pachygyria -- abnormal convolutions on the surface of the brain (---->).

pacing --
providing instruction at an appropriate rate to keep students engaged in learning and to promote
understanding.

pagan -- an adherent of a polytheistic religion in antiquity, especially when viewed in contrast to an adherent of a
monotheistic religion; one who has no religion; an adherent of a religion other than Judaism, Christianity, or Islam; a
hedonist.

Paget's disease -- a chronic bone condition which affects how bones break down and rebuild. Healthy bone
metabolism allows for old bone to be recycled into new bone throughout a person's life. Paget's disease causes the
bones to become fragile and misshapen. Symptoms are pain in affected bones, joint pain and swelling, and pain
caused by pinched nerves. Other signs are warmth of the skin over the affected area, hearing loss, headache, vision
loss, bone deformities, and fractures. The cause is unknown.

paladin -- a trusted military leader (as for a medieval prince); a leading champion of a cause.

palatal -- relating to the palate, the back portion of the roof of the  mouth.

palate -- the roof of the mouth. (See picture.)

palatial --
pertaining to a palace; grandiose; magnificent.

palatine bone -- a skull bone located at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the sphenoid bone. It is the floor and
lateral wall of the nasal cavity, the roof of the mouth, and the floor of the
orbit (eye socket). (See picture.)

palaver --
conference or discussion; idle chat; chat with flattery of cajolery involved.

palimony -- "equitable relief" (alimony) granted by a court to a  cohabiting partner; legal precedent established in Marvin v Marvin in 1979.

palimpset -- erased parchment, which is then reused; manuscript written over earlier ones.

palindrome -- a word that is spelled the same forward and backward. Examples: kayak, reviver, racecar, civic. Palindrome phrase: Was it a rat I saw? Famous quotation palindrome: Madam,
I'm Adam.
Name palindrome: Mike Kim Words as units palindrome: Fall leaves after leaves fall. You can find palindromes in molecular biology, music, dates, acoustics, biological structures,
computation theories, other mathematical stuff, and almost everything else. A really funny palindrome sentence I found is this: "Doctor Rubenstein was shocked and dismayed when he
answered the ringing telephone, only to hear a strange metallic, alien say, 'Yasec iovn eilacilla temeg! Nartsa raehoty lnoenoh pelet gnig, nirehtde rewsnaehn ehw. Deya! Msid! Dnadek
cohssaw nietsne buerro, tcod?'" A
semordnilap is "palindromes" backwards, and means a word that spells a different word backwards: stressed -- desserts; gateman -- nametag; was -- saw;
lived -- devil, etc.

palisade -- a fence of pales or stakes set firmly in the ground.

palladian -- of or relating to wisdom or learning.

palladium -- atomic number 46, symbol Pd; a soft, ductile, steel-white, tarnish-resistant, metallic element occurring naturally with platinum, especially in gold, nickel, and copper ores; used in
electric contacts, jewelry, and surgical instruments; discovered in 1803 by
William Wollaston; named for the Greek goddess of wisdom (Pallas) and after an asteroid.

palliasse -- mattress consisting of a thin pad filled with straw, sawdust, or hay.

palliate -- to alleviate, reduce, or remove pain (palliative).

pallid -- pale, wan, or deficient in color.

Pallister Killian Mosaic syndrome -- (also called Chromosome 12, Isochromosome 12p Mosaic; Killian Syndrome; Killian/Teschler-Nicola syndrome; Pallister Mosaic
syndrome; Pallister Mosaic syndrome Tetrasomy 12p) --
a rare chromosomal disorder. Characteristics include: a coarse face with a high forehead, sparse hair on the scalp,
hypertelorism
, epicanthal folds, a broad nasal bridge with a highly arched palate, intellectual disability, hypotonia, hypopigmentation on streaks of skin, and large ears with lobes
that are thick and protrude outward. Other characteristics are extra nipples,
seizures at birth, cognitive delays, congenital heart defects, hernias of the diaphragm, minimal speech
development,
sensorineural hearing loss, sparse eyebrows and eyelashes, prominent cheeks, strabismus, ptosis, long philtrum with thin upper lip with a cupid-bow shape, protruding
lower lip, delayed dental eruption, failure to thrive,
laryngomalacia, gastroesophageal reflux, cataracts, and an abnormal opening in the anus. It is caused by tetrasomy on chromosome
12p. A person with Pallister-Killian Mosaic Syndrome has four copies of the short arm of chromosome 12 instead of the normal two, sporadic mutation; cause of
deaf-blindness.

pallor --
paleness.

palmar crease -- see simian crease.

palmar grasp -- grasping an object in the palm of the hand; also called ulnar grasp. (See picture.)

palmar grasp reflex --
a newborn reflex in which the infant gets a death grip on whatever finger or blanket is offered to their tiny little hand. The function of
this reflex is to prepare the infant for voluntary grasping. Disappears by 3 -- 4 months.

palmoplantar keratoderma -- a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal thickening of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. This disorder may be genetically
inherited or acquired.

palooka -- an inexperienced or incompetent boxer; oaf, lout.

pal parenting style -- also known as laissez-faire parenting; parents let children set their own goals, rules, and limits.

palpebral fissures -- the separation between the lower or upper eyelids.

palpitations -- an abnormality of heartbeat that causes a conscious awareness of its beating: it feels too fast, too slow, or otherwise irregular.

palsy -- paralysis of a body part.

paltry -- inferior, trashy, mean, despicable, trivial, meager, measly.

panacea -- a cure-all; medicine, herb, or concoction designed or functioning as a cure-all.

panache -- an ornamental tuft (as of feathers) especially on the helmet; dash or flamboyance in style and action; verve.

pancreas -- a glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. It is located in the abdomen between the stomach and the spine. It is both an endocrine gland producing
insulin
, glucagon, and somatostatin; as well as an exocrine gland, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that pass to the small intestines.

pancreatitis -- an inflammation of the pancreas.

pancytopenia -- marked reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

pandemic -- an epidemic of infectious disease that is considered world-wide.

panegyric (pan-uh-JEER-ik) -- an eulogistic oration of writing; also, formal or elaborate praise.

panic disorder -- a psychiatric disorder in which the patient has episodes of sudden and irrational fears associated with hyperventilation and palpitations. These attacks may last from
minutes to hours. With panic disorder, at least 4 of the following symptoms suddenly occur within 10 minutes: shortness of breath, dizziness or fainting, palpitations or pounding heart,
trembling or shaking, sweating or chills or hot flashes, feeling of choking, nausea or upset stomach, numbness or tingling, chest pain or discomfort, fear of dying, fear of losing control,
feelings of unreality, feelings of detachment. Attacks may be followed by at least one month of persistent fear of having another attack.

panoply -- a full collection or array; full set of armor.

panoramic -- unbroken view of an entire surrounding area; inclusive presentation; survey.

pantomime -- communication through gestures and facial movements.

pantophobia, panophobia, panphobia, pamphobia -- fear of everything.

pantothenic acid -- vitamin B5; an antioxidant, water soluble vitamin needed to break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats for energy.

papaphobia -- fear of the Pope (or the Papacy).

papilloma -- a benign epithelial tumor growing outwardly in finger-like fronds.

papyrophobia -- fear of paper.

parable -- example; specifically, a usually short fictitious story that illustrates a moral attitude or a religious principle.

parachute reflex -- extension of arms and legs toward the surface that results when an infant is held in a horizontal position and prone, and then lowered
toward the floor.
(See illustration.)

paradigm --
clearly defined archetype; typical example or pattern of something.

paradise -- the garden where, according to the Bible, Adam and Eve first lived; Eden; an intermediate place or state where the souls of the righteous await resurrection and the final
judgment; the dwelling place of God and the blessed dead; Heaven; a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight.

paradox -- a statement or a group of statements that lead to a contradiction of a situation which defies intuition. Sometimes the word "paradox" is used to describe irony. "Life is much too
important to be taken seriously." (
Oscar Wilde.) "I have found the paradox, that if you love until it hurts, there can be no more hurt, only more love." (Mother Teresa.)

paraeducator -- individual employed as a non-certified staff member to assist certified staff in carrying out education programs and otherwise helping in the
instruction of students with disabilities; also called a paraprofessional; two educators (pair o').

paralipophobia -- fear of neglect of a duty.

parallel play -- A form of play in which children are side by side but do not interact. According to Mildred Parten, this is the second step in social
development, in which children play near each other with similar materials, but do not influence the other's behavior.
(See illustration ----------------------->.)

parallel style of conflict --
a means of handling conflict whereby one is unassertive and uncooperative; the arguers completely deny and retreat from any
discussion of a problem, hoping it will just disappear.

parallel talk -- at a child's present level of speech or one step above the child's speech rather than at an adult level.

paralysis -- temporary or permanent loss of sensation, function, or voluntary movement of a body part. Paralysis can be complete or partial and can occur in just
one area, or be widespread. Most paralysis is due to
strokes or injuries such as spinal cord injuries or a broken neck. Other causes include nerve diseases, such
as
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; autoimmune diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome; Bell's Palsy, and formerly, polio. (See picture ->.)

paramedic --
Specially trained individual who handles emergency medical situations.

paramour -- lover, especially one in an adulterous relationship; lover; illicit lover.

paranoia -- an unfounded or exaggerated distrust of others, sometimes reaching delusional proportions. Individuals who have paranoia constantly suspect the motives of those around them,
and believe that certain individuals, or people in general, are "out to get them." Paranoid perceptions and behavior may appear as features of a number of
mental illnesses, including
depression
and dementia, but are most prominent in three types of psychological disorders: paranoid schizophrenia, persecutory delusional disorder (persecutory type), and paranoid
personality disorder (PPD). Individuals with paranoid schizophrenia and persecutory delusional disorder experience what is known as persecutory delusions: an irrational, yet unshakable,
belief that someone is plotting against them. Persecutory delusions in paranoid schizophrenia are bizarre, sometimes grandiose, and often accompanied by auditory
hallucinations.
Delusions experience by individuals with persecutory delusional disorder are more plausible than those experienced by individuals who are paranoid schizophrenic; not bizarre, though still
unjustified. Individuals with persecutory delusional disorder may seem offbeat or quirky rather than mentally ill, and, as such, may never seek treatment. Persons with paranoid personality
disorder tend to be self-centered, self-important, defensive, and emotionally distant. Their paranoia manifests in constant suspicions rather than full-blown delusions. The disorder often
impedes social and personal relationships and career advancement. Some individuals with PPD are described as "litigious," as they are constantly initiating frivolous law suits. PPD is more
common in men than in women, and typically begins in early adulthood.
Freud: a defense against unconscious homosexuality. (Later analysts see paranoias a projection of the paranoid
person's aggressive impulses.)

paranoid personality disorder (PPD) -- a psychiatric condition in which a person is very distrustful and suspicious of others. A person with this disorder is usually unable to acknowledge
their own negative feelings toward other people. Symptoms are concerns that others have hidden motives, expectations that they will be exploited by others, inability to work with others, poor
self-image, social isolation, detachment, and hostility. PPD is
chronic and cause is unknown. It appears to be familial.   

paranoid schizophrenia -- a chronic mental illness in which reality is interpreted abnormally (psychosis). The classic features are delusions, and auditory hallucinations. Paranoid
schizophrenia doesn't usually affect memory, concentration, or dulled emotions; and the ability to think and function in daily life seems to be better than with other types of
schizophrenia. It
is a very serious lifelong condition, which may lead to complications such as
suicidal behavior.

paranymph -- a friend going with a bridegroom to fetch home the bride in ancient Greece; the bridesmaid conducting the bride to the bridegroom; best man; bridesmaid; two nymphs.  

paraph --
a flourish at the end of a signature, may be used as a safeguard against forgery .

paraphrasing -- the practice of the listener restating the heart of the conversation in order to confirm and clarify what was meant.  

paraplegia --
paralysis that involves the legs only.  

parapraxis --
Freud: he never used this word, though it is credited to him. He wrote of the Fehlleistung, the faulty achievement, when we mean to do one thing
and do another. Slips of the tongue are one example.

paraprofessional -- Two professionals; a trained person who assists a certified professional as an aide. (See picture right there of two professional
warrior princesses----------------------->.)

parapsychological phenomenon --
Maslow: inaugurated the fourth force in psychology. First is Freudian psychology. Second is behaviorism. Third is
humanism, existentialism. Fourth is transpersonal psychology including meditation, higher levels of consciousness, and THIS, which is the study of ostensibly paranormal events including
extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, and survival of consciousness after death. Of course, this fourth level also includes
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, duh.

parasang -- an ancient Persian unit of distance, usually estimated at 3.5 miles.

parasites (parasitic) -- organisms that live on or within other living organisms.

parasitophobia -- fear of parasites.

parasomnia -- sleep disturbances (i.e., night terrors, sleep walking).

parasuicide -- any nonfatal self-injury, including suicide attempts and self-mutilations.

parathyroid glands -- small endocrine glands in the neck behind the thyroid. There are four parathyroid glands, each normally the size and shape of a grain of rice. The parathyroid
glands control the calcium levels in the body.

