RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
rabble -- a tumultuous crowd; a mob; the lowest or coarsest class of people; a group of persons regarded with contempt.

race -- a group of people with similar and distinctive physical characteristics.

race defensiveness -- a racial socialization strategy that cultivates a dislike for other racial groups among children, but  teaches them that it can be useful to imitate the behaviors of the
dominant racial group.

race naiveté -- a racial socialization strategy that downplays the importance of racial issues.

rachitic rosary -- bead-like processes along the ribs that are associated with rickets and malnutrition. (See picture.)

racial awareness --
a racial socialization strategy that teaches children to be proud of their racial group membership.

racial empowerment -- a proactive racial socialization strategy that stresses racial identity and the ability to overcome obstacles in life despite racial barriers.

racial socialization -- the process by which a child learns where he or she fits into the racial context of his or her society.

racism -- discrimination or prejudice based on the belief that people's physical characteristics determine their human capacities and behaviors and that groups of people with certain
characteristics are inferior to others.

racist -- attitudes, behavior, or policies that imply either a hatred or intolerance of other race(s) or involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to
rule over and dominate others.

raconteur -- a person who excels in telling anecdotes.

rad -- a measure of radioactivity.

radial aplasia -- absence of the radius, which is one of the bones of the forearm, lying parallel to the ulna.

radial ray defects --  malformed or absent thumbs, extra thumb or a thumb that looks like a finger, partial or complete absence of bone in the forearm; radial arm abnormalities. (See
picture.)

radiation --
the act or process of radiating; the emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form
of rays or waves; energy radiated or transmitted as rays, waves, in the form of particles; a stream of particles
or electromagnetic waves emitted by the
atoms and molecules of a radioactive substance as the result of
nuclear decay; the act of exposing or the condition of being exposed to such energy; the application of such
energy, as in medical treatment; radial arrangement of parts, as a group of nerve fibers connecting different
areas of the brain; the spread of a group of organisms into new habitats; adaptive radiation; exposure to
radiation during
pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, prematurity, underdeveloped brains, physical deformities, slow physical growth, and an increase of childhood cancer (teratogen).

radiation therapy -- the use of high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA. X-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles are types of radiation used for cancer treatment.

radii -- plural: any line segments from the center of a circle or sphere to its perimeter.

radioactive -- giving off energy as a result of the breaking up of nuclei of atoms; a descriptive term for material made up of atoms in which radioactivity occurs.

radioactive decay -- the disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable nuclide by the spontaneous emission of charged particles and/or photons.

radiograph -- a medical X-ray.

radiophobia -- fear of x-rays.

radiotelemetry -- signals that permit the transmission of EEG recordings from a child to a distant machine by radio waves.

radical feminism -- a type of feminism that emphasizes how sexual oppression by men leads to the lower status of women.

radium -- atomic number 88, symbol Ra; a rare, brilliant white, luminescent, highly radioactive metallic element found in very small amounts in uranium ores; its most common isotope has a
half-life of 1,622 years; used in cancer radiotherapy, a neutron source, and a constituent of luminescent paints; discovered by
Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898.

radius -- the bone in the forearm that extends from the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist.

radon -- atomic number 86, symbol Rn; a colorless, odorless, radioactive, inert gaseous element formed by the radioactive decay of radium and occurs in minute amounts in soil, rocks, and
the air near the ground; used in radiotherapy and to produce neutrons for research; most stable isotope has a half-life of 3.82 days; discovered by
Fredrich Ernst Dorn in 1898.

radura symbol -- a required symbol placed on all food that has been treated with irradiation.

raffish -- marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness; marked by a careless unconventionality; rakish.

ragtag -- ragged, unkempt; composed of diverse often incongruous elements; motley.

raillery -- good natured ridicule; banter; jest.

raiment -- clothing, garments.

rambunctious -- boisterous and disorderly.

ramification -- a development or consequence growing out of and sometimes complicating a problem, plan, or statement.

random assignment -- an unbiased procedure for assigning participants to treatment groups, such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin. Increases the chance that
participants' characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment conditions in the experiment.

random sampling -- selecting participants for a study at random.

random scribbling -- see disordered scribbling.

random type family --
marriage/family system that focuses on the needs of individuals and tends to value freedom, intensity, and spontaneity; one of three types of marriage/family systems
proposed by
David Kantor and William Lehr in 1975.

range of motion -- The direction and degree to which arms, legs, and other parts of the skeleton can move.

range of normalcy -- lower and upper limits of age at which developmental milestones are attained.

range of reaction -- each person's unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.

ranunculus -- any of numerous plants of the genus Ranunculus, including the buttercups.

rapacity -- taking by force; plundering; greedy; ravenous; subsisting on live prey; rapacious.

rape -- unwanted sexual penetration, perpetrated by force, by threat of harm, or when the victim is intoxicated or unconscious.

rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep -- an "irregular" sleep state in which brain-wave activity is similar to that of the waking state; eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate, blood pressure, and
breathing are uneven; and slight body movements occur.

rapid method -- a toilet training method, used mostly for children with moderate to severe disabilities, that increases the intake of liquid so that the children need to urinate more frequently.
The rapid method involves a lengthy commitment of time and effort for the trainer but in some cases, can result in children achieving independence in toileting within a short time.

rapport -- the process of communication in which two people develop understanding and a sense of closeness; a warm and friendly feeling and relationship between two people.

rapport talk -- debriefing conversations that are viewed by women as a way of strengthening the relationship between partners.

rapporteur -- a person who gives reports (as at a meeting of a learned society).

rapscallion -- a rascal; a scamp; a disreputable person; rogue; knave; varlet; scalaqag; scallywag; scoundrel; villain; imp; monkey; youngster; tyie; a young person of either sex; brat; holy
terror; one who is playfully mischievous; ne'er-do-well.

rapture -- ecstasy; felicity; state of sheer happiness; happiness to the point of delirium.

rarefied -- being less dense; of, relating to, or interesting to a select group; esoteric; very high.

rariora -- plural: unusual collector's items, outstanding items; prize pieces.

ratatouille -- a type of French dish: vegetable stew.

rate-limiting component -- the slowest, or last-developing, part of a dynamic system.

rate of behavior -- a measure of how often a particular action occurs.

raths -- from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll: "And the mome raths outgrabe." Alice asked Humpty Dumpty, and his answer: "Well a rath is a sort of green pig ..." A glossary of Lewis
Carroll's defines rath: "A species of land turtle. Head erect, mouth like a shark, the front fore, legs curved so that the animal walked on its knees, smooth green body, lived on swallows and
oysters." "There were probably sundials on the top of the hill, and the borogoves were afraid that their nests would be undermined. The hill was probably full of the nests of raths, which ran
out, squeakign with fear, on hearing the toves scratching outside. This is an obscure, but yet deeply-affecting, relic of ancient Poetry." Literal translation (guessing): It was evening, and the
smooth active badgers were scratching and boring holes in the hill-side; all unhappy were the parrots; and the grave turtles squeaked out.

rating scale -- measuring a specific behavior, skill, or attribute by choosing from three or more descriptors.

