- a kind of salmon; also called reds.

sodium -- atomic number 11, symbol Na; one of the 13 most common elements in the body; a soft, light, extremely malleable silver-white metallic element that reacts explosively with water;
naturally abundant in combined forms, such as salt, Chile saltpetre, and cryolite; used in the production of chemicals, in metallurgy, and a cooling medium in nuclear reactors; the most
abundant alkali metal on Earth; burns with a yellow flame; discovered by
Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807; named for the Latin word natrium, which means sodium.  

soft signs -- group of neurological findings found in children older than age 7 that are suggestive of an immature or disordered central nervous system; often found in children with ADHD.
Examples include the inability to stand on one foot without support and difficulty performing rapid alternating movements. Also called soft neurological signs.

soft spot -- see fontanelle.

soft tissue sarcoma -- cancer that starts in soft tissues, which connect, support, and surround body parts and organs. One soft tissue sarcoma is rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common
kind. It is mostly found in the head and neck, kidneys, bladder, arms, legs, and trunk; affecting children ages 2 -- 6. Another is
lymphoma, which is a tumor in the lymph tissue. Also included
here are
Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

soigné -- elegant; sophisticated; well-groomed.

sojourn -- brief visit; stopover; jaunt.

solace -- comfort; alleviation of guilt or anxiety; relief.

solecism -- an impropriety; nonstandard grammatical construction; a violation of etiquette.

sole custody -- a child custody arrangement following a divorce in which only one parent has legal and physical custody of the child or children; the other parent generally has visitation

solemn -- serious; dignified; formal; stern.

solidarity -- a union of interests, purposes, or sympathies among members of a group; fellowship of responsibilities and interests.

soliloquy -- dramatic monologue; intense speech with exposition but not addressed.

solipism -- philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.

solitary play -- Play that is independent and with toys that are different from those used by other children within the immediate play area.

solstice -- one of two times in the year when the sun is furthest from the equator.

somatic -- relating to the body.

somatoform (disorder) -- physical symptoms which present as part of a general medical condition. However, no general medical condition (other than mental disorder or substance) is
adequately diagnosed. The complaints are serious enough to cause significant emotional distress and impairment of social and/or occupational functioning. An inadequate diagnosis might be
the result of inconclusive or faulty test results or in some cases intentional malpractice in which a caregiver deliberately mishandles a patient's health care to derive some benefit. A diagnosis
of a somatoform disorder implies that psychological factors are a large contributor to the symptoms' onset, severity, and duration.

somatostatin -- a polypeptide hormone produced chiefly by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of various other hormones, such as somatotropin, glucagon, insulin,
thyrotropin, and gastrin.

somatotropin -- a growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which stimulates the release of another hormone called somatomedin by the liver, thereby causing growth.

sommelier -- a waiter expertly trained in alcoholic beverages; wine steward.

sonata -- music, series of three solos.

Sonicguide -- an electronic mobility device for people who are blind, which is worn on the head, emits ultrasound, and converts reflections of objects into audible noise.

sonnet -- poetry that has 14 lines and its usual rhyme scheme is ABBAABBA, followed by 2 or 3 other rhymes in the remaining 6 lines.

soothe -- to allay, alleviate; to relax; pacify.

sop -- a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture.

sophophobia -- fear of learning.

sorcerer -- practitioner of sorcery; wizard; warlock; witch; magician.

sorrel -- a plant with acid-flavored leaves or leaves with three leaflets.

Sotos syndrome -- an overgrowth syndrome characterized by a distinctive head shape, macrocephaly, downslanting eyes, flat nasal bridge, accelerated growth with advanced bone age,
high forehead,
hypertelorism, prominent jaw, increased risk of abdominal tumors, hypotonia, marked speech delay, congenital heart defects, varying degrees of intellectual disability.
Cause: mutations in the NSD1 gene have been found to be causative; in addition, submicroscopic deletions have been identified at chromosome 5q35;
autosomal dominant with the
majority of cases due to a new mutation.

sotto voce -- soft-voiced; emphasis on quiet speech.

soubrette -- saucy, coquettish woman in comedies.

soufflé -- a light, fluffy baked dish.

sough -- a soft, gentle sigh; a murmuring, purling, or rustling sound.

soul -- Freud: the overarching reality of all psychic functioning, conscious and unconscious. It had no sense for Freud as something supernatural, but it was his preferred term when
describing the psyche as a whole as well as its very essence.

soul mate -- a person who is temperamentally suited to another -- one's best friend, confidant, and romantic partner. (See picture.)

souls and spirits --
a group of souls and spirits is a harvest. A baby soul or spirit is a pumpkin.

sound-field amplification system -- enables the teacher to transmit his/her voice by using a lavaliere microphone and ceiling- or wall-mounted speakers.

souse -- to plunge into liquid; to make soaking wet; drench; to steep in a mixture, as in pickling; a period of heaving drinking; a drunkard.

soutane -- a cassock, especially one that buttons up and down the front.

souvenir -- keepsake; memento; something of sentimental value.
A    B    C    D    E   F    G    H   I     JKL    M     NO     
PQ    R   Sp--Sz    T     U--Z
"The pauses
between the
notes -- ah, that
is where the art
-- A. Schnabel