PARC vs. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) -- federal court case that established the right of all children with intellectual disability in Pennsylvania to a public education.

parent -- PL 108-446 -- Legal guardians and surrogate parents; natural, adoptive, or foster parent; or a person acting in the place of a natural or adoptive parent with whom the child lives,
or who is legally responsible for the child.

parent alienation syndrome (PAS) -- disturbance in which children are preoccupied with viewing one parent as all good and the other parent as all bad. The bad parent is hated and
verbally marginalized, whereas the good parent is idealized and loved.

parental consent -- Parent permission for a program, assessment, or specific activity; given after parents have been informed about choices, risks, and benefits; parental consent is
REQUIRED before any assessment or intervention can take place.

parental control -- the degree of flexibility exhibited by a parent in terms of enforcing rules and disciplining his or her children.

parental permission -- no assessment activity or special education services can occur without this.

parental safeguards (see procedural safeguards) -- according to IDEA, parents are given the following safeguards: parental consent must be given in writing before any assessment
procedure can take place; parents can request another assessment team if they feel that the one provided is inappropriate and that it be funded at public expense; parents are part of the

IEP
or IFSP team; parents may review and inspect any of their child's records, and have the right to challenge information that they feel is inaccurate, misleading, or in violation of their
privacy or other rights; parents can request information from the child's record; and the parents may request hearings.
 

parental support --
the amount of caring, closeness, and affection a parent exhibits or gives to his or her children.  

parent-arranged marriage --
a practice, common in non-industrialized societies, in which the parents of the bride and groom select the future spouse and arrange the marriage ceremony.
Based on the principle that the elders in a community have the wisdom to select an appropriate spouse, this type of marriage generally extends existing family units rather than creating new
units.
 

parents as members of an educational team --
parents work with other team members, give them information about the child's life outside of the school and other pertinent and relevant
information, work with the child at home to meet
IEP or IFSP goals, and give written consent for any evaluation or changes in placement. Professionals should value parents and build a
collaborative relationship with them to benefit the student. This is most effective when these 5 things occur: 1) parents and teachers recognize each others' differences in values and culture;
2) they listen openly and attentively to each others' concerns; 3) they value others' opinions and ideas; 4) discuss issues openly and in an atmosphere of trust; 5) share in the responsibility
and consequences of decisions.  

parent cooperative schools -- an educational setting organized by parents for their young children often with parental control and/or support in the operation of the program itself.

parent education -- a lecture-and-discussion format for small or large groups of parents that is aimed at helping them learn how to raise children successfully.

parenteral -- providing nutrition or medication by vein rather than an oral route.

parenteral feeding -- intravenous provision of high-quality nutrition (i.e., carbohydrates, protein, fat) used in children with malabsorption, malnutrition, and short bowel syndrome;
also called
hyperalimentation.

Parent Needs Survey (PNS) -- instrument used to assess the needs of families of young children with disabilities.  

parent participation -- Sometimes referred to as the "Parent's Law," this part of IDEA mandates that parents participate in the decision-making process that affects their child's education.
IDEA
regulations currently allow assistance to parents as part of a preschooler's IEP if the assistance benefits the child. Parental training activities are also permitted.

parent surrogates -- individuals appointed to act in place of parents; a substitute parent.

paresis -- slight or partial paralysis.

pariah -- outcast.

parietal bones -- two of the largest ones of the skull, which together form a large portion of the sides and roof of the
cranium. (See picture.)

parietal lobe --
the top of our upper brain, it's one of four major areas of the cerebrum. This area deals with
reception of sensory information from the body's opposite side. It also plays a part in reading, writing, language, and
calculation. The other three lobes are the
occipital, temporal, and frontal. (See picture.)

parity --
the number and spacing of children a woman bears.

Parkinson's disease -- A progressive neurological disease usually occurring in older people; associated with tremor, slowed movements, and muscular rigidity.

parlay -- to exploit successfully; to increase or otherwise transform into something of much greater value; to bet in a parlay.

parliamentary divorce -- in English history, a divorce granted by the House of Lords that allowed remarriage.

parlous -- full of danger or uncertainty; precarious; greatly or excessively; cunning.

parochial -- of or relating to a church parish; limited in range or scope; provincial; narrow.

parody -- a comic literary form that presents another, more serious work in a humorous fashion.

parotid gland -- the largest of the salivary glands. See placement in picture below parietal lobe.

paroxysm --
a sudden attack, convulsion, or seizure, usually of an emotional or medical nature.

paroxysmal -- intermittent.

parsimony -- the adoption of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory or the interpretation of data.

Part B -- The part of the law (PL 99-457) that pertains to preschoolers with disabilities; ages 3--6. This section required that all states provide a free
and appropriate public education to every eligible child with a disability between ages 3 and 5. Previously, this law included only children ages 6
to 21. Part B in
IDEA 2004 is called "Assistance for Education of ALL Children with Disabilities" (at least those between age 3 and 21).

Part C -- The part of the law (IDEA) that pertains to the regulations for infants and toddlers with disabilities, ages birth to 3; a child of this age is not
necessarily categorized into the classifications for older children, thus the more broad terminology; the term "
developmentally delayed" is more
commonly used.
IDEA 2004 states, "It is the policy of the United States to provide financial assistance to States to develop and implement a
statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary, interagency system that provides
early intervention services for infants and toddlers with
disabilities and their families."

Part H -- the section of PL 99-457 that specifies the provision of special education services to infants and toddlers who are disabled or at-risk for
developmental delay.

parthenogenetic --
developed by an unfertilized egg.

parthenophobia -- fear of virgins or young girls.

parthian -- of or relating to Parthia or its people, language, or culture; delivered in or as if in retreat.

partial graduated guidance -- instructor uses minimal physical contact but much praise in helping the child learn a desired task.

partial inclusion -- type of inclusive education in which students with disabilities receive some of their instruction in a general education classroom, with "pull-out" to another instructional
setting when appropriate to their individual needs.

partiality -- tendency to favor one person over another.

partially sighted -- having low vision.

partial participation -- Term given to students' level of participation in an activity when they are unable to fully perform an activity on their own but can engage in some parts of the activity
with supports as needed. (Not the same as '
zone of proximal development.' In this case, it is referring to children with disabilities.)

partial seizure -- type of seizure in which the electrical discharge affects only part of the brain; symptoms may involve twitching or rapid eye blinks. Also called focal seizures.

participant observation --
type of observational research whereby researchers interact naturally with the subjects they are observing but do not reveal that they are researchers.

particulate -- formed of very small, separate particles; the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object.

parting ritual -- expected behaviors and activities repeated each day when saying good-bye.

partner dominance -- the degree to which a person feels his or her partner tries to be controlling and dominant in their relationship.

partnership -- relationship between two or more people working together to reach a common goal.

parvenu -- nouveau-riche; person having risen to new status, but lacks the social skills necessary for it.

parvovirus - a group of extremely small DNA viruses. Intrauterine infection with this virus increases the risk of miscarriage but has not been shown to
result in
fetal malformations---------->.

pasquinade --
public farce, satire, or lampoon.

passive -- lacking in energy or will to express one's self.

passive affect -- behaviors typical of self-involvement, for example, hoarding objects.

passive aggression -- the expression of anger indirectly rather than directly.

passive-aggressive behavior -- feigning agreement or acting as if everything is OK but later becoming hostile or aggressive; an indirect way of expressing anger.

passive congenial marriage -- marriage in which the couple focuses on activities rather than intimacy, but unlike people in devitalized marriages, they have always done so.

passive G-E correlation -- situation in which parents provide a rearing environment that matches the child's own genotype.

passive learning -- characterized by a lack of asking questions, seeking help, or initiating learning.

passive listening -- a stage in the development of listening skills when the child just sits, with little or no reaction.

paste -- to strike hard at; to beat or defeat soundly; stuff that's sticky and can stick stuff together.

pasteurized -- heated a food to a prescribed temperature for a specific time period to destroy disease-producing bacteria.

pastiche --
literary patchwork; hodgepodge; collision of genres used to create a new item.

patina -- natural tarnish from wear of usage and passage of time; verdigris.

Patau syndrome -- see Trisomy 13 -- a rare genetic disorder in which there are three copies of chromosome 13 instead of the usual 2. Sometimes, the extra genetic material may be
attached to another chromosome (
translocation). Symptoms are cleft lip or palate, clenched hands, close-set eyes (eyes may actually fuse together into one), hypotonia, polydactyly,
hernias
, coloboma, low-set ears, severe intellectual disability, scalp defects, seizures, single palmar crease, limb abnormalities, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cryptorchidism,
congenital heart defects, apnea, deafness, feeding problems, vision problems. It occurs in about 1/10,000 newborns, usually sporadic mutation. More than 80% of children born with
Trisomy 13 die in the first month. It can be diagnosed prenatally with
amniocentesis.

patella -- kneecap.

patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) -- a condition in which a temporary blood vessel near the unborn baby's heart, the ductus arteriosis, fails to close after birth. This vessel permitted the
blood flow to bypass the lungs prior to birth. After birth, this vessel must close so that the lungs can oxygenate the circulating blood. Patent means open.

patent foramen ovale (PFO) -- a tiny open window in the atrial wall of the heart passing oxygenated blood from the right atrium into the left atrium, thus bypassing circulation to the fetal
lungs
in utero.

paternalism --
imposing a decision on another person for that person's welfare (e.g., the theory that "doctor knows best").

pathogen -- any agent that causes disease, particularly a microorganism such as a bacterium or fungus.

pathogenic organisms --
organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or cysts, capable of causing diseases such as typhoid, cholera, or dysentery in a host, such as a person.

pathologist -- Certified professional who focuses on diseases or impairments.

pathology -- alterations in an organism that are caused by disease.

pathophobia, panthophobia -- fear of disease.

pathos -- an element in experience or in artistic representation evoking pity or compassion; an emotion of sympathetic pity.

patina -- a usually green film formed on copper and bronze by exposure to moist air and often valued aesthetically for its color; a surface appearance of something grown beautiful especially
with age or use; an appearance or aura that is derived from association, habit, or established character; a superficial covering or exterior.

patois -- dialect other than the usual of literary dialect; uneducated or provincial language.

patriarchal, patriarchy, patriarchal family, patriarchal group, patriarchal marriage -- male-dominated, male-identified, and male-centered.

patriarchal terrorism -- violence committed by men who feel they must control their women by any means necessary.

patrilineal -- family/kinship system in which descent and ownership of property is traced through the father's lines.

patrilocal residence -- situation in which newly married partners live with the husband's family.

patriophobia -- fear of hereditary disease.

patterning -- controversial therapy program that involves repetition of movements in order to facilitate developmental progress.

paucity -- small in number or quantity.

Pavlik harness -- A device used to correct congenital hip dislocation.

PCB -- see polychlorinated biphenyl.

PDA --
see patent ductus arteriosis.

PDD --
see pervasive developmental disorder.