ratio measure of divorce -- the ratio within a given year of the number of marriages to the number of divorces.

rationality -- thinking based on reason.

rational counting -- comprehension of the idea that the last number counted in a sequence of objects represents all the objects in the sequence, the total number of objects counted.

ratio schedule of reinforcement -- a schedule of reinforcement based on a number of responses.

rationalization -- the assertion that the reasons for illogical behavior are "rational" and "good."

raw scores -- The score a student receives on a test before it is converted to a standard score.

reaction formation -- behavior whereby people present themselves as the opposite of what they really feel.

reaction potential -- the potential that a specific event in the environment will elicit a particular response.

reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood -- a severe lack of attachment that affects the child's entire emotional development. Beginning before age 5 and occurring
in most situations, the child's social relatedness is markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate. This is shown by either of: 1)
inhibitions: In most situations, the child doesn't
interact in a socially appropriate way. This is shown by responses that are excessively inhibited,
hypervigilant or ambivalent and contradictory. For example, the child responds to
caregivers with frozen watchfulness or mixed approach-avoidance and resistance to comforting. OR 2)
disinhibitions: The child's attachments are diffuse, as shown by indiscriminate
sociability with the inability to form appropriate selective attachments. For example, the child is overly familiar with strangers or lacks selectivity in choosing attachment figures. This behavior is
not explained solely by a
developmental delay and it does not fulfill criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Evidence of persistent pathogenic care is shown by one or more of:
1) The caregiver neglects the child's basic emotional needs for affection, comfort, and stimulation; 2) the caregiver neglects the child's basic physical needs; 3) stable attachments cannot
form because of repeated changes of caregiver (such as frequent changes of foster care); 4) it appears that the pathogenic care just described has caused the disturbed behavior (for
example, the behavior began after the pathogenic behavior.)

reactive jealousy -- the type of jealousy that occurs when evidence is revealed of a partner's past, present, or anticipated relationship with another person.

readiness -- A child's ability to learn that takes into account prerequisite physical, cognitive, language, or social skills.

readiness to learn -- the point when a  child has the necessary prerequisite skills to engage in specific new learning.

reading -- part of literacy, along with writing, speaking, and listening.

reading comprehension -- the ability to understand what is read.

reading disability -- condition wherein a student's learning disability is most significant in reading; see dyslexia.

reading readiness -- see emerging literacy. Often used to describe the skills involved in getting ready to read.

reading vocabulary -- word comprehension (while reading).

realistic conflict -- conflict over different interests, values, or goals.

reality principle -- Freud: the principle that states that ego pleasure is realized through adherence to external realities.

reality testing -- Freud: the knack of distinguishing between inner and outer, fantasy and externality.

realization -- When a child is born with a disability, parents sometimes go through several stages similar to grief. This emotional stage is characterized by several types of behaviors: anxiety
or fear about the ability to cope with demands, easy irritation or considerable time spent in self-accusation, self-pity, or self-hate. However, during this phase, parents come to an
understanding of the actual demands and constraints that might come with raising a child with a disability.

realm -- a region, kingdom, plane, domain, or territory.

real self -- Rogers: the aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency -- the "you" that you will become, if all goes well.

real self - ideal self incongruity -- Rogers: when the real self and the ideal self (the self that society deems is worthy -- always out of reach, a standard we can't meet) do not match. This
leads to
neurosis.

real-time ultrasonography -- the use of sound waves to provide a moving (real-time) image used in fetal monitoring.

reasonable accommodations -- requirements within the Americans with Disabilities Act (PL 101-336) that ensure that a person with a disability have an equal chance of participating: a
fair and level playing field.

reasoning -- giving reasons in favor of this assertion or that; justifying or supporting a premise with reasons.

reasoning ability -- see reasoning, above.

rebound -- a phenomenon in which, as a medication dose wears off, a person's behavior or symptoms become worse than when completely off medication.

Rebus symbols -- an educational system using pictured symbols in place of words. An example is using a picture of a tied knot to convey the word "not." This is one approach to teaching
children with learning disabilities how to read.
The Rebus symbols shown below are from Widget Software.

recall -- the type of memory that involves remembering something in the absence of
perceptual support.

recapitulate -- to repeat, outline, summarize.

recapitulation theory -- the theory that in the development (or ontogenesis) of the
individual, a sequence of stages occurs that recapitulates the evolutionary history of the
development of the individual's species (
phylogenesis).

recasts -- adult responses that restructure children's incorrect speech into a more
appropriate form. For example, the child says, "I gotted new red shoes" and the adult responds,
"Yes, you have new red shoes."

receiving school -- the new placement facility or service that results from transition -- the
child's new setting.

receptive aphasia -- impairment of receptive language due to a disorder of the central nervous system.

receptive language -- An individual's ability to comprehend language; precedes expressive language.

receptive language disorders -- difficulties in comprehending what others say.

receptive loss -- hearing loss that affects the range of tones heard, so that high tones are more likely to be heard than low tones.

recessive gene -- a gene whose code is not expressed in the presence of a dominant gene.

recherché -- elegant; refined or tasteful; sophisticated.

recidivism -- act of repeating punished act; chronic tendency to repeat crimes.

reciprocal determinism -- a bidirectional process characterized by a reciprocity between the individual and the environment (including other individuals).

reciprocal relationships -- Relationships in which each member gives and receives in response to the giving and receiving of the other.

reciprocal teaching -- a teaching method based on Vygotsky's theory in which a teacher and two to four students form a cooperative group. Dialogs occur that create a zone of proximal
development in which reading comprehension improves. Within the dialogs, group members apply four cognitive strategies: questioning, summarizing, clarifying, and predicting.

reciprocal use of hands -- both hands are required to do the task. Each hand is doing the same task. Example: pulling up, hugging, and clapping.

reciprocate -- to move backward and forward alternately; to give and take mutually; to make a return for something done or given.

reciprocity -- The give and take interactions between a child and others.

recognition -- the simplest form of memory, which involves noticing whether a new experience is identical or similar to a previous one.

Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances (RDA) -- suggested amounts of nutrients for use in planning diets. RDAs are designed to maintain good nutrition in a healthy person. Allowances
are higher than requirements in order to afford a margin of safety.

recondite -- esoteric, cabalistic, occult, mystical (concealment), little known, obscure (knowledge).

reconstituted or blended family -- Each parent brings children into a new household.

reconstitution -- mental activity that involves the ability to break down what is observed or learned an to combine parts in order to perform new actions.

record -- documentation of an event, may be written, audio, video, or photographed.

recording -- a system or method of writing down what has been observed.

recovery -- following habituation, an increase in responsiveness to a new stimulus.

recovery position -- placing an individual in a side-lying position.

recreational therapist -- a related services provider who assesses leisure function, and provides therapeutic recreation and leisure education.

rectal prolapse -- the tissue that lines the rectum falls down into or sticks through the anal opening. It is often associated with constipation, cystic fibrosis, malnutrition, malabsorption,
celiac diease, pinworms, anal or pelvic injury, whipworm infection.

rectilinear -- moving in or forming  a straight line; characterized by straight lines.

rectovaginal fistula -- an abnormal passage or opening between the rectum and the vagina. (See picture.)

rectrix (REK-triks) --
any of the quill feathers of a bird's tail that are important in controlling flight direction.

rectum -- the last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. It stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus.

recursive -- in writing, the act of moving back and forth between stages as one writes and polishes one's work.

red blood cells -- the blood cells that carry oxygen. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which permits them to carry oxygen
and
carbon dioxide. Red blood cells account for approximately 40% to 50% of the blood. Red blood cells are shaped like little disks.
They have no
nucleus, and can change shape to squeeze through capillaries. Mature red blood cells do not contain DNA.
Disorders involving red blood cells include
anemia, sickle-cell anemia, thalassemia, pernicious anemia, etc. Also called
erythrocytes. (See illustration.)

red bone marrow --
(also called myeloid tissue) Red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells arise in red marrow;
some white blood cells develop in
yellow bone marrow. The color of yellow marrow is  due to the much higher number of fat cells. Both kinds of bone marrow contain numerous blood
vessels and capillaries. At birth, all bone marrow is red. With age, more and more converts to yellow. Adults have an average of 5.7 pounds of bone marrow, with about half of it being red.
Red bone marrow is found mainly in the
flat bones such as the hip bone, breast bone, skull, ribs, vertebrae, and shoulder blades; and in the cancellous material at the proximal ends
of the
long bones femur and humerus. Pink marrow is found in the hollow interior of the middle portion of long bones. In case of severe blood loss, the body can convert yellow marrow
back to red in order to increase blood cell production.  

red caps -- "nasty little goblinlike creatures that lurked wherever there had been bloodshed; in the dungeons of castles and the potholes of deserted battlefields, waiting to bludgeon those
who had gotten lost." (
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, J.K. Rowling). A group of red caps is a parasite. A red cap baby is a clingon.

red flags -- Behaviors or conditions pertaining to a child that may be a cue to a future problem; red flags warn educators to stop, look, and think, or at least
make note.
(See picture.)

redirection --
a teaching strategy that directs the child's attention and energy from a behavior that is less desirable by introducing a more appropriate
behavior or activity.

redivivus -- revived; came back to life; resurrected; resuscitated.

redivorce -- divorce during second or subsequent marriages,with the median length of time for length of marriage declining in each instance.

redolent -- piquant, aromatic, or memory-evoking.

reds -- a type of salmon; also called sockeye salmon.

reduced price meals -- a meal served under the Child Care Food Program to a child from a family which meets income standards for reduced-price school meals.

reenactment -- see pretend reading.

refection -- refreshment of mind, spirit, or body; especially nourishment; the taking of refreshment; food and drink together; repast.

referential language style -- language style focused on developing a vocabulary that includes many object names.

referrals -- When a professional comes in contact with a child whom they suspect of having a developmental delay -- who then recommends further assessment. (Parents may also refer
their own children.)

refined divorce rate -- the rate that reflects the number of divorces in a given year for every 1000 married women over 15.

refinement -- sequence of development that progresses from large muscle control to small muscle control.

reflection -- a process by which an individual or group thoughtfully considers an experience, idea, work product, or learning. It is a "looking back" and reconstruction that usually involves
language and may lead to revision based on the reflection.
Rogers: the mirroring of emotional communication. It shows the client that the therapist is listening and cares enough to
understand.

reflecting -- giving back to a speaker words that convey the listener's impression of the speaker's meaning.

reflective abstraction -- the ability to rearrange and rethink information already acquired.

reflective journal -- a private, written record in which to express feelings; not a part of child's record, but property of the writer.

reflective listening -- summarizing what is heard after listening.

reflexes -- muscle reactions to stimuli, not controlled by intent.

reflex integration -- the disappearance of involuntary reflexes to allow for normal motor development.

reflexive -- Involuntary body reaction to specific kinds of stimulation.

reflexive responses -- inborn (automatic) responses to a particular stimulus.

reflux -- see gastroesophageal reflux.

refracted -- deflected through a substance (e.g., a lens).

refractive -- The process of bending light rays that is a part of vision; visual acuity problems correctable with eyeglasses. (See picture.)

refractive errors --
defects in the curvature of cornea and lens, or abnormal eyeball shape, that change the focal point of the eye.

reframing -- an internal family coping strategy that involves redefining a stressful experience in a positive way so that it can be confronted directly and dealt with successfully.

Refsum disease, infantile -- Failure to thrive, absent or tiny ear lobes, high forehead, single palmar crease, flat facial profile and nasal bridge, retinal degeneration, hypotonia, liver
enlargement and dysfunction,
senorineural hearing impairment, intellectual disability, peripheral neuropathy, hypercholesterolemia (elevated blood cholesterol level); there is
also a late-onset form of this disease. Cause: an accumulation of phytanic acid, very long chain acids, di- and trihydroxycholestanoic acids, and pipecolic acid due to a defect in peroxisomal
function,
autosomal recessive; a cause of deaf-blindness.

refusal --
the act of declining or rejecting.

regale -- to entertain sumptuously, to feast with delicacies; to give pleasure or amusement to.

regalia -- the emblems and symbols of royalty, such as the crown and scepter; jewelry.

regardless -- despite everything.

Reggio Emilia approach -- a type of preschool curriculum that is based on constructivist theory -- an emergent curriculum. Began in
Reggio Emilia, a town in northern Italy. (See map.)

registered nurse (RN) --
a nurse licensed by a state after passing qualifying examinations.

registered occupational therapist (OTR) -- professional who has a minimum of a bachelor's degree and occupational therapy field work
experience.

regression -- relapse into a more childlike or juvenile form of behavior. Freud: a return, temporary or chronic, to an earlier level of
psychological development.

regular connective tissue -- has a matrix of parallel collagen fibers. It is very strong and connects other tissue types to each other: tendons connect muscle to bone and ligaments
connect bone to bone.

regular education classroom -- a typical classroom designed to serve students who do not have disabilities.

regular education initiative (REI) -- An approach for educating children with special needs; special and regular educators work cooperatively in providing services to pupils with disabilities
in the regular classroom; a merger of general and special education proposed in the late 1980s so that all educators would share responsibility for ensuring that students with disabilities
receive an appropriate educational experience.

regular education teacher -- teacher of a classroom without children with disabilities.

regulations -- standards or requirements that are set to ensure uniform and safe practices.

regulator genes -- genes that control the expression of other genes.