PDD-NOS --
see pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified.

peak bone mass --
the highest density of bone a person has in life.

peak experience -- Maslow: see epiphany.

peccadillo --
insignificant sin or wrongdoing; trifling fault.

peccatiphobia, peccatophobia -- fear of sin or sinning.

peccavi -- admission of guilt, confession.

peculation -- embezzlement.

pecuniary -- financial; monetary; relating to money.

pedagogical issues -- issues related to teaching.

pedagogista -- a person trained in early childhood education who meets weekly with teachers in the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy -------->.

pedagogy --
the function or work of a teacher; teaching; the art or science of teaching; education; instructional methods.

pedantic -- ostentatious in one's learning; overly concerned with minute details or formalisms, especially in teaching.

pederast -- a person who has sexual activity with young boys.

pediatric AIDS -- AIDS that occurs in infants or young children, often contracted by unborn fetuses from the blood of the mother or blood infusions. It results in a variety of physical and
mental disorders and is thought to be the fastest growing infectious cause of
intellectual disability.

pediatrician --
a doctor who specializes in the field of medicine that deals with the care of children------------------------->.

pediatric ophthalmologist --
Physician who specializes in diseases and malfunctioning of the eyes during the developmental years.

pediculophobia, phthiriophobia -- fear of lice.

pediculous -- infested with lice; lousy.

pediophobia -- fear of children.

pedophile -- a person who has sexual activity with children of either sex.

pedophobia, paedophobia -- fear of dolls or infants.

peer -- of the same rank; equal.

peer acceptance -- likability, or the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of agemates (such as classmates) as a worthy social partner.

peer and family referenced intervention model -- when the curriculum is validated in reference to the child, family, and community with parents as full partners in decision making.

peer collaboration -- children with varying abilities work in groups, teaching, and helping one another. According to Vygotsky, this is important in aiding a child progress within his/her zone
of proximal development. As well as peer collaboration, Vygotsky also stresses teachers and other adults who guide children's learning through explanations, demonstrations, and verbal
prompts.

peer conferencing -- students discussing each other's written products; considered an effective feedback and editing activity in the writing process.

peer culture -- typically consists of a specialized vocabulary, dress code, place to hang out during leisure hours, etc.

peer group -- peers who form a social unit by generating shared values and standards of behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers. They form on the basis of proximity,
gender, ethnicity, and popularity
.

peer like relations, mothers and daughters --
a mother-daughter relationship in which mothers and daughters are close friends.

peer marriage -- relationships that are built on equity (where each partner gives to the relationship in the same proportion that he or she receives) and equality (each partner has equal
status and is equally responsible for emotional, economic, and household duties.)

peer-mediated instruction -- a structured interaction between two or more students under the direct supervision of a classroom teacher. Peers assist in teaching skills to other students.

peer or expert consultation -- teachers observing their peers providing interventions to learners, such as English language learners, who need supplemental instruction.

peer support -- an effective strategy and natural support for working with children with disabilities; may range from opportunities for children with disabilities to interact socially with peers
without disabilities to highly structured programs of peer-mediated instruction.

peer tutoring -- Approach to peer mediated instruction in which students are partnered, provided with instructional materials that they have to learn, and expected to help each other in
accomplishing the learning goal; an instructional method to facilitate learning of students with disabilities in a general education class. One student provides instruction and/or support to
another student or group of students.

peer victimization -- a destructive form of peer interaction in which certain children become frequent targets of verbal
and physical attacks or other forms of abuse.

pegasus -- in Greek mythology, a winged divine horse usually white in color. He was sired by Poseidon, and foaled by
the Gorgon Medusa. A group of pegasi is a puff. A baby pegasus is a foal.
See picture of a Pegasus.

Pegasus --
 a constellation in the northern sky named after the winged horse Pegasus in Greek mythology. It was one
of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy, and remains one of the 88 modern constellations;
10 of its stars have planets.
See picture.

pegword strategy --
a strategy to help children remember numbered or ordered information by linking words that
rhyme with numbers.

peladophobia, phalacrophobia -- fear of becoming bald.

pelf -- money, riches.

pellagra -- a disease caused most commonly by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet.

pellucid -- translucently clear, limpid, or ethereal.

pelvis -- a ring like structure of bones at the lower end of the trunk, comprised of three bones: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis. It connects to the large triangular bone (sacrum) on the
base of the
spine. On each side of the pelvis there is a hollow cup (acetabulum) that serve as the sockets for the hip joints.

pemphigus -- a group of rare skin disorders that cause blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, such as the mouth and genitals. Symptoms are blisters which rupture easily, leave open
sores, become oozy and infected.

penacillamine -- a drug used to bind ingested heavy metals, particularly lead and copper. This drug may be given orally.

penalty -- a form of punishment that involves the loss of something desirable.

penchant -- a strong and continued inclination; liking.

Pendred syndrome -- a genetic disorder that affects hearing abilities and causes thyroid problems. The combination of thyroid goiter and moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing
loss.
Autosomal recessive. Treatments include thyroid hormone, and possible surgery to remove goiter. Associated complications are hypothyroidism, congenital deafness, and
developmental delay
. Incidence: 0.07/1000; recurrence risk to siblings, 25%. It is estimated that 5% of children with congenital hearing loss have Pendred syndrome.

penetrance --
the percentage of people with a particular genetic mutation who express symptoms of the disorder. A disorder shows reduced penetrance when some people with the genetic
defect are completely without symptoms.

peniaphobia -- fear of poverty.

penicillin -- a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi.

peninsula -- piece of land mostly surrounded by water, except on one side.

penis -- the male organ of sexual intercourse and other stuff.

penis envy -- in Freudian theory, anxiety associated with the Electra complex. A subset of the castration complex, it involves the supposed envy of "castrated" women of the male
member, which they later seek to possess via
pregnancy and childbirth. Freud believed that women never forgave their mothers for leaving them "castrated" and without a penis. Certainly
Freud's little sister was left with something to think about after her mother left her without a piano (pianist envy). Freud, the family tyrant, disliked music, and his wish-fulfilments were law.

pensive -- brooding; reflecting, involving, or engaged in deep or serious thought.

pentasomy X -- see XXX, XXXX, XXXXX syndromes.

pentheraphobia --
fear of mother-in-law.

penumbra -- a partial shadow; space of partial illumination; the limits of a shadow.

pepper imps -- a candy sold at Honeydukes in Hogsmeade (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling). They are tiny black peppermint sweets that make the consumer smoke at the mouth and
breathe fire.

peptides -- a class of hormones made of chains of amino acids. These proteins also serve as information messengers for states, moods, and thinking. They travel throughout the body.

Percent Daily Value (% Daily Value) -- a measure of the nutritional value of food; used in nutrition labeling.

percentiles -- scores reported on norm-referenced tests that indicate the percentage of scores (determined from a normative sample) that fall below a person's raw score; percentile
rank.
 

perception --
the ability to sense a stimulus.  

perception checks --
when a listener checks his or her perception or understanding of what was said in the course of a conversation in order to open up and clarify the communication.  

perceptual abilities -- a child's ability to make use of information received through the six senses or modalities: auditory, visual, kinesthetic, gustatory, olfactory, and tactile.

perceptual development --
the development of a child's sensorimotor skills.

perceptual disability -- visual and auditory disabilities.

perceptual distortion --
Rogers: one of the defenses we use when we are in a threatening situation, which is incongruity between what you picture as your ideal self and your immediate
experience of yourself.

perceptual motor development -- the growth of a person's ability to move (motor) and perceive (perceptual) together; perceptual motor activity involves the body and the mind together, to
coordinate movement.

perceptual motor impairments -- children with these impairments may have difficulty distinguishing shapes and sizes and have difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing, coloring, and
cutting. They may lack established handedness and may make letter, word, and number reversals.

perceptual motor skills -- Movement generated by sensory messages by what is seen, heard, touched, tasted, or smelled.

perceptual motor theorists -- believe that movement is essential to a child's learning process. Unlike cognitive development, which requires children to use and process abstract
information (using words and/or numbers), perceptual motor development relies on the concrete, physical dimensions of the environment.

perceptual motor training activities -- the training of motor, visual, or auditory skill to improve academic performance.

perceptual readiness (for reading) -- the prerequisite skill to reading involving the ability to associate printed language with spoken language. It also requires the child to discriminate
among letters and sounds.

percolate -- to filter; to cause to filter; to cause to pass through pores or small holes.

percutaneous umbilical cord sampling (PUBS) -- a prenatal diagnostic procedure for obtaining fetal blood for genetic testing; also called cordocentesis.

percutaneously --
through the skin.

perdition -- eternal damnation; hell.

perennial -- lasting throughout the year, typically of a plant.

perfectionism -- striving for a self-imposed advanced goal or unrealistic standard; characteristics and behaviors include compulsive work habits, extensive attention to detail, rigid routine,
and unrealistically high standards for self and others.

perfidious -- the quality or state of being faithless or disloyal; treachery.

perforate -- to pierce, punch, or bore a hole or holes in; stab through; penetrate.

performance assessment -- a specific type of alternative assessment in which children demonstrate a skill or create a product that shows their learning.

performance-based assessment -- evaluation based on observable, specific information on what a teacher actually does (performance while on the job).

performance deficits -- lack of consistent performance of a skill or behavior, even though it is in the student's repertoire.

performance standards -- state how well a child should demonstrate knowledge and skills. They gauge the degree to which children have met the content standards.

perfusion -- the passage of blood through the arteries to an organ or tissue.

peregrination -- to travel, especially on foot; walk; traverse.

pericarditis -- a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. Symptoms are ankle, feet, and leg swelling; anxiety; breathing difficulty when lying
down; chest pain which may radiate to the neck, shoulder, back, or abdomen; dry cough; fatigue; fever; need to bend over or hold the breath while breathing. It usually occurs as a
complication of
viral infections.

perinatal --
occurring at or immediately following birth; during birth.

perinatal factors -- conditions that occur before birth, during labor, or delivery. Including prematurity, can cause hearing loss: exposure to viruses, bacteria, or other toxins prior to or
following birth can result in
sensorineural hearing loss. During delivery, hypoxia or anoxia can cause damage to the hearing system, particularly the cochlea. Also, hyperbilirubinemia
and
intracranial hemorrhage have been associated with sensorineural hearing loss; and prematurity exacerbates all of these problems, by making the baby more vulnerable.

perineum -- the area between the anus and the vulva. An episiotomy is a surgical procedure used to widen the birth outlet, in which a cut is made in the perineum to avoid tearing.

perinuclear space -- a gap that separates the two membranes of the nuclear envelope. It is 10 to 40 nanometers wide.

periodontal -- pertaining to the gums and bony structures that surround the teeth (--->>).

periodontal disease --
disease of the gums and bony structures that surround the teeth.

periorbital -- area surrounding the socket of the eye.

periosteum -- fibrous tissue covering and protecting all the bones. (See picture.)

peripheral nervous system --
the parts of the nervous system that are outside the brain and spinal cord.

peripheral neuropathy -- a problem with the nerves that carry information to and from the brain and spinal cord. This can produce pain, loss of
sensation, and an inability to control muscles.

peripheral perfusion -- the checking of blood flow to the furthest most parts of the body -- usually under the fingernails and toenails; the amount
of
oxygen saturation in the blood.

peripheral venous lines --
catheters that are placed in a superficial vein of the arm or leg to provide medication.

peripheral vision -- That degree of vision available at the outer edges of the eyes.

periphery -- line that forms the boundary; limited circumference of sight; perimeter.

perissology -- (noun) use of more words that are necessary; redundancy or superfluity of expression.

peritoneal -- referring to the membrane surrounding the abdominal organs. In kidney failure, dialysis can be performed by perforating the peritoneum and 'washing out' the abdominal cavity.

peritoneal dialysis -- a way to remove waste products from the blood when the kidneys can no longer do the job. Blood vessels in the abdominal lining (peritoneum) fill in for the kidneys,
with the help of a fluid (dialysate) washed in and out of the peritoneal space.

peritonitis -- an inflammation of the peritoneum.

periventricular heterotopia -- a condition in which neurons do not migrate properly during the early development of the fetal brain, from about the 6th week to the 24th week of
pregnancy
. Heterotopia means "out of place." The neurons which have failed to migrate form clumps or nodules around the ventricles. It becomes apparent when seizures first appear,
usually in the teenage years. The nodules can be seen with an
MRI. Characteristics are occasional intellectual disability, learning disabilities, microcephaly, developmental delays,
recurrent infections, blood vessel abnormalities, etc. Periventricular heterotopia may also occur with syndromes such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. It is a rare condition, caused by
mutations in the ARFGEF2 on chromosome 20, and FLNA genes on the X chromosome; or abnormalities on chromosome 5. When the disorder is caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, it is
inherited in an
X-linked dominant pattern. Mutations in the ARFGEF2 gene are inherited autosomal recessively.

periventricular leukolamacia (PVL) --
injury to part of the brain near the ventricles; caused by lack of oxygen; occurs primarily in premature infants.

perlocutionary stage --
a stage of linguistic development in which infants' language is unintentional and unconventional (develops at birth to 6 -- 8 months).

permanence -- situation in which the partners promise to stay together lifelong.

permanent teeth -- the teeth that you eventually get to keep, 32 of them (------>>).

permeate --
to pervade, to spread, or flow throughout; to diffuse through.

permissive child-rearing style -- a child-rearing style that is high in acceptance but overindulging or inattentive, low in control, and
lenient rather than appropriate in autonomy granting. (
Diana Baumrind)

permissive parenting -- a style of parenting in which parents make few demands on their children -- they are accepting and tolerant of
their children's impulses and desires;
Diana Baumrind.

permutation --
a complete change; a transformation; the act or altering a given set of objects in a group; a rearrangement of the elements of a set.

pernicious -- highly injurious or destructive; deadly; wicked; baneful; noxious; deleterious; detrimental; extremely harmful.

pernicious anemia -- a lack of vitamin B12 in the body causes this kind of anemia. This happens most often in people who have an autoimmune disorder and are not able to absorb
vitamin B12 from food. It can also occur due to intestinal problems or a diet low in Vitamin B12.

peroneal muscular atrophy (PMA) -- see Charcot Marie Tooth diseases.

peroxisomes -- a cellular organelle that aids in beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids, production of plasmalogen, and synthesis of bile acid.

peroxisomal disorders -- a group of genetically heterogeneous metabolic diseases that share dysfunction of peroxisomes.  Peroxisomal disorders occur in approximately 1/20,000
individuals.
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) that is X-linked and Zellweger syndrome (ZWS) are two peroxisomal disorders; ZWS is the most common peroxisomal disorder to manifest itself
in early infancy.

perpend -- to reflect on carefully; to ponder; to be attentive; reflect.

perpetrator (for child abuse) -- a person who has maltreated a child while in a care-taking relationship to that child.

perpetuity -- the quality of condition of being perpetual, ceaseless, or continual.

perquisite -- a privilege or profit made in addition to regular pay; gratuity; tip; something held or claimed as an exclusive right or possession.

perrisology -- noun: use of more words than are necessary; redundancy or superfluity of expression.

persecutory delusional disorder -- the most common type of delusional disorder, in which the
person (with this disorder) is certain that others are trying to harm them.

persecutory delusions -- the most common type of delusions and involve the theme of being followed,
harassed, cheated, poisoned or drugged, conspired against, spied on, attacked, or obstructed in the
pursuit of goals. These systems of beliefs can be so broad and complex that they seem to explain
everything that happens.