Regulus -- the brightest star in the constellation Leo and one of the brightest stars in the night sky; approximately 77.5 light years from earth;
composed of 4 stars: Regulus A (blue-white main-sequence star) and its companion (white dwarf), Regulus B and Regulus C (both dim main-
sequence stars).
See placement of Regulus in Leo.

regurgitation --
the return of partially digested food from stomach to mouth.

rehabilitation -- a social service program designed to teach a person newly disabled the basic skills necessary for independence.

rehabilitative alimony -- short-term financial payments to help an ex-wife to go to school and "rehabilitate" her vocational skills.

rehearsal -- the memory strategy of repeating information.

reimplanted -- replaced a part from where it was removed, such as a tooth.

reinforcement -- general term for a consequence, event, or procedure that increases or maintains the behavior it follows.

reinforcers -- increase the behaviors which they follow; are specific to individuals.

reinforcing stimulus -- a stimulus event following a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

rejected children -- children who are overtly disliked by their peers.

rejecting parenting -- a style of parenting in which parents pay little attention to their children's needs and set few or no expectations for their children's behavior.

related services -- PL 108-446 -- those services necessary to ensure that students with disabilities benefit from their educational experience. Related services may include transportation,
speech and language services, audiology services, vision services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation including
therapeutic recreation, early identification and assessment, counseling including rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, medical services for diagnostic or
evaluation purposes, school health and nurse services, social work in schools, parent counseling and training; also developmental, corrective, and supportive services. (Lists) . . added
"school nurse services" and "interpreting services."

relational aggression -- a form of hostile aggression that damages another's peer relationships, as in social exclusion or rumor spreading.

relational play -- actions demonstrating an understanding of the relationship between two objects.

relationship maintenance -- all of the behaviors, such as communication, that partners enact to nurture their relationship.

relationship market -- also called a marriage market; situation in which prospective partners compare the personal, social, and financial resources of eligible mates and then bargain for the
best they can get.

relationship maturity -- an individual's ability to communicate clearly and effectively with a partner.

relationship satisfaction -- a subjective sense of well-being and contentment with one's close relationship.

relationship withdrawal -- an indirect relationship-ending strategy in which the person desiring to end the relationship spends less and less time with his or her partner.

relative clauses -- a part of a sentence that describes a subject, for example, "I want a doll that wets."

relatives of divorce -- kinship ties that were established during marriage but continue after divorce.

relevance -- how closely a theory is related to the information collected within that theory; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured.

reliability -- the extent to which any assessment technique yields results that are accurate and consistent over time; dependable, predictable.

religion -- Freud: a childlike yearning for an all powerful Parent to take away feelings of helplessness that arise from confronting the forces of nature. A collective neurosis. An illusion (not
necessarily an error) arising from childish wishes, religion spares many a believer an individual neurosis by reducing him to "psychical infantilism." The first religion was a form of
totemism.

relinquish -- voluntarily cease to keep or claim; surrender.

reliquary -- a receptacle, such as a coffer or shrine, for keeping or displaying sacred relics.

remarriage -- a marriage in which one or both partners marry following divorce or death of a spouse.

remarried families -- families that include two partners, at least one of whom has been married before and who brings a child or children into the marriage.

remediation -- a program designed to teach a person to overcome a disability through training and education.

remission -- In reference to health problems, temporary or permanent relief from the problem.

remote-uninvolved style of grandparenting -- a relationship style in which grandparents have relatively little contact or interaction with their grandchildren.

renaissance -- a rebirth or revival; renewal of cultural and intellectual thought.

renal -- of the kidneys.

renal cortex -- the outer part of the substance of the kidney, composed mainly of glomeruli and convoluted tubules.

renal obstruction -- narrowing or occlusion of the renal arteries. It is usually due to artherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, thrombosis, embolism, or external pressure.

renal system -- organ system including the kidneys and the bladder. (See picture.)

rendezvous --
a meeting at a prearranged time and place; a popular gathering place; the process of bringing two spacecraft together.

renovate -- to restore to a better state (as by cleaning, repairing, or rebuilding); to restore to life, vigor, or activity; revive.

repair attempt -- term used to refer to any statement or action an intimate partner takes to prevent negativity in a conflict from escalating out
of control.

repartee -- swift, witty reply; conversation marked by the exchange of witty retorts.

repatriate -- to restore or return to the country of birth, citizenship, or origin.

repeated reading -- process of developing fluency through multiple practice opportunities with the same passage; increases reading accuracy, reading rate, and comprehension.

repetition compulsion -- Freud: the urge to do the same thing over and over, especially in terms of relationship patterns (e.g., always winding up with the same kind of partner). Rather
than seeing it as unlearned lessons reconstellated in the present,
Freud linked this to the death drive's push toward a return to previous conditions.

repetitive behaviors -- one of the three major characteristics of autism (others are communication difficulties and social symptoms). Odd repetitive movements may set a child with autism
apart from other children. These behaviors might be extreme and highly visible or more subtle. Some behaviors are such things as hand flapping, toe walking, suddenly freezing in positions,
lining up cars or trains (or other toys), or persistent, intense preoccupation, such as in vacuum cleaners, train schedules, etc. Often there is a great interest in numbers, symbols, or science
topics. A child with
autism may also be tremendously upset by changes. They may need, and demand, absolute consistency in the environment. Also called perseveration or
self-stimulating behaviors.

repetitive quality of instincts -- instincts' tendency to be cyclical in nature, with needs satisfied only temporarily and the system eventually returning to its original state of tension.

repetitive stress injuries -- a group of injuries that happen when too much stress is placed on a part of the body, resulting in inflammation (pain and swelling), muscle strain, and tissue
damage. The stress generally occurs from repeating the same movements over and over again (examples are
carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow).

replacement behavior -- A behavior that is taught to a child to replace an inappropriate one -- a replacement behavior should serve the same function as the inappropriate one.

replacement rate -- the rate of reproduction needed for a population to maintain its current size, without immigration into the country.

replica -- copy or reproduction of a work of art, especially one made by the original artist.

replicate -- to demonstrate again with the same results.

report talk -- style of communication, often engaged in by men, used to accomplish specific purposes.

reprehansible -- worthy of or deserving blame or condemnation.

representation -- a major form of thinking that uses actions, pictures, words, and so on to stand for ideas and experiences.

representational art -- art in which symbols are used to make a visual representation of something important to the child. (See example of art over
there--------------------------------------------------->>.)

representative sample --
a random selection of individuals who accurately reflect the characteristics of a particular group.

repressed anger -- the unconscious suppression of feelings of anger; so that they are expressed in other ways.

repression -- "Motivated forgetting;" the unconscious blocking of whatever is causing one stress. Freud: the ego's ridding itself of unacceptable desires and ideas by dumping them into
unconsciousness. Three conditions lead to a return of the repressed into
consciousness: when the counter-cathexis holding it down weaken; when the drives below it get stronger, or
when recent events similar in theme to what's repressed reawaken it; in all three cases the repressed shows up in the very method used for repression. "Primal repressions" are handed down
from the painful experiences of previous generations and keep certain contents of the
id from ever becoming conscious. "Repression proper" (also called "after expulsion") has to do with the
repression of associations and ideas related to whatever idea is chiefly being repressed. An aim of
psychoanalysis is to turn repression into condemnation.

reprimand -- to scold or discipline for unacceptable behavior.

rescue marriage -- marriage based on a relationship centered on the idea of healing: one of four types of "good marriage" described by Judith Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee in
1995.

research study -- careful, systematic, and patient investigation in a field of knowledge to establish facts or principles, test hypotheses, or better understand processes.

residential propinquity -- the tendency of people to marry someone who lives relatively close to where they live.