Perseus -- a constellation in the norther sky named after the Greek hero Perseus; one of the 48
constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern
constellations; radiant of the annual Perseids meteor shower; 7of its stars have planets.
See massive
picture.

perseverance --
ability to attend to a task for an extended period of time.

perseveration -- Repeating the same act over and over with no discernible intention (obsessive,
ritualistic). Repetitive movements such as speech, or obsessing on one idea or task. Often refers to
self-stimulating behaviors (such as hand flapping or rocking) that accompany
autism. Also called
"
stimming" (short for self-stimulation). Some people with autism report that perseveration serves as
regulatory function to calm, add attention or concentration, or shutting out overwhelming stimuli.

persistent fetal circulation/persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PFC/PPHN) -- failure of closure of the fetal circulatory bypasses, the foramen ovale and ductus
arteriosis, after birth that interferes with oxygenation of the lungs. This can lead to respiratory failure and death and may require treatment with extracorporeal membrane
oxygenation. Persistent high pulmonary blood pressure in the newborn period due to vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arterial blood vessels resulting in severe hypoxia.

persistent primary hyperplastic vitreous --
a rare congenital developmental anomaly. Normally, the space at the back of the eye, behind the lens, is supposed to be filled with a clear
jelly called the
vitreous. With this disorder, the child is born with hazy, scarred vitreous, which blocks light passing to the back of the eye. It blurs the vision. This vitreous can become stuck
to the back of the lens and to the
retina. This can damage the eye and lead to cataracts, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and microphthalmia. It occurs with Trisomy 13 (Patau
syndrome),
Norrie disease, and Walker Warburg Syndrome.

persona archetype --
Jung: this archetype represents your public image: the mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside world. Sometimes we believe that we are what we
pretend to be!

personal celebration -- a celebration emphasizing an experience of individual, special significance to a child.

personal coping strategies -- qualities that help people deal with stressors across the life cycle, such as an individual's self-esteem and mastery (confidence in personal abilities).

personal creative movement -- movement that reflects the mood or inner state of an individual.

personal domain -- issues that reflect personal preference and taste and are not socially regulated.

personal fable -- a story adolescents tell themselves that emphasizes their uniqueness and invulnerability.

personality -- a person's unique behavioral, motivational, and mental styles of responding.

personality disorder -- a group of behavior disorders including social withdrawal, anxiety, depression, feeling of inferiority, guilt, unhappiness.

personality need fulfillment -- the final stage in the development of love relationships in which partners find that they are better able to meet their basic human needs as a result of the
emotional exchange and mutual support provided by their partner.

personality type -- the enduring characteristics and dispositions that provide some degree of coherence across the various ways in which a person behaves.

personal marriage agreement -- written agreement negotiated between married partners that specifies how they will behave in aspects of the relationship -- preferences, obligations, and
sharing of labor and tasks.

personal readers -- people who read for others.

personal sanitation -- personal habits, such as hand-washing, care of illness, cleanliness of clothing.

personal space -- the area immediately surrounding the body. It includes whatever can be reached while remaining in one spot and can be likened to a large bubble surrounding the body.

personal unconscious -- Jung: one of the three parts of the psyche (along with ego and collective unconscious). This is our own memory of experience, or what is not always
conscious but could become conscious. It includes memories that are easily brought to mind as well as those that are suppressed. This area does not include
instincts.

person-centered approach -- form of authentic assessment that focuses on the unique characteristics and interests of the student and not on any predetermined set of skills, as usually
occurs in a
formal assessment.

person-first terminology -- In referring to people with disabilities, language that speaks of the person first and then the disability for example, "a child with autism" rather than "an autistic
child."

personification -- the belief that everything one's partner does is a reflection on one's self; leads to attempts to control the partner's behavior. Used in language and literature to mean
giving qualities if a person to an animal, object, or idea. "The sun shone down brightly upon me, as if she were shining for me alone." "The rain kissed my cheeks as she fell." "The water
beckoned invitingly to the hot swimmers."

perspective taking -- the capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling.

perspicacious -- of acute mental vision or discernment; keen.

persuasive listening -- a style of listening in which the "listener" is looking only for an opportunity to take over and control the direction of the conversation.

pertussis -- Clinical name for whooping cough.

pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) -- Clinically described disorder in which autism is included, characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development:
reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, the presence of stereotyped behavior, interest, and activities, abnormal social relations, bizarre mannerisms, inappropriate social
behavior, and unusual or
delayed speech and language.

pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) -- Subthreshold condition in which some -- but not all -- features of autism or another explicitly identified
Pervasive Developmental Disorder are identified. Also called atypical personality development, atypical PDD, or atypical
autism; marked impairment of social interaction, communication
and/or stereotypical behavior patterns or interest, but when full features for autism or another explicitly identified PDD are not met. According to the
DSM-IV, this category should be used
"when there is a severe and pervasive impairment in the development of social interaction or verbal and nonverbal communication skills, or when stereotyped behavior, interests, and
activities are present, but the criteria are not met for a specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder,
Schizophrenia, Schizotypal Personality Disorder, or Avoidant Personality
Disorder." However, the DSM-IV framework has not offered specific techniques or criteria for diagnosing PDD-NOS. Currently, no objective biological test, such as a blood test or an X-ray
examination, can confirm PDD-NOS. Diagnosing PDD-NOS is complicated and much like putting together a jigsaw puzzle that does not have a clear border and picture. Therefore it is
reasonable to say that, when a diagnosis of PDD-NOS is made, it reflects the clinician's best guess. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis requires an assessment conducted by a well-trained
professional who specializes in developmental disorders, usually a child psychiatrist, developmental pediatrician, pediatric neurologist, child psychologist, developmental psychologist, or
neuropsychologist.

perversion -- Freud: a sexual drive component that fails to come under the dominance of the genital area and its reproductive needs and instead focuses on some non-reproductive object
or aim.

pes cavus -- high arched foot.

pesticide -- a chemical used to kill insects; a teratogen.

pestiferous --
producing or breeding infectious disease; infected with or contaminated by an epidemic disease; morally evil or deadly, pernicious; bothersome;
annoying.

petechiae -- tiny red or purple spots that appear on the skin as a result of tiny hemorrhages within the skin layers. (See picture.)

Peters anomaly --
a very rare disorder that occurs in the early stages of fetal development and results in infant glaucoma and sometimes other anomalies.

petit fore -- a small, square-cut, frosted and decorated piece of pound cake or sponge cake.

petit mal seizure -- epileptic seizure characterized by mild convulsions with transient consciousness (also called absence seizures).

PET scan -- see positron emission tomography.

Pfeiffer syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly, type V) --
three subtypes of Pfeiffer syndrome have been described with a range of clinical severity. Mild craniosynostosis with
brachycephaly
, flat mid-face, broad thumbs and toes, hypertelorism, partial syndactyly, hydrocephalus, airway obstruction due to mid-face hypoplasia, hearing impairment,
seizures
, occasional intellectual disability. Cause: mutations in the genes that code for fibroblast growth receptors 1 and 2 (FGFR1 and FGFR2) on chromosomes 8p11.2 -- p 11.1, and
10q26, respectively;
autosomal dominant, with many cases due to new mutations; a cause of deaf-blindness. (Also called acrocephalosyndactyly Type V).

PFO -- see patent foramen ovale.

phagocyte --
white blood cells that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues.

phagophobia -- fear of eating.

phalanges -- bones of the fingers and toes.

phallic stage -- a Freudian stage of human development. The third stage, during which psychic energy focuses on and is
invested in the genitals. During this stage,
Oedipal and Electra conflicts arise. In this stage, the relationship between the id,
ego, and superego determine the individual's basic personality. Ages 3 -- 6 years.

phallic symbols -- Freud: literally, an object shaped like a penis. To Freud, phallic symbols represented male generative
powers.
(See two examples.)

phallophobia --
fear of male genitals.

phantasm -- something apparently seen but having no physical reality; illusion.

pharmacophobia -- fear of medicinal drugs.

pharyngeal -- pertaining to the pharynx; see pharynx.

pharyngeal reflex -- gag reflex.

pharangeal transfer phase -- the transfer of a food bolus from the mouth to the pharynx on its way to being swallowed.  

pharynx -- the back of the throat; adjective, pharangeal. (See illustration.)  

phasmophobia --
fear of ghosts.  

phatic --
of, relating to, or being speech used for social and emotive purposes rather than for communicating information.  

phasocytes --
cells that ingest microorganisms or other foreign particles.

phengophobia -- fear of sunlight.

phenomenon -- an occurrence, circumstance, or fact that is perceptible by the senses; an unusual, significant, or unaccountable fact or occurrence; a marvel; a remarkable or outstanding
person; a paragon.

phenothiazines -- drugs that affect neurochemicals in the brain and are used to control aggressive behavior and psychotic symptoms.

phenotype -- the individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors.

phenylalanine -- an amino acid, the elevation of which causes phenylketonuria (PKU).

phenylketonuria (PKU) -- an inborn error of amino acid metabolism without acute symptoms; intellectual disabilty, microcephaly, abnormal gait, and seizures may develop in
untreated individuals. Untreated patients often have blond hair and blue eyes. Treated individuals have still been found to have mild
intellectual disability especially in executive function.
Associated complications: behavioral disturbances,
cataracts, skin disorders, movement disorders. Caused by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is associated with
a mutation in the PAH gene located on chromosome 12q24.1;
autosomal recessive.

phenylketonuria (PKU) screening -- A procedure used to detect the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) in infants. PKU is an inherited metabolic disease that can cause severe
intellectual disability
; the detrimental effects can be prevented with a special diet. PKU screening is performed on all new born infants in the hospital.  

phenytoin syndrome -- see fetal hydantoin syndrome.

pheromones --
androstenol and androstenone are steroids present in human armpit perspiration, the smell of which has some (mostly still unknown) influence on sexual behavior.

phffft -- over, done.

philander -- to womanize or entertain or elicit casual or wanton sex.

philanthropy -- the effort or drive to further the well-being of humankind; generosity.

philately (fuh-LAT-uh-lee) -- the collection and study of postage and imprinted stamps; stamp collecting.

philemaphobia, philematophobia -- fear of kissing.

philology -- comparative and historical linguistics; the scientific analysis of written records and literary texts to determine their authenticity, original form, and meaning.

philophobia -- fear of love.