residual hearing -- The remaining hearing, however slight, of a person who is hearing impaired.

residual vision -- The amount and degree of vision of which one has functional use despite a visual impairment.

resigned singles -- unmarried persons who want to be married but accept the fact that they will probably never marry because they have not been able to find an acceptable partner; also
called resolved singles.

resilience -- the ability to recover and not experience long-term harm from episodes of stress or a single negative experience; resilience is an abstract concept, resistant to measurement.

resistance -- Freud: the patient's efforts to remain unconscious of what is repressed. Common forms of resistance include arguing with the therapist, refusing to free associate, forgetting
to show up for a session, reducing spirit to a compensation for helplessness, and deploying
defense mechanisms in order to remain unaware of unconscious material. The negative
therapeutic reaction is the most difficult form of resistance and is motivated by a need to expiate an unconscious sense of guilt via
self-defeating behavior.

resistant attachment -- the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who remain close to the parent before departure, are usually distressed when she leaves, and mix
clinginess with angry, resistant behavior when she returns (in the Strange Situation
attachment assessment tool).

resistant to treatment -- a defining characteristic of learning disabilities. Validated methods typically applied in general education settings are not adequate to bring about sufficient
learning; the student requires more intensive and sustained explicit instruction.

resolution -- a course of action determined and decided on.

resonance -- In linguistics and speech-language pathology, the balance of air flow between the nose and the mouth; the nasal or oral aspect of sound during speech.

resource teacher -- assesses placement and provides instructional time outside of the regular classroom.

resource theory of family power -- a theory that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative resources (especially money, level of education, and occupational prestige)
each spouse has in the relationship.

resources -- assets that can be used to achieve goals; economic, human, and environmental tools.

respect -- Rogers: acceptance, or unconditional positive regard.

respiration -- the act or process of inhaling and exhaling; breathing.

respiratory arrest -- the cessation of breathing. Symptoms are cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Respiratory arrest can be caused by cardiac arrest, head injury, poisoning, overdose,
burns, some syndromes, tetanus, or drowning. Respiratory arrest can quickly lead to brain damage or death.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) -- A problem commonly found among premature infants caused by immature lung development; may also occur in about 1% of full-term infants in
the first few days of life. Respiratory failure resulting from inadequate
surfactant production in preterm infants; leads to a lack of expansion of alveoli and poor gas exchange. Mechanical
ventilation is often needed. Amniocentesis can reveal lung maturity. Associated complications are bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and other complications associated with prematurity.
Incidence: 20% of premature infants; recurrence risk, greater than normal of having a second premature infant. Perinatal (often due to prematurity).

respiratory failure -- inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, with the result that arterial oxygen and/or
carbon dioxide levels cannot be maintained within their normal ranges.

respiratory illness -- disease of the respiratory tract, such as colds, sore throats, flu.

respiratory system -- organ system including the lungs and airways. (See illustration------------------------------------------>>.)

respiratory tract --
pertains to, and includes, the nose, throat, trachea, and lungs.

respiratory ventilation --
use of a mechanical aid (ventilator) to supply oxygen to an individual with respiratory problems.

respite care -- Care provided for children (usually disabled) that allows parents to rest from the stress of caring for the child;
assistance provided by individuals outside of the immediate family to give parents and other children within the family time
away from the child with a disability for a recreational event, a vacation, and so on. Some states provide funding to families to
secure this kind of care.

resplendent -- sublime, full of color, or dazzling; splendid.

respondent learning -- learning that is subject to the laws of classical conditioning, automatic in nature, and not under
voluntary control.

response -- a measurable reaction to a stimulus event.

response cost -- procedures that penalize the child for inappropriate behavior.

response generalization -- a process in which the response to a stimulus changes although the stimulus remains the same.

response to intervention (RTI) -- a term that describes how a student responds to instructional interventions that have been determined to be effective through scientifically based
research.

responsibility, parental -- the most complete type of parental involvement with a child; involves planning, making decisions, and organizing activities for the child.

responsible daughters with dependent mothers -- a mother daughter relationship in which daughters have taken on the role of caring for their mothers.

responsible mothers with dependent daughters -- a mother-daughter relationship in which mothers still see themselves as responsible for their daughters.

responsive learning environment -- Environment that supports a child's efforts to explore and discover through interactions with other individuals, play materials, and activities.

responsiveness -- the tendency of parents to be warm, supportive, accepting, and willing to take into account the wishes and feelings of the child.

responsivity -- The quality of the environment that provides immediate and consistent feedback for child interaction.

resource file -- file of information about each family and ways they can be potential resources for a classroom.

resource teacher -- assesses placement and provides instructional time outside of the regular classroom.

restitution -- the principle that when the environment is destroyed or altered, the student must restore it to an improved state.

restraining order -- a court order that prohibits a person from threatening, harassing, or hurting a victim. May also prohibit a person from approaching or being near a victim. Also called
protective orders
.

restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) -- The use of an enzyme to split DNA into fragments that can be analyzed for genetic counseling.

resuscitation -- to revive from unconsciousness or death; to restore breathing and heartbeat.

retention -- the ability to remember or recall previously learned material.

reticent -- inclined to keep one's thoughts, feelings, and personal affairs to oneself; restrained or reserved in style; reluctant; unwilling.

reticular connective tissue -- a type of tissue found in the body that is supported with a branching framework of collagen fibers known as reticular fibers. These are present in many types
of tissue, and are particularly heavily concentrated in reticular connective tissue. Reticular connective tissue is found in the
liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.

reticular formation -- a brain structure that maintains alertness and consciousness; located at the top of the brain stem and at the
bottom of the
midbrain area. It is responsible for attention, arousal, sleep-awake, and consciousness.

retina -- the photosensitive nerve layer of the eye; a structure consisting of light-sensitive cells in the interior of the eye that
transmit images to the brain via the
optic nerve. (See illustration.)

retinal cleft --
congenital absence of retinal tissue (cleft or hole) caused by failure of normal
development in the sixth week of
pregnancy. See picture.

retinal degeneration --
a group of disorders involving degeneration of the retina. Retinitis
pigmentosa and
macular degeneration are examples. These disorders are usually inherited.
Symptoms are
impaired vision, loss of vision, night blindness, tunnel vision, loss of peripheral
vision, retinal detachment, and light sensitivity.

retinal detachment -- a condition that occurs when the retina is separated from the choroid and the
sclera. This can result from glaucoma, retinal degeneration, extreme myopia, or trauma (such as Shaken Baby Syndrome).

retinal dysplasia -- an eye disease affecting the retina. It is usually nonprogressive and can be caused by viral infections, drugs,
Vitamin A deficiency, or genetic defects.  This disorder occurs when the 2 primitive layers of the retina do not form together properly.
It can cause retinal detachment.

retinal lesions -- lesions on the retina (??)

retinitis pigmentosa -- a group of conditions associated with retinal degeneration, constricted visual fields, and progressive blindness occurring in
adolescence or adult life, and loss of
peripheral vision, May occur as an isolated condition or as part of over 30 syndromes (e.g., Usher syndrome,
mitochondrial disorders). Cause: more than 32 different genes have been identified to date. Additional causative genes are anticipated; autosomal
dominant in 15% to 20%; autosomal recessive in 20% to 25%, and X-linked recessive in 10% to 15%.

retinoblastoma -- a malignant tumor in the retina.

retinopathy of prematurity --
an eye disorder that results when too much oxygen is administered to premature infants.

retinoscope -- an instrument used to detect errors of refraction in the eye.

retrocede -- to go back; recede; to cede back (as a territory).

retrodict -- to utilize present information or ideas to infer or explain (a past event or state of affairs).

retrospective -- 1) looking backward; 2) pertaining to a fee-for-service health care model in which payment occurs after services are rendered.

retrovirus -- a DNA virus involved in gene transfer therapy. This is also the class of viruses in which HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, belongs.

Rett Syndrome -- part of the Autism Spectrum disorder. Rett syndrome is found almost exclusively in female children. In males, it is usually lethal, causing miscarriage, stillbirth, or
early death. The child with RS usually shows an early period of apparently normal or near normal development until 6-18 months of life. A period of temporary stagnation or regression follows
during which the child loses communication skills and purposeful use of the hands; progressive
encephalopathy, hyperventilation, ataxia, spasticity, postnatal onset of microcephaly;
seizures. Soon, stereotyped hand movements (hand wringing), gait disturbances, and slowing of the rate of head growth become apparent. Other problems may include seizures and
disorganized breathing patterns which occur when awake.
Apraxia (dyspraxia), the inability to program the body to perform motor movements, is the most fundamental and severely
disabling aspect of RS. It can interfere with every body movement, including eye gaze and speech, making it difficult for a girl with RS to do what she wants to do. Caused by mutations in the
methylCpG binding protein 2 (MdCP2) gene at Xq28;
X-linked dominant, with severe, neonatal encephalopathy or lethality in males.

revenant -- specter; ghost; one who returns after a long absence.

reverie -- an idle daydream; a thought of idle desire; a surrendering to imagination.

reverse chaining -- The opposite of forward chaining, teaching starts with the last step of a learning sequence.

reverse mainstreaming -- Special education classes that also include some typically developing children.

reverse role tutoring -- using students with disabilities as tutors for their peers without disabilities.

reversible thinking -- the understanding that actions can be undone or reversed.

reversibility -- concrete operational child understands that any change can be mentally reversed, for example, think of an ice cube as water. The capacity to think through a series of
steps and then mentally reverse directions, returning to the starting point. (
Piaget)

revising -- in writing, the stage in which authors make changes to the sequencing and structure of the written work to refine the content.

reward -- reinforcement given for correctly performing a task; representations of targeted improvements, including tangible items, earning privileges, free time, or honors.

reward power -- type of power based on a person's belief that an agreement with his or her partner will elicit rewards from that partner.

Reye syndrome -- acute encephalopathy following viral illness. Fatality rate is 40%. Reversible liver abnormalities and blood clotting disturbance, brain swelling. Caused by a virus and
toxin; aspirin implicated. In severe cases, neurological abnormalities. Incidence: less than 1/100,000; recurrence risk, low. Environmental; X-linked recessive in 10% to 15% and 40% to
55% are unknown.

rhabdomyosarcoma -- a malignant soft tissue tumor found most often in children. The most common sites are the structures of the head and neck, the urogenital tract, and the arms or
legs. Early diagnosis is important because this is an aggressive tumor that spreads quickly.

rhabdophobia -- fear of rods or being beaten with rods; fear of magic.

rhapsody -- impassioned, inspired, or vibrant literature or music.

Rh blood type -- blood type containing an extra protein.

rhenium -- atomic number 75, symbol Re; a rare, dense, silvery-white metallic element with a very high melting point; occurs primarily in gadolinite and molybdenite; used for electrical
contacts with tungsten for high-temperature thermocouples; discovered by
Walter Noddack in 1925.

rhetoric -- the undue use of exaggeration or display; bombast; the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech; the study of
the effective use of language; the ability to use language effectively; the art of prose as opposed to verse; the art of making persuasive speeches; oratory; the art of influencing the thought
and conduct of an audience; speech or discourse that pretends to significance but lacks true meaning.

rheumatic fever -- an inflammatory disease which may occur after a strep infection or scarlet fever and may involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. It is common worldwide and is
responsible for damaging
heart valves.  

rheumatoid arthritis -- a form of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints. It is most common in the wrist and fingers. More women than men are affected.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an
autoimmune disease. Cause is unknown.

Rh factor incompatibility -- a condition that arises when the Rh protein, present in the fetus's blood but not in the mother's, causes the mother to build up antibodies against the baby. If
the antibodies return to the fetus's system, it can destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues. Can be corrected with a Rhogam shot. The Rh protein is in
positive blood; so this only happens if the mother is negative and the
fetus is positive.

rhodium -- atomic number 45, symbol Rh; a hard, durable, silvery-white metallic element; occurs free with other platinum metals in alluvial deposits and in nickel ores; used to form
high-temperature alloys with platinum and is plated on other metals to produce a durable corrosion resistant coating; discovered in 1803 by
William Wollaston.

Rhogam -- an injection given to a mother to correct Rh incompatibility.

rhombencephalon -- the hindbrain region of the embryo.

Rh protein (factor) -- a type of protein on the surface of red blood cells, mostly in people who have positive blood.

Rh sensitization -- Changes that occur when an Rh+ babies blood enters an Rh- mother's bloodstream. This predisposes subsequent Rh+ babies to kernicterus. Sensitization is
prevented by the drug Rhogam.

rhyme -- correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verses; sense, logic, or meaning.

rhyming -- words that share a common feature, the sound of the ending. Rhyming may be the first step in gaining an awareness of phonemes.

rhypophobia, rypophobia, rupophobia -- fear of filth.

rhythm -- the element of art found in repeated shapes, colors, textures, and other patterns; the patterns of music; the beat.

rhythm instruments -- children learn about rhythm by first listening to the rhythmic pattern of a song, then trying to copy it using rhythm instruments. (See picture above.)

rhythms --
regularly occurring events.

rhytiphobia -- fear of wrinkles or getting wrinkles.

riboflavin -- a type of B vitamin (vitamin B2). It is water soluble (not stored in the body). It must be replenished every day. It works with the other B
vitamins. It is important for body growth, red blood cell production, and helps in releasing energy from
carbohydrates. Riboflavin is found in lean meats,
eggs, legumes, nuts, green leafy vegetables, dairy products, and milk. Bread and cereals are often fortified with riboflavin.

ribonucleic acid (RNA) -- a molecule essential for protein synthesis within the cell. (See illustration.)

ribosomal RNA (rRNA) --
the RNA that is a permanent structural part of a ribosome.

ribosome -- intracellular structure concerned with protein synthesis. (See illustration below RNA.)

ribs --
the long curved bones which form the ribcage and which surround the chest. They protect the heart, lungs, and other internal organs; those yummy
things you get at BBQ places covered with BBQ sauce or rubs.
(See two pictures.)

rickets --
bone disease resulting from nutritional deficiency of vitamin D.

riddle -- a statement, question, or phrase having a double or veiled
meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. Here are a couple:
1. You throw away the outside and cook the inside. Then you eat the
outside and throw away the inside. What is it?
2. What goes up and down the stairs without moving?
3. What can you catch but you cannot throw?
4. I have holes in my top and bottom, my left and right, and in the middle. But I still hold water. What am I?
5. The man who invented it doesn't want it. The man who bought it doesn't need it. The man who needs it doesn't know it. What is it?
6. What do you call a computer nerd from Athens?
(1. an ear of corn; 2. carpet; 3. a cold; 4. a sponge; 5. a coffin; 6. Greek geek);
a mystifying, misleading, or puzzling question posed as a problem to be solved or guessed; conundrum; enigma; someone or something difficult
to understand.