Philosopher's Stone -- a substance sought by alchemists that would be capable of transmuting baser metals into gold or silver and of prolonging life.

philosophy -- concepts expressing one's fundamental beliefs; in early childhood educational terms, the beliefs, ideas, and attitudes of our profession.

philosophy of association -- a set of guidelines that includes values about listening and leadership, support of one another, and constant self-assessment of attitudes.

philtrum -- groove between the nose and mouth. (See illustration --->>.)

phobias -
Fears that result in excessive and unrealistic anxiety about everyday happenings. Exposure to the feared object
provokes an anxiety reaction. The anxiety and discomfort is out of proportion to the real threat of the feared object. The person
may experience excessive sweating, poor muscle control, or rapid heart rate. He/she may avoid situations in which contact with
the feared thing may occur. This may interfere with job and social functioning. The person may feel weak or cowardly and lose
self-esteem.
Freud: in general, due to repressed sexual wishes aroused unconsciously when the phobic object resembles the
yearned-for object of gratification. The phobia of animals = the dread of the father.
(See illustration by philtrum illustration.)
Go to
http://phobialist.com/reverse.html for a great list of phobias and what they are called.

phobophobia --
fear of fearing.

phocomelia -- an extremely rare congenital malformation in which hands and feet are attached to abbreviated limbs. The word phocomelia combines phoco-
(seal) and melia (limb).
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire coined the term in 1836. The condition can be caused by teratogens (such as thalidomide) or genetic
mutations.

phoenix -- a mythical sacred firebird found in mythology. It has colorful plumage and a tail of gold and scarlet. It lives for  500 to 1000 years and then ignites, and a
new phoenix rises from the ashes. Phoenix tears have healing properties. A  group of phoenixes is a resurrection. A baby phoenix is a sparky.
See??

phonemes --
basic unit of sound in spoken language, not to be confused with single letters. "ea" in "beat" or "ee" in "bee" or "e" in "evil".

phonemic awareness -- having knowledge or perception of the distinct units of sound that distinguish one word from another; in English this would include buh
(b)
, puh (p), and sss (s), among others.

phonics -- making connections between units of print and units of sound. A method of teaching reading that trains beginners to recognize the sound values of letters.

phonics approach -- technique used to teach reading, whereby children are trained to translate letters and groups of letters into sounds.

phonograms -- a rime; a spelling pattern or word family. The 37 most frequently used patterns are -ack, -ail, -ain, -ake, -ale, -ame, -an, -ank, -ap, -ash, -at, -ate, -aw, -ay, -eat, -ell, -en, -est,
-et, -ice, -ick, -ide, -ig, -ight, -il, -in, -ine, -ing, -ink, -ip, -it, -ock, -oke, -op, -ore, -ot, -uck, -ug, -ump, -unk, -up, -ut. (There are actually 42 listed there.) From these patterns, a child can master
500 primary words. Actually, each different letter of the alphabet is a phonogram by itself, or as blends (ch, dge, gn, kn, ng, nk, ough, ph, sh, tch, th, wh, wr).

phonological awareness -- the ability to reflect on an manipulate the sound structure of spoken language, as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming, and to
incorrect pronunciation. A strong predictor of emergent literacy during early childhood and of later reading and spelling achievement.

phonological disorder -- a language disorder in which the child produces a given sound correctly in some instances but not at other times.

phonological processing -- the ability to process written and oral information by using the sound system of language.

phonology -- the study of the organizing and patterning of sounds in languages.

phonophobia -- fear of talking.

phosphates -- an inorganic chemical; a salt of phosphoric acid.

phospholipids -- any of various phosphorus-containing lipids, such as lecithin and cephalin, that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic
molecule
.

phosphorus --
atomic number 15, symbol P; a highly reactive, poisonous, nonmetallic element occurring naturally in phosphates, especially apatite, and existing in 3 allotropic forms, white
(or sometimes yellow), red, and black; an essential constituent of protoplasm; used in safety matches, pyrotechnics, incendiary shells, and fertilizers; one of the 13 most common elements in
the human body and in all living cells; discovered in 1669 by
Hennig Brand.  

photography --
an assessment method that catches moments in pictures, which can be then used in portfolios, documentation, room decoration, to support curriculum events, and to aid
memory.

photons -- a subatomic particle, a minute energy packet of electromagnetic radiation.

photophobia --
an intolerance to light, generally resulting from albinism, due to lack of pigmentation to protect the eye.

photoreceptors -- receptors for light stimuli; the rods and cones of the retina.

photosensitivity --
an immune system reaction that is triggered by sunlight.

phronemophobia -- fear of thinking.

phylogenesis -- the development of the human species through evolution. Distinguished from microgenesis and ontogenesis.

phylogenetic inertia --
the tendency of an organism to remain genetically unchanged.

phylogeny -- the development of a species.

phylum -- a major taxonomic division of living organisms that contain one or more classes.

physes -- growth plates of a developing long bone.

physical abuse - A type of child maltreatment. An assault on a youngster designed to cause physical injury or harm to the child. Physical assaults (such as striking, kicking, biting, throwing,
burning, or poisoning) that causes or could cause serious injury to the child. Tennessee definition: "non-accidental physical trauma or injury inflicted by a parent or caretaker on a child. It
also includes the parent's or caretaker's failure to protect a child from another person who perpetrated physical abuse on a child. In its most severe form, physical abuse is likely to cause
great bodily harm or death."

physical abuse (intimate) -- restraining you in any way, stopping you from leaving, holding or hugging you when it is unwanted, poking you, choking, kicking, punching, slapping, any
unwanted physical contact, abusing children. Physical abuse is not limited to the behaviors listed here.

physical delays -- delays in areas of perceptual or motor development, including fine and gross motor development.

physical deprivation -- failure to provide basic necessities (such as food, clothing, hygiene, shelter) that causes, or over time, would cause, serious physical injury, sickness or disability.
Tennessee definition (physical neglect): "the failure to provide for a child's survival needs to the extent that there is harm or risk of harm to the child's health or safety. This may include,
but is not limited to, abandonment, lack of supervision, life endangering physical hygiene, lack of adequate nutrition that places the child below the growth curve, lack of shelter, lack of
medical or dental that results in health threatening conditions, and the inability to meet basic clothing needs of a child. In its most sever form, physical neglect may result in great bodily harm
or death."

physical development -- The development of perceptual or motor skills, including fine and gross motor development.

physical development, including vision and hearing -- one of five areas in which a delay can make a child eligible for special education services under the title "developmental delay."
This is provided by
PL 105-17. The other four areas are adaptive development, cognitive development, communication development, and social or emotional development.

physical disabilities -- disabilities that can affect a person's ability to move about, use the arms and legs, and/or breathe independently.

physical endangerment -- reckless behavior toward a child (such as leaving a young child alone or placing a child in a hazardous environment) that causes or could have caused serious
physical injury.

physical environment -- having to do with equipment and material, room arrangement, the outdoor space, and facilities available.

physical event -- a stimulus event that is produced by humans or occurs naturally.

physical fitness -- a state of physical well-being that allows a person to function effectively without undue fatigue.

physically challenged -- these children are the fastest growing population of children receiving special education services. Among these children are those with disabilities caused by birth
defects, accidents, or illnesses. In one way or another, the mobility of these children is restricted.

physical features of the text -- headings, tables, bold-faced terms, chapter organizers, summaries, etc.

physical knowledge -- one of the 3 types of knowledge in Piagetian theory; that knowledge that is learned through external, sensory experiences.

physical neglect -- see child neglect.

physical therapist (PT) -- A professional trained to help people with disabilities develop and maintain muscular and orthopedic capability and make correct and useful movements. A physical
therapist works with muscles and joints to make their movement more smooth and effective; while an occupational therapist would use the smoothness and effectiveness for a movement that
is useful in a task.
 

physical therapy --
the treatment of disorders of movement.  

physical violence --
also called battering, the infliction or threat of physical harm.

physician -- Medical doctor (real) as compared to PhD (fake).

physiognomy -- the art of discovering temperament and character from outward appearance.

physiological causes -- see biological causes.

physciological needs --
Maslow: the first stage in the hierarchy of needs; includes food, water, oxygen, protein, calcium, sugar, vitamins and minerals, pH balance, healthy body
temperature, activity, rest, waste removal, sex.

physiotherapy -- physical therapy.

Piaget's stages of cognitive development -- In Piagetian theory, the series of sequential stages of cognitive development through which children progress. Each child progresses
through these stages in a common sequential manner. While age levels are attached to each stage, these are only approximations of the age at which each stage is reached.

pia mater -- one of the meninges, the pia mater is the delicate, innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It is also known as the pia.

pianissimo -- musical direction, very softly.

pica -- craving to eat nonfood substances, such as cloth, string, hair, plaster, paint, etc.

picaresque -- of or relating to rogues or rascals; also relating to, suggesting, or being a type of fiction dealing with the episodic adventures of an usually roguish protagonist.

Pidgen Signed English (PSE) -- a sign system used in the United States that employs a basic ASL sign vocabulary in English word order.

piebaldism -- a rare autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development. Common characteristics include a congenital white forelock, scattered normally pigmented and
hyperpigmented
macules and a triangular shaped depigmented patch on the forehead. It results from a mutation in the CKPO gene located on chromosome 4.  

Pierre-Robin sequence -- micrognathia, cleft palate, glossoptosis (downward displacement of tongue), neonatal feeding problems, apnea or respiratory distress, upper airway
obstruction,
GI reflux. Cause: impaired closure of the palatal shelves in early development; this defect can be an isolated finding or can be associated with trisomy 18 or other syndromes;
autosomal recessive; a rare X-linked form also exists; a cause of deaf-blindness.

piety -- the quality or state of being pious.  

pigeon-livered --
gentle, mild.  

pigment --
a coloring matter, such as chlorophyll or melanin, in animals and plants especially in a cell or tissue.

pigmentation -- the coloring of the skin, hair, mucous membranes, and retina due to the deposition of melanin.

pilaster --
a rectangular column with a capital and base, projecting only slightly from a wall as an ornamental motif.

pileus cloud -- also called scarf cloud or cap cloud; a small, horizontal, altostratus cloud that can appear above a cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud, giving the cloud a characteristic hoodlike
appearance; formed by strong updrafts acting on moist air at lower altitudes, causing the air to cool to its dew point.

pincer grasp -- the well-coordinated grasp emerging at the end of the first year, involving thumb and forefinger opposition (-->).

pineal gland --
a small endocrine gland in the brain. It produces serotonin and melatonin, a hormone that affects wake/sleep patterns and seasonal
functions. It is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join.
See picture.

pink bone marrow --
bone marrow that is found in the hollow interior of the middle portion of long bones.

pinks --
a kind of salmon; also called humpies.

pinworms -- small worms that infect the intestines. Symptoms are intense itching around the anus, irritability, irritated or infected skin
around the anus, irritation or discomfort in the vagina, and loss of appetite and weight. It is caused by the direct spread of pinworm eggs
from person to person.

pious -- marked by or showing reverence for deity and devotion and divine worship; marked by conspicuous religiosity.

piquant -- aromatic, appetizing, or appealingly provocative.

piqueter -- one who arranges artificial flowers for a living.

pirogue -- a canoe made from a hollowed tree trunk; a piragua.

pirouette -- ballet spin, ballet technique.

Pisces -- a constellation of the zodiac; lies between Aquarius and Aries; 12 of its stars have planets; discovered in 1780 by Pierre Mechain.

pitch --
an aspect of voice referring to the high or low sound quality. The frequency of sounds, measured in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz). Low-
pitched sounds have a frequency of less than 500 Hz and a base quality. High-pitched sounds have a frequency greater than 2,000 Hz and a tenor
quality.
 

pituitary gland --
a gland located near the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical growth. (See illustration of all the glands
below the brain illustration.)

pivot joint --
a joint type that allows a rotating or twisting motion, like that of the head moving side to side.

pixie -- a mythical creature with pointed ears, eyes pointing upward, and resembling a fairy or a sprite. A group of pixies is a rudeness. A baby pixie
is a pixel.

pizzicato -- musical term, played by plucking rather than bowing.

PKU -- see phenylketonuria.

PKU screening --
a procedure used to detect the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborns.

placaters -- passive people who are always agreeable but act helpless.

placebo -- a chemically inert substance given in place of a drug -- sometimes has a positive effect if the person believes that it will.

placenta -- The organ that separates the mother's bloodstream from the embryonic or fetal bloodstream but permits exchange of nutrients and
waste products. The placenta is the method by which developing babies are assaulted with alcohol or other drugs consumed by the mother.
(See
illustration of a placenta, and placenta previa.)
(Sometimes referred to as afterbirth.)

placenta accreta -- abnormal adherence of the chorionic villi to the uterus.

placental abruption --
see abruptio placenta.

placental barrier -- a line of protection for the unborn child, created by blood vessel walls that separate the maternal and fetal circulatory systems.

placenta previa -- condition in which the placenta is implanted in the lower segment of the uterus extending over the cervical opening. This often leads to bleeding during labor and can
be devastating to the infant (really pisses 'em off).

placid -- sedate, calm, peaceful, relaxed, serene.

placophobia -- fear of tombstones.

plage -- the beach of a seaside resort; a bright region on the sun caused by the light emitted by clouds of calcium or hydrogen and often associated with a sunspot.

plague (PLAY-ghee) -- causing irritation or annoyance; troublesome.

plaintive -- expressive of suffering or woe; melancholy.

plangent -- having a loud reverberating sound; having an expressive and especially plaintive quality.

planned ignoring -- a behavior management technique based on withholding positive reinforcement following an occurrence of a nondangerous, nondestructive, challenging behavior; also
called extinction.

planning -- thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal.

plantar reflex -- observed when pressure applied to the ball of an infant's food is followed by flexion of the toes around the stimulus.

plashing -- splashing.

plasma -- the noncellular content of blood; also called serum. Plasma lipids are triacylglycerols, free and esterified cholesterol and phospholipids, present in lipoproteins in blood
plasma; a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized. Plasma doesn't have a definite shaper or volume unless enclosed in a container. Plasma is the
most common state of matter in the universe. All stars are made of plasma and even interstellar space is filled with a plasma.

plasma cells -- a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. They are an important part of the immune system. They are formed from B cells produced in the bone marrow.

plasmalogens --
any of various phospholipids found in the myelin sheath, cell membranes of muscle, and platelets.

plasma membrane -- cell membrane. It is made of two layers of phospholipids. It regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Many molecules cross the cell membrane by diffusion and
osmosis.

plasmapheresis -- the removal of blood followed by filtering the plasma and reinfusing the blood products. This procedure is done to remove toxins and antibodies as in Guillain-Barre
syndrome.

plasmid --
a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA. They are double stranded and in many cases, circular. They usually occur
naturally in
bacteria.

plasticity -- the ability of an organ or part of an organ to take over the function of another damaged or organ. The brain is quite plastic before lateralization occurs. The brain has already
begun lateralization at birth, but is apparently not complete, as the brain appears to have plasticity for the first few years of life.  

platelets -- also called thrombocytes; small, irregularly shaped colorless bodies that are present in blood. Their sticky  surface lets them, along with other substances, form clots to stop
bleeding. Platelets are smaller than
red or white blood cells. They do not have nuclei that contain DNA.

platinum --
atomic number 78, symbol Pt; a silver-white metallic element occurring worldwide, usually mixed with other metals such as iridium, osmium, or nickel; ductile and malleable; does
not oxidize in air; used as a catalyst and in electrical components, jewelry, dentistry, and electroplating; discovered in 1735 by
Julius Scaliger.

play -- the work of childhood.

play-based assessment -- An informal approach of evaluating a child using the child's natural curiosity and imagination to determine skill level; a systematic procedure for observing
children during play to determine their level of development; an arena assessment strategy.

play-based strategies (interventions) -- The intentional use of play as the context for implementing interventions.

play therapy -- a therapeutic technique in which a child and therapist communicate through make-believe, using dolls and other props.

pleasure principle -- In Freudian theory, the principle that states that the individual's primary goal is the achievement of pleasure through gratification. And avoid pain. There are two types
of pleasure: forepleasure (infantile stimulation) and endpleasure (mature satisfaction). Also called pleasure-pain principle.

plebeian -- of or relating to the common people of ancient Rome; of, belonging to, or characteristic of commoners; unrefined or
coarse in nature; common or vulgar.

Pleiades -- an open star cluster containing stars located in the constellation of Taurus; among the nearest star clusters to earth;
dominated by hot blue and extremely luminous stars, 14 of which can be seen with the naked eye; Messier Object 45 or M45; the
nine brightest stars are named for the Seven Sisters of Greek mythology: Sterope, Merope, Electra, Maia, Taygete, Celaeno, and
Alcyone, along with their parents Atlas and Pleione; also called
Maia Nebula and Seven Sisters; see picture.

pleiotropy --
a phenomenon whereby a single gene has multiple consequences in numerous tissues. Pleiotropic effects stem
from both normal and mutated genes. It is more common than its opposite, since in a complex organism, a protein from a single
gene is likely to be expressed in more than one tissue, with the cascade of problems caused by a mutation is likely to lead to
numerous complications throughout the organism. Examples of pleiotropic diseases are
sickle cell anemia,
neurofibromatosis, myotonic dystrophy, PKU, and zillions more.

plethora -- overabundance; excess: "Would you say that you have a plethora of pinatas?"

pleura -- a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered membrane structure surrounding the lungs. The thin space between the two pleural layers is the pleural cavity.

pleural -- of the thin membrane in mammals that envelops each lung and folds back to make a lining for the chest cavity.

pleural cavity -- the body cavity that surrounds the lungs, in between the two pleural layers.

pleurisy -- an inflammation of the lining of the lungs and chest (the pleura) that causes sharp chest pain when breathing or coughing. Pleurisy can cause fluid to collect inside the chest
cavity. This can lead to
cyanosis, coughing, shortness of breath, and rapid breathing.

plimpy -- magical creatures that inhabit deep lakes. They are spherical, mottled fish with two long rubbery legs and webbed feet. Merpeople may knot
together the plimpy's legs to take away the ability to steer. A group of plimpies is a bowline. A plimpy baby is a pimple.
See picture.

plinth --
a slablike member beneath the base of a column or pier; a square base or a lower block, as of a pedestal.

plumage -- entire feathery covering or portion of a bird; feathers collectively.

plummy -- full of plums; choice, desirable; having a plum color; rich and mellow often to the point of affectation.

pluralism -- 1) A theory that holds to the notion that there is more than one kind of reality or correct way of perceiving and acting upon the world; 2) a state in which members of diverse
ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups participate in their traditional cultures while still belonging to the common society.

plural marriage -- see polygamy.

Pluto --
used to be our 9th planet, poor baby, now only a dwarf planet; 2nd most massive dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the 10th most
massive body observed directly orbiting the sun; composed mostly of rock and ice; 1/6 the mass of our moon and 1/3 its volume; discovered by
Clyde W.
Tombaugh
on February 18, 1930; 5 known moons: Charon, Nix, Hydra, P5, and P4. Look at this amazing video from Wikipedia, which is taken from
Hubble images synthesizing true colors of Pluto.

plutonium --
atomic number 94, symbol Pu; a naturally radioactive, silvery, metallic transuranic element, occurring in uranium ores and produced artificially
by neutron bombardment of uranium. Its longest isotope has a half-life of 80 million year. It is a radiological poison and easily absorbed by bone marrow;
named after the dwarf planet Pluto; discovered in 1940 by
G.T. Seaborg.

pluvial -- characterized or relating to rainfall.

pluviophobia -- fear of rain.

pneumatophobia -- fear of air and drafts.

pneumonia -- a respiratory condition in which there is inflammation of the lung. Symptoms are cough, fever, shaking chills, shortness of breath, sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets
worse when breathing deeply or coughing, headache, sweating and clammy skin, loss of appetite, low energy, fatigue, and possibly confusion. Bacterial pneumonia can generally be treated
with
antibiotics.

pneumatic or puffing switches --
switches that work via air puffed into a straw-like tube; useful for students who have no arm control.

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia -- lung infection caused by a virus or bacteria; often seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as individuals with AIDS.

pnigophobia, pnigerophobia --
fear of choking or smothering.

PNS -- see Parents Needs Survey.

pococurante --
nonchalant, indifferent; lukewarm in opinion; insouciant.

pocrescophobia -- fear of gaining weight.

poem -- a composition in verse; see poetry.

poetaster (POH-uh-tass-ter) --
an inferior poet.

poetry -- a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning.

pogonophobia -- fear of beards.

poignant -- profoundly moving; touching; physically or emotionally painful.

poinephobia -- fear of punishment.

point mutation -- a mutation in a single nucleotide (DNA) base leading to a genetic syndrome (i.e., sickle cell anemia).

pokeweed -- also known as poke, pokebush, pokeberry, pokeroot, poke salet, polk salad, polk salat, polksallet, inkberry, or ombu.
Herbs growing from 1 to 10 feet tall. They have single alternate leaves, pointed at the end, with crinkled edges. The stems are often
pink or red; the flowers greenish white in long clusters. They have dark purple berries. Pokeweed contains phytolaccatoxin and
phytolaccigenin, which are poisonous to mammals.

Polaris -- commonly called the North Star, Northern Star, Pole Star, Lodestar, Guiding Star, Steadfast Star, Ave Maria Stella;
the brightest star in Ursa Minor; very close to the north celestial pole; approximately 434 light years from earth; multiple star: main star,
two smaller companions, and 2 distant components; found in 1780 by
William Herschel; see picture of the Little Dipper
indicating Polaris.

polarization --
separation of electrical charges between outside and inside the cells.

police officer parenting style -- authoritarian and punitive parenting style in which parents insist that their children follow rules and punish them when they don't.

polio or poliomyelitis -- an infectious viral disease occurring mainly in children that may attack the central nervous system and produce paralysis, muscular atrophy, and deformity. It is
now controlled by
vaccination. There are three kinds of poliovirus. The poliovirus is most recognized for its destruction to the nervous system causing paralysis. The majority of people who
are infected with polio, however, have no symptoms or only mild symptoms. Of the persons that do acquire the infection, 2% or less develop paralysis. Since the advent of the polio vaccine in
the early 1950s, infections from poliovirus have nearly been eradicated.

poliosis -- a localized patch of white hair. Most frequently, it presents as a white forelock, but it can involve a patch of white hair anywhere on the body. It can occur in otherwise healthy
people and may represent no more than an anomaly of hair and skin pigmentation. However, poliosis is also observed in connection with a wide variety of conditions. At the mild end, a minor
genetic defect called piebaldism. It can also be associated with pigmentary disturbances of the eye, as well as
hypogonadism and thyroid diseases. Skin cancers may result in patches of
white hair growth in the areas of affected skin. Several other genetic disorders commonly involve poliosis, such as
Marfan syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and
Waardenburg's syndrome
.

politicophobia --
fear of politicians.

polonium -- atomic number 84, symbol Po; a naturally radioactive metallic element; occurs in minute quantities as a result of radium disintegration and produced by bombarding bismuth or
lead with neutrons; discovered in 1898 by
Pierre and Marie Curie; named for the country Poland.

polyandry -- a plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband.

polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) -- one of a group of organic compounds originally used in industry and now recognized as an environmental pollutant.

polycystic kidneys -- kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts.

polydactyly -- extra fingers or toes; multifactorial, teratogen, unknown (--->>).  

polydrug abuse --
abuse of several substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and cocaine or other drugs at the same time.  

polygamy -- a marriage in which a man has more than one wife (polygyny) or a woman has more than one husband (polyandry).  

polygenetic inheritance -- a pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristic in question.  

polygenetic transmission -- combined effort of multiple genes.  

polygyny -- a plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife.  

polyhydramnios --
the presence of excessive amniotic fluid; often associated with certain fetal anomalies such as esophageal atresia.

polymath -
a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards; a person of great learning in several
fields of study;
polyhistor.

polymerase -- any of various enzymes, such as DNA polymerse, RNA polymerase, or reverse transcriptase, that catalyze the formation of polynucleotides of DNA or RNA using an existing
strand of DNA or RNA as a template.

polymicrogyria -- a brain with too many convoluted gyri that are smaller than normal, due to abnormal neuronal migration during embryogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS).

polymorphism -- having multiple allelles of a gene within a population, usually expressing different phenotypes.

polymorphous perversity -- Freud: the young child's tendency to get sexual gratification from damn near anything, regardless of its gender or nature. As a result of psychosexual
development, this tendency is usually replaced by heterosexuality.

polyostotic fibrous dysplasia -- see McCune-Albright syndrome.

polyp -- an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.

polypeptide -- three or more amino acids joined together.

polyphobia -- fear of many things.

polysemy -- a word that has two or more similar meanings: foot, left, mouth, bank, love, bed -- seems similar to homonym to me; the difference is really unclear to me.

polysomnogram -- procedure performed during sleep that involves monitoring electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (EKG), and respiratory efforts. It is used to investigate
individuals with sleep disorders, including
sleep apnea.

polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) -- fatty acids that contain more than one bond that is not fully saturated with hydrogen.

pomaceous --
of or relating to apples, resembling a pome.

ponceau -- a strong red to reddish orange.

ponophobia -- fear of fatigue.

pons -- located near the top of the brain stem, above the medulla. It is a critical relay station for our sensory information. (See illustration.)

pontificate --
the office or term of office of a pontiff; to perform the office or duties of a pontiff; to speak in a pompous or dogmatic manner; to
serve as a bishop.