Rifton chair -- a chair with a solid back and sides, wide legs, and a seat belt. (See illustration.)

right atrium --
an upper right chamber of the heart; see picture.

right-brained --
using the right hemisphere of the brain as the major learning method.

rights -- moral or legal claims by one party against another.

right ventricle -- the lower right chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and
then pumps it under low pressure into the lungs via the
pulmonary artery. The right atrium and the right ventricle are
separated by the
tricuspid valve. The pulmonary valve separates the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
(See?? -->)

rigid --
increased tone marked by stiffness; seen in extrapyramidal cerebral palsy.

Rigil -- see Alpha Centauri; brightest star in Centauri; second closest star to our sun.

Riley-Day syndrome -- see familial dysautosomia.

rimes -- see phonograms; things said by ancient mariners; the part of the syllable which consists of its vowel and any consonant sounds that come
after it: "it" in "spit" and "ie" in "pie."

rimulose -- characterized by or having small chinks, fissures, or cracks.

ring chromosome -- a ring-shaped chromosome formed when deletions occur at both tips of  a normal chromosome with subsequent fusion of the tips, forming a ring.

Rishi -- the Hindu word for a sage.

risible (RIZZ-uh-bul) -- capable of laughing; disposed to laugh; arousing or provoking laughter, especially, laughable; associated with, relating to, or used in laughter.

risk factor -- a variable that precedes a negative outcome and increases the chances that the outcome will occur.

risk marker -- an antecedent variable that is significantly correlated with a consequent variable. The antecedent variable predicts the consequent variable.

risk-taking behavior -- a syndrome of multiple behavior problems.

risorgimento -- a time of renewal or renaissance; revival.

rites of passage -- initiations that mark an adolescent's new status and roles within the community.

ritzy -- being, characteristic of, or befitting a snob; snobbish; impressively or ostentatiously fancy or stylish; fashionable, posh.

RN -- see registered nurse.

RNA --
see ribonucleic acid.

Robinow syndrome (
fetal face syndrome) -- slight to moderate short stature; short forearms; macrocephaly with frontal bossing (prominent central forehead); flat facial profile with
apparent
hypertelorism; small, upturned nose; hypogenitalism; micrognathia; small face; tented upper lip with occasional clefting of the lower lip; hypertrophy of the gums; deficiency
of the lower eyelid giving the appearance of protruding eyes (
exophthalmos); congenital heart defects; vertebral or rib anomalies; dental malocclusion; genital hypoplasia; inguinal
(groin) hernia; enlarged liver and spleen; developmental delay in 15% of cases. Cause: mutations in the ROR2 gene on 9q22; rarely autosomal dominant; autosomal recessive form
is the most common, is clinically more severe, and often accompanied by rib anomalies.

Robin sequence -- a small jaw with associated cleft palate and posterior placement of the tongue.

robotics -- the use of high-tech devices to perform motor skills.

roc -- an enormous legendary bird of prey, often white, reputed to have been able to carry off and eat elephants. A group of rocs is a quarry.
A roc baby is a pebble.

rodeo -- a public competition or exhibition in which skills such as riding broncos or roping calves are displayed.

rods -- photoreceptor cells of the eye associated with low light vision. They are in the more peripheral areas of the retina, and are necessary
for night vision.
(See illustration.)

roentgenium --
atomic number 111, symbol Rg; an artificially produced radioactive element; most stable isotope has a half-life of 3.6 seconds;
also called
unununium; discovered by Sigurd Hofmann in 1994; named for Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, a German physicist.

Rogerian therapy -- Rogers: therapy in which the therapist desires for the client to feel independent, not dependent on the therapist. The client should say what is wrong, and try to find
ways to feel better. The therapist is supportive, not reconstructive, non-directive. The therapist must have congruence, or genuineness and honesty with the client;
empathy, or the ability to
feel what the client feels; and respect, or acceptance,
unconditional positive regard toward the client. If these three things are present, the client will improve.

rogue -- an unprincipled, deceitful, and unreliable person; a scoundrel or rascal; one who is playfully mischievous; a scamp; a wandering beggar; a vagrant; a vicious and solitary animal; an
organism, especially a plant, that shows an undesirable variation from a standard; large, destructive, and anomalous or unpredictable; operating outside normal or desirable controls; to
defraud; to remove.

rolandic epilepsy -- an inherited benign form of epilepsy occurring in children and characterized by arrested speech and muscular contractions of the side of the face.

role -- the expected behavior of a person or group in a given social category, such as husband, wife, supervisor, or teacher.

role ambiguity -- situation in which role expectations are unknown.

role compartmentalization -- the separation of one's various roles within the mind so that the worries associated with one role (such as work) don't disturb one's feelings and performance
in another role (such as home).

role conflict -- situation that occurs when the expectations of two or more roles are incompatible.

role making -- the process of creating new roles or revising existing roles.

role overload -- situation in which others' expectations exceeds one's ability to meet them.

role playing -- action of practicing.

role segregation (of marriage) -- a pattern of role performance in which wives and husbands perform specialized tasks and engage in few joint activities, especially leisure activities.

role taking -- the process whereby people learn how to play roles correctly by practicing and getting feedback from others.

role transition events -- traditional events or occurrences that cultures use to signify movement from one developmental stage to another.

romantic attachment -- a behavior that involves closeness to and bonding with a romantic partner; there appear to be four adult attachment styles including secure, preoccupied,
dismissing, and fearful attachment.

romantic love -- a type of love relationship characterized by intimacy and passion but lacking commitment.

romantic marriage -- marriage based on a passionate and lasting sexual relationship; one of four types of "good marriage" described by Judith Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee in
1995.

rooming in -- an arrangement in which the newborn baby stays in the mother's hospital room for all or most of her hospitalization after birth.

rooting -- a reflex in newborns that makes then turn their mouths toward the breast or the bottle to feed. This reflex disappears in about 3 to 4 months.  
However, it may persist in sleep until 7 or 8 months.
(See illustration.)

rootlets --
small branches of nerve roots.

root word -- the primary lexical unit of a word; also known as the base word.

rosacea -- a chronic skin condition involving inflammation of the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead, or eyelids. It may appear as redness, prominent spider-
like blood vessels, swelling, or skin eruptions similar to
acne.