Ponzu -- a tangy sauce made with citrus juice, rice wine vinegar, and soy sauce and used especially on seafood.

popular children -- in conversations with children, these are the children who get many positive votes.

population -- social scientists' term that describes any well-known group of people they want to study.

populous -- containing many people or inhabitants; having a large population.

POR -- see prevalence odds ration.

porcelain --
strong, vitreous, and translucent ceramic with glazed colored material.

porencephaly -- an extremely rare disorder of the central nervous system in which a cyst or cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid develops in the brain. It is usually the result of damage
from stroke or infection after birth (most commonly), but can also be caused by abnormal development before birth (which is inherited and less common). Symptoms are delayed growth and
development,
spastic hemiplegia, hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly or  macrocephaly, poor or absent speech development, hydrocephalus, and intellectual disability.

porencephalic cysts --
fluid-filled sacs attached to the lateral ventricle of the brain; usually the consequence of liquification of brain tissue due to an in utero injury.

porlock -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a porlock is a horse guardian. They are about 2 feet tall, covered in fur, have large noses, and small arms ending in 4 stubby fingers. A
porlock walks on 2 cloven hooves.

porphyrias -- a group of rare disorders passed down through families, in which an important part of hemoglobin, called heme, is not made properly. Heme is also found in myoglobin, a
protein found in certain muscles. People with porphyrias have a deficiency of certain
enzymes needed for the body to make hemes. Symptoms of porphyrias are abdominal pain or cramping,
light sensitivity, problems with the nervous system and muscles (
seizures, mental disturbances), muscle pain, muscle weakness or paralysis, numbness or tingling, pain in the arms or legs,
pain in the back, and personality changes.

porphyrophobia -- fear of purple.

porphyry -- rock containing relatively large conspicuous crystals, especially feldspar, in a fine-grained igneous matrix.

porridge -- a soft food made by boiling oatmeal or another meal in water or milk.

porridgy -- resembling porridge; like a soft food made by boiling oatmeal or another meal in water or milk.

portable art kit -- A set of art supplies that can be moved outside the classroom art area to other areas, including outdoors.

portentous -- the nature of or constituting a portent; foreboding; full of unspecifiable significance; exciting wonder and awe; marked by pompousness; pretentiously weighty.

portfolio -- The format followed during the assessment process which includes specific skill areas, skills, and/or behaviors to be observed and measured; ongoing; work samples; a
purposeful collection of children's work and other indicators of learning, collected over time, that demonstrates to the student and others the student's efforts, progress, or achievement in
particular developmental or subject area(s).

portfolio assessment -- type of assessment that evaluates the child's performance based on evidence that teachers and children have selected and compiled in a portfolio.

portico -- porch or walkway with a roof supported by columns, often leads into an entrance.

portmanteau -- large suitcase; merging of two words to form a new one, often a pun.

positioning -- proper body alignment for functioning within the school or home.

positioning techniques -- interventions that emphasize proper supports and position for a child with disabilities.

positive behavioral support (PBS) -- a behavioral approach designed to link scientifically validated practice applications across settings, such as home, school, work, and community.

positive behavioral support strategies -- providing positive rather than negative feedback for children's efforts; concentrating on what the child does right or well.

positive blood -- blood that has the Rh factor on the red blood cells.

positive communication --
one of the six major qualities (commonly found in emotionally healthy families) identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework.

positive feedback -- information or communication that is intended to create change in a system.

positive illusions -- partners' positive beliefs about each other, which may or may not be based on fact.

positive interdependence -- the dependency of each group member on each other member -- successes and failures are collective deeds.

positive pressure ventilation (PPV) -- assistance provided during newborn resuscitation.

positive regard -- Rogers: things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, etc. He postulated that babies need love and attention and may well die without them, or at least fail to thrive.

positive reinforcers -- any tangible (e.g., food, toy), or action (e.g., hug) that is reinforcing to an individual and will lead to a subsequent increase in the behavior that preceded it.

positive self-regard -- Rogers: self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image; achieved by experiencing positive regard shown to us over the years. Without this love, we feel small and
helpless.

positive self-talk -- giving oneself positive messages so that one can view a situation in beneficial terms.

positive sentiment override -- a state in which the positive emotions shared by a couple far outnumber the negative emotions.

positive stress -- refers to an amount of strain or tension that encourages a person to be active and challenged rather than overwhelmed or discouraged.

positive support reflex (PSR) -- primitive reflex present in an infant, in which the child reflexively accepts weight on the feet when bounced, appearing to stand briefly.

positron emission tomography (PET) -- imaging study utilizing radioactive labeled chemical compounds to study the metabolism of an organ, most commonly the brain.

possible self -- how adolescents wish themselves to be in the future.

postcoital birth control -- see emergency contraception.

postconventional level -- third level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which judgments about morality are based on principles that the individual is personally committed to
and that are shared by others.

posterior -- in the back of a structure, or the back of a structure.

posterior walkers -- walkers with supports and wheels placed behind, rather than in front of, the child.

postictal -- immediately following a seizure episode.

postlapsarian -- of, relating to, or characteristic of the time or state after the fall of humankind described in the Bible.

postlingual deafness or hearing loss -- deafness or hearing loss that occurs after a child has acquired some language skills. (Also called adventitious deafness.)

postmodern family -- relatively new term that describes the great variability in family forms beyond traditional families; includes binuclear families and blended families.

postmodernism -- a belief system that emphasizes multiple perspectives or "truths." Postmodernists are extremely skeptical in regard to questions of truth, meaning, and historical
interpretation. No objective, universal truth can be seen, once and for all, and readily agreed upon. Instead, there is only a collection of subjective truths shaped by the particular subcultures
in which we live. These multiple subjective truths are constantly competing for our attention and allegiance.

postnatal -- occurring after birth.

postnuptial agreement -- similar to a prenuptial agreement, a contract signed by the couple that specifies in advance how property will be divided and children cared for in the event of
divorce or one partner's death; however, in this case the agreement is worked out and signed after the partners are married.

postpartum blues -- the period of sadness and anxiety experienced by some women after giving birth, likely due to the dramatic drop in hormones from pregnant to nonpregnant. Plus
giving birth hurts like bloody hell, so she may be really mad still.

postpartum depression -- feelings of sadness and withdrawal that appear shortly after childbirth and that continue for weeks or months and may become destructive.

postpartum period -- three-month period following birth during which critical family and emotional adjustments are made.

postterm birth -- birth after the 42nd week of gestation.

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) -- a severe stress reaction characterized by the re-experiencing of past traumatic events; an anxiety disorder produced by an extremely stressful
event(s) (e.g., rape, assault, military combat, death camp) and characterized by a number of adverse reactions: a) re-experiencing the trauma in painful recollections or recurrent dreams; b)
diminished responsiveness (numbing), with disinterest in significant activities and with feelings of detachment and estrangement from others; c) symptoms such as exaggerated startle
response, disturbed sleep, difficulty in concentrating or remembering, guilt about surviving when others did not, and avoidance of activities that call the traumatic event to mind.

postural hypotension -- a drop in blood pressure due to a change in body position.

postural reflexes -- those reflexes that assist the child to maintain an upright posture and orientation. (Also called adaptive reflexes.)

postural stability -- the ability to remain upright while sitting or standing.

potamophobia -- fear of rivers.

potassium -- atomic number 19, symbol K; a soft, silver-white, highly or explosively reactive metallic element that occurs in nature only in compounds; used in fertilizers and soaps; one of the
14 most common elements in the human body; essential for plant growth; discovered in 1807 by
Sir Humphrey Davy.

potophobia -- fear of alcoholic drinks.

pourquoi tales -- also known as WHY tales or folktales, these stories are both etiological tales that claim to explain the origins of an observed nature or social phenomenon, and didactic
tales which teach social values.

poverty -- generally refers to the condition of lacking economic access to fundamental human needs such as food, shelter, and safe drinking water.

poverty guidelines -- family-size and income standards for determining eligibility for free or reduced-price meals under the National School Lunch Program.

poverty line --
the minimum level of income the US government considers necessary for individual and family subsistence.

power -- the ability to control one's actions and destiny, rather than depending on outside agents.

power assertion -- disciplinary techniques in which parents use physical force or threats of physical force to control children's behavior.

power assertive discipline -- harsh, punitive discipline methods that rely on children's fear of punishment rather than on the use of reason and understanding. Hitting and spanking are
examples of power assertion.

PP cells -- pancreatic polypeptide producing cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. There are very few of them. They have very few organelles and granules.

PPHN/PFC --
see persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn or persistent fetal circulation.

PPV --
see positive pressure ventilation.

practical intelligence --
in Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, the application of intellectual skills to everyday situations.

practice teaching -- the period of "internship" that students experience when working in a classroom with supervision, as opposed to having a role as a regular working staff member.

Prader-Willi syndrome -- short stature, failure to thrive in infancy, hyperphagia (abnormally increased appetite), almond shaped eyes, viscous (thick) saliva, hypotonia (particularly in the
neck region),
hypogonadism with cryptorchidism, small hands and feet, hypopigmentation, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavior problems (tantrums, obsessive
compulsive disorder, rigidity, food stealing, skin picking), obstructive sleep apnea, high pain threshold, osteoporosis, neonatal temperature instability, type 2 diabetes. Cause:
approximately 75% have a microdeletion on the long arm of the paternally inherited chromosome 15 (15q11 --q13); 25% have maternal uniparental disomy; new mutation with
autosomal
dominant inheritance when passed from an affected individual; a cause of deaf-blindness. See chromosome 15 disorders.

praetorium -- the tent of an ancient Roman general; a portable shelter (usually of canvas stretched over supporting poles and fastened to the ground with ropes and pegs.

pragma -- according to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of six basic styles of loving: practical love, the type of love that makes a rational assessment of a
potential partner's positives and negatives.

pragmatics -- the practical, social side of language that is concerned with how to engage in effective and appropriate communication with others.

prairillon -- a small meadow or tract of grassland; heath; plain.

praise -- an expression of warm approval or admiration, often used as a reinforcer for appropriate behavior.

praline -- a confection made of nuts stirred in boiling sugar syrup until crisp and brown.

praseodymium -- atomic number 59, symbol Pr; a soft, silvery, malleable, ductile rare-earth element that develops a characteristic green tarnish in air; occurs naturally with other rare earths
in monazite and is used to color glass and ceramics yellow, as a core material for carbon arcs, and in metallic alloys; discovered in 1885 by
C. F. Aver von Welsbach.

preacademic --
Prerequisite skills that provide the foundation for the formal academic training that usually starts in first grade.

preacademic skills -- abilities needed for success in school.

preauricular -- in front of the auricle of the ear.

preauricular pit -- shallow pits which appear to be due to a failure in the fusion of the primitive ear hillocks, or to a defective closure of the first branchial
cleft. They are inherited by means of an autosomal dominant gene. The opening of the preauricular pit is characteristically located in or just in front of
the anterior crus of the
helix. See picture.

precatory --
expressing a wish.

precedent -- something done or said that serves as an example or rule to authorize or justify other acts of the same or similar kind; an earlier occurrence of something similar.

precentor -- a leader of the singing of a choir or congregation.

precipice -- an overhanging or extremely steep mass of rock, such as a crag or the face of a cliff; the brink of a dangerous or disastrous situation.

precipitate -- falling, flowing, or rushing with steep descent; precipitous; steep; exhibiting violent or unwise speed.

precipitating -- factors that trigger or initiate a reaction or response.

precocity -- exceptional early development in cognitive or creative ability (precocious).

precocious puberty -- extremely early puberty, often caused by a genetic disorder.

preconscious -- Jung: a psychic disposition that enables a man to react in a human manner and which are actualized when they enter conscious thought as images (archetypes). Freud:
that which upon reflection could become conscious voluntarily. The
ego's inner layer. That which is unconscious is repressed and therefore held out of awareness.

preconventional level -- first level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which morality is based on external forces.

precursor -- what precedes and indicates the approach of another; predecessor or forerunner.

predial (PREE-dee-ul) -- of or relating to land or its products.

predilection -- an established preference for something.

predicate thinking -- Freud: the id's tendency to treat dissimilar objects as identical.

predictive validity -- A type of validity that refers to the extent to which a test relates to some future measure of performance.

predisposition -- having an increased chance or susceptibility.

preeclampsia -- illness of late pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, swelling, and protein in the mother's urine, seen especially in teenagers and women older than age 35;
also called
toxemia of pregnancy.