roseate -- rose-colored, rosy; optimistic; cheerful and bright; promising.

rotational position --  turning position.

rotavirus -- a common infection and one of the most common causes of diarrhea. It is the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children. Symptoms are fever,
nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, frequent watery diarrhea, cough, runny nose. It is contagious.

rote counting -- counting by memory, may be inaccurate or out of sequence.

rote knowledge -- a form of knowing that is learned by routine or habit and without thought of the meaning.

rote learning -- learning by memorization and repetition without necessarily understanding the meaning of the information.

rote memorization -- Learning by memorization and repetition without necessarily understanding the meaning of the information.

rotgut -- raw, inferior liquor.

roué -- a man devoted to a life of sensual pleasure; rake.

rough and tumble play -- a form of peer interaction involving friendly chasing and play-fighting that, in our evolutionary past, may have been important for the development of fighting skills.

roughhousing -- rough and disorderly, but playful, behavior.

routine-based strategies -- The intentional use of predictable routine activities (i.e., snack time, dressing, etc.), transitions (i.e., departure and arrival time, daily transition to the cafeteria,
etc.), and routine group activities (i.e., circle time ) to implement interventions.

routines -- regular procedures; habitual, repeated, or regular parts of the school day; in early childhood programs, routines are those parts of the program schedule that remain constant,
such as indoor time followed by cleanup and snack, regardless of what activities are being offered within those time frames.

routinization -- a situation, often encountered in middle age, in which one's job lacks the challenge it once offered and becomes boring.

rubefacient -- producing redness of the skin.

rubella -- Also called German measles or 3-day measles; a viral infection. Rubella generally causes a mild elevation of temperature and skin rash
and resolves in a few days. However, when it occurs in a
pregnant woman during the first trimester, it can lead to intrauterine infection and severe
birth defects.
(See illustration of a baby with a rash.)

(Congenital) Rubella syndrome -- intrauterine growth retardation, intellectual disability, microcephaly, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss,
chorioretinitis, congenital heart disease. Caused by maternal infection with rubella prior to the 17th week of gestation. Amniocentesis has been
used but is not always successful in distinguishing infected and uninfected fetuses. Associated complications are
glaucoma, cataracts,
hematological problems, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, diabetes mellitus; mortality is high if patient has thrombocytopenic purpura in newborn period. Incidence: 1/10,000 in
areas where
vaccination is widely administered; higher in unvaccinated populations; maternal condition or teratogenic.

Rubenstein-Taybi syndrome -- growth retardation, broad thumbs and toes, maxillary hypoplasia (small upper jaw), high arched palate, down slanted palpebral fissures, prominent
nose, pouting lower lip, short upper lip, occasional
agenesis of corpus callosum, apnea, constipation, reflux, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, cardiac defects, renal anomalies,
ophthalmologic problems, keloid (scar) formation, glaucoma, intellectual disability. Cause: mutations of the CREB binding protein (CBP) gene on chromosome 16p13.3, most often
interstitial microdeletion of this chromosome location; most cases are due to a new mutation in the CBP gene with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed from an affected individual.

rubeola -- measles. Rubeola is very contagious and is caused by a virus. Symptoms are bloodshot eyes, cough, fever, photophobia, rash, muscle pain, conjunctivitis,
runny nose, sore throat, tiny white spots inside the mouth. Those who have had an active measles infection or who have been vaccinated against the measles have immunity to
the disease. Before widespread vaccination, measles was so common that most people had measles by age 20. The number of measles cases dropped over the last several decades (after
vaccinations) to almost none in the US and Canada. Now, however, rates have started to rise again, due to fear and misinformation about the MMR vaccination (measles, mumps,
rubella).            

rubidium -- atomic number 37, symbol Rb; a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali group that ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water; used in photocells and in
the manufacture of vacuum tube; 16th most abundant element in the earth's crust; found primarily in pollucite, carnallite, and lepidolite; discovered by
R. Bunsen in 1861.

rubric -- a rule or guide presenting clear criteria by which a complex performance can be judged.

ruction -- a noisy fight; disturbance; uproar.

rules -- procedures that must be followed.

rumination -- after swallowing, the regurgitation of food followed by chewing another time.

rumination disorder -- characterized by repeated regurgitation and rechewing of food.

runes -- characters incorporated into the alphabet developed by the Germanic tribes of Europe in the third century. Runes came to be used for magical
incantations and charms. In the nineteenth century, the term was applied by
Emerson to poetry, song, or verse. The folk poems from which the Finnish
Kalevala
was created are also referred to as runes. (See picture.)

runespoor --
a three-headed snake native to Burkina Faso in Africa. They are 6 -- 7 feet long, with orange and black stripes. A group of runespoors is
a rabble. A runespoor baby is a spat.

running record -- detailed account of a segment of time; recording all behaviors and quotes during that time.

rupestrian -- of or composed of rock; sculpted with or by rock.

ruritanian -- of, relating to, or having the characteristics of an imaginary place of high romance.

Russell-Silver syndrome (Silver-Russell syndrome) -- short stature of prenatal onset; skeletal asymmetry with hemihypertrophy (enlargement of one side of the body) in 60%;
triangular facies; beaked nose; thin upper lip; narrow, high-arched palate; blue
sclerae; occasional cafe-au-lait spots; fifth finger clinodactyly; genital anomalies in males; delayed
fontanel closure; hypocalcemia in neonatal period with sweating and rapid breathing; increased risk of fasting hypoglycemia as toddler; feeding difficulties; precocious puberty;
vertebral anomalies. Cause: duplications or maternal uniparental disomy at 7p12--p11.2; some evidence that chromosome 17q25 may be a cause in a subset of cases; new mutation with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed from an affected individual; maternal uniparental disomy in 10%; autosomal recessive in rare cases.

russophobia -- fear of Russia or Russians.

rutilant -- bright red.

ruthenium -- atomic number 44, symbol Ru; a hard, brittle, silvery-gray, acid-resistant metallic element that is found in platinum ores and is used to harden platinum and palladium for jewelry
and in alloys for nonmagnetic wear-resistant pivots and electrical contacts; discovered in 1844 by
Karl Klaus; named for the Latin Word Ruthenia (Russia).

rutherfordium -- atomic number 104, symbol Rf; an artificially produced radioactive transuranic element; produced by bombarding californium or plutonium with carbon or neon ions; its most
stable isotope has a half-life of 62 seconds; has also been called
unnilquadium; discovered by Albert Ghiorso in 1969; named for Lord Rutherford, a New Zealand chemist and physicist.
A    B    C    D   E   F   G    H     I     JKL   M     NO    
PQ    Sa--So   Sp--Sz   T   U--Z   
Take the gentle
path.
--George Herbert
Though this man's
(doctor's) face appeared in
an image search for
rectovaginal fistula, it is
important to understand
that he, himself, is not
actually a
rectovaginal
fistula
, though I do not
know him personally, I am
still going to go ahead and
say that he isn't. I WILL
say, however, that he
DOES know how to treat a
rectovaginal fistula and
is, in fact, licensed to do
so.
(Hani B. Baradi, MD)