prefix --
a word element placed in front of the root word, which changes the word's meaning or creates a new word. Common prefixes, their meanings, and examples are pre- (before,
preview); un- (not, unavailable); dis- (not, disagreed); re- (again, renew); mis- (not, mismanaged); im- (not, impossible); bi- (two, bifocals); de- (not, deforestation).

preformationist -- a person who takes the theoretical viewpoint that all characteristics and qualities of humans are preformed at birth.

prefrontal cortex -- the front part of the brain, which is involved in planning, social behavior, and working memory.

pregnancy -- to carrying of one or more offspring inside the womb for a period of time until the offspring is mature enough to be born and live outside the womb.

prehensile grasp -- opposition of the thumb to the other fingers of the hand.

prehension -- taking hold, seizing, grasping.

preictal stage -- warning of an imminent seizure in the form of heightened sensory awareness; see aura.

prejudices --
ideas and attitudes that are already formed about other people, situations, ideas, etc., before hearing or experiencing full or sufficient information; in teaching terms, those
attitudes or biases that may be based less on mature thought and reasoning than on incomplete or nonexistent personal experiences.

prekindergarten -- a learning environment for children who will be eligible for kindergarten by a school district's entrance date, but who are judged developmentally unready for kindergarten.

prelingual deafness -- deafness occurring before a child has acquired language skills.

prelingual hearing loss -- hearing impairments occurring prior to the age of 2, or before speech development.

prelinguistic communication --
Body movements, facial expressions, and vocalizations used by infants before their first words are learned.

prelinguistic millieu teaching -- an effective language-acquisition instructional strategy based on the principle that children will learn if their instruction matches their interest and abilities.

prelinguistic skills -- skills such as cooing and babbling that are needed for acquiring language skills.

preliterate -- not yet having acquired the ability to read or write.

prelude -- preceding event or action; musical term: preliminary.

premacking -- Arranging sequences of activities so that low-probability (desirable) behaviors are followed by high-probability (motivating) behaviors.

premature delivery -- birth that occurs before prenatal development is complete.

prematurity -- status of infants delivered before 35 weeks gestation; perinatal conditions, unknown, teratogen, multifactorial.
premature labor -- prior to 37 weeks gestation.

premature rupture of membranes --
membranes of the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus break prior to the 37th week of pregnancy.

premenstrual syndrome (PMS) -- a whole constellation of emotional and physical symptoms, such as backaches, headaches, moodiness, and water retention, that occur before
menstruation
.

premises --
reasons that logically support a result or an outcome.

premolar -- teeth in the back of the mouth used for grinding.

premoral period -- Piagetian stage of moral development in which young children do not yet understand cooperative rules and goals.

prenatal -- occurring before birth.

prenatal asphyxia -- a lack of oxygen during the birth process, usually caused by an interruption of respiration that may cause brain damage.

prenatal care -- the care taken by a mother before the birth of her child, including diet, nutrition, medical services, and monitoring the intake of toxic substances.

prenatal diagnostic methods -- medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth.

prenatal factors -- conditions that affect fetal development.

prenatal screening -- noninvasive (usually blood) tests used to screen for genetic disorders in pregnant women.

prenatal substance abuse  -- a kind of child abuse.

prenuptial agreement -- contract signed by the couple before the wedding that specifies in advance how property will be divided and children cared for in the event of divorce or one
partner's death.

preoccupied attachment -- Preoccupied adults are still entangled with past family relationships. They remember childhood events, but their stories are not coherent nor succinct.
Preoccupied adults may still be dependent on their parents or angry about past events. The interview is not coherent; angry, passive, fearful.

preoperational stage -- stage of cognitive development with distinct characteristics, according to Piaget's theory; ages 2 -- 7. During this stage, a child's thinking becomes representational
and internalized.

preoperational thought -- the second stage of Piaget's theory of child development that occurs from 2 to 7 years. During this stage, thinking becomes representational and internalized.

PREPARE -- a comprehensive premarital inventory that assesses a couple's relationship and determines how idealistic or realistic each person is in regard to marriage, how well the couple
communicates, and how well the couple resolves conflicts and financial issues; acronym for PREmarital Personal And Relationship Evaluation.

PREPARE-MC -- a premarital inventory for couples whose marriage will create a stepfamily. Like the PREPARE inventory, PREPARE-MC (Marriage with Children) contains questions dealing
with important categories in the couple's relationship, but the questions focus on issues relevant to stepfamilies.

prepared environment -- An important component in a Montessori classroom; a planned and orderly setting containing specially developed tasks and materials designed to promote
children's learning.

preposition -- links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. It usually indicates
the temporal, spatial, or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence: The book is on the table. She read the book during class.

preposterous -- contrary to nature, reason, or common sense; absurd.

preprandial -- before eating.

prereaching -- the poorly coordinated, primitive reaching movements of newborn babies.

prereading skills -- Abilities needed for reading, including letter recognition and left-right discrimination.

prereferral strategies (prereferral intervention) -- instructional approaches and activities used in the classroom to help determine a child's response to intervention and whether a child
should be referred for an in-depth
assessment; instructional adaptations or accommodations designed to provide additional support to children who are at risk for educational failure and
implemented before the children are referred for special education services. If the student does not progress satisfactorily, a referral process for special education might be initiated.

prerequisite skills -- Skills that must be acquired before a higher level skill can be attempted.

prescind -- to withdraw one's attention.

presbycusis -- a loss of hearing that gradually occurs in most individuals as they grow older.

presbyopia -- a decrease in the accommodation of the lens of the eye that occurs with aging.

preschematic -- stage in drawing development before the child has attained the motoric and cognitive abilities to draw recognizable symbols.

preschool special category -- an option that states can use to avoid labeling a preschool child with a specific disability.

preschoolers -- in the 1997 IDEA, preschoolers are children ages 3 through 5.

preschool teacher --
a teacher of children who are ages 3 -- 5. (See preschool teacher--->.)

prescriptive teaching --
methods of working individually to help a child develop skills by using clearly defined goals in a sequential manner.

presque vu -- from the French for "almost seen", this phenomenon is an instance of knowing something that cannot be immediately recalled, such as difficulty retrieving a well-known word or
familiar name, "tip of the tongue."

present levels of performance -- use of current evaluation information to summarize skills and abilities.

presuppositions -- judgments made about the listener in conversation that allow us to modify the content and style of the communication.

pretend play -- Activities that include make-believe games, daydreaming, imaginary playmates, and other forms of pretending.

pretend reading -- also called "reenactment" or "emergent reading". Children practice reading-like behaviors that build confidence in themselves as readers.

preterlabent -- flowing beside or by, especially of a river or stream.

preterm or premature infants -- infants born several weeks or more before the due date. Although they are small in size, their weight may
still be appropriate for the time spent in the uterus.

prevalence -- the number of people who have a certain condition at any given time.

prevalence odds ratio (POD) -- the burden or status of a disease in a defined population at a specified time, including all cases of disease
in the population whether they are newly diagnosed or previously recognized.

prevalence (of violence) -- the number of people in the population of interest who are affected by the occurrence of violent acts.

prevention -- measures taken to avoid an event such as an accident or illness from occurring; implies the ability to anticipate circumstances and behaviors.

preventive -- the act of taking certain steps and measures so as to avoid or delay unfavorable outcomes; as in preventive health care.

preventive discipline -- Arranging the classroom environment in ways that promote children's appropriate behavior and forestall behaviors teachers consider inappropriate.

prewriting skills -- Abilities needed for writing, including prehension, mature grasp, and eye-hand coordination.

priapism --
a persistent, usually painful, erection that lasts for more than four hours and occurs without sexual stimulation. Some adult cases of priapism are the result of sickle cell anemia
and approximately 42% of all adults with sickle cell anemia will eventually develop priaprism. Other things that might cause priaprism are some medications, trauma to the spine, black widow
bites, carbon monoxide poisoning, and illicit drug use (marijuana, cocaine),
leukemia, or malaria.

primal --
being first in time; original; primeval; of first importance; primary.

primal horde -- Freud: the original primitive grouping of humanity headed by a father-authority who forbade incestuous acting-out among younger men, who, to gain their sexual freedom,
eventually overpowered and ate him and thereby discovered the powers and benefits of community.

primal fantasies -- Freud: unconscious fantasies stemming from having perceived one's parents having sex.

primary circular reactions -- repetitive actions that are centered on an infant's own body and motions.

primary goal -- the aim that assumes first importance.

primary infertility -- the inability to conceive among those who have never had children.

primary lateral sclerosis -- a rare neuromuscular disease with slowly progressive weakness in voluntary muscle movement. It is a motor neuron disease. Symptoms are weakness,
spasticity
, clumsiness, slowing of movement, ataxia, hand clumsiness, changes in speech, etc.  

primary literature -- original research studies or writings by a theorist or researcher.

primary prevention -- efforts targeted at the population as a whole, to sensitize people to basic issues or to provide particular skills.

primary prevention (of violent acts) -- efforts to prevent family violence from occurring in the first place.

primary processes -- Freud: produces a memory image of an object needed for gratification in order to reduce the frustration of not having been gratified yet. This develops as the id
encounters frustrations of its desires, and it works because for the id, an image is the same as an object ("an identity of perception"). Primary process is preverbal and dreamlike, not rational
as with the
ego. It's called "primary" because it comes first in human development: for Freud if not for later theorists, the baby is, so to speak, all id.

primary process thinking -- thinking that has as its purpose the fulfillment of basic needs and instincts.

primary reinforcer -- things people need to grow physically and emotionally, including food, shelter, air, and physical contact; can be paired with a secondary reinforcer.

primary sexual characteristics -- physical features directly related to reproduction such as the ovaries, penis, and testes.

primary teeth -- also called deciduous teeth. Between the ages of 6 and 12, all 20 of these teeth fall out and are replaced by permanent teeth.
(See illustration.)

primeisodophobia --
fear of losing one's virginity.

prime number -- also called a prime, a number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A number greater than 1 that is
not a prime number is called a composite number. 1 is not considered a prime number. The smallest prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23,
29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113, 127, 131, 137, 139, 149, 151, 157, 163, 167, 173, 179. 181,
191, 193, 197, 199, ...

priming -- intervention in which a parent, teacher, other professional, or trusted peer previews with a student the actual materials that will be used in a lesson the day, morning, or evening
before the activity occurs, in order to prepare the student for that instruction.

primiparous women -- women who are having their first child.

primitive reflexes -- Involuntary actions that control a child's movement; responses that an infant is born with: grasping, stepping, rooting, sucking, for example.  

primordial --
first created or developed; existing in or persisting from the beginning (as of a solar system or universe); earliest formed in the growth of an individual or organ; fundamental or
primary.

primordial images -- Jung: archetypes.

principle communication systems -- touch cues, object symbols, tactile sign language, speech, gestures, picture symbols, fingerspelling, signed English, Braille, ASL, lip-reading
speech, Pidgen signed English,
Tadoma method of speech reading, large print writing and reading, other augmentative devices, body movements, behavior, facial expressions, etc.

principle of developmental direction -- the principle that states that development is not random but occurs in predetermined directions (cephalocaudal and proximodistal).

principle of fluctuating asymmetry -- the principle that states that the organism goes through periods of asymmetric or unbalanced development in order to achieve a measure of maturity
at later stages.

principle of individuating maturation -- the principle that states that an internal growth matrix acts as a mechanism to establish the direction and pattern of development in the individual.

principle of least interest -- proposed rule of Willard Waller (1951) that the partner who is least interested in the relationship has the most power.

principle of normalization -- making the patterns and conditions of everyday life, and of mainstream society, available to persons with intellectual disability.

principle of reciprocal interweaving --
the principle that states that inhibition and excitation of different muscles operate in complementary fashion to produce efficient movement.

principle of self-regulatory fluctuation -- the principle that states that developmental progress fluctuates between periods on instability and stability, or active growth and consolidation.

Principles and Standards for Mathematical Children Pre-K--12 -- a set of standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics proposing mathematical content
and processes students should know and be able to use as they progress through school.

principles of special methods -- instructional techniques and strategies used by VI specialists to assure that learning is optimized  for students with visual impairments, including the use
of concrete experiences, learning by doing, and unifying experiences.

prior knowledge -- what a student already knows about a topic.

prior strain -- the residual effect of family tensions and prior stressor events that may still trouble a family at the time another stressor occurs.

prismatic -- refractive light of a spectrum; brilliantly colored.

pristine -- in primordial condition; untouched; belonging to the earliest period or state.

privacy -- an individual's right to choose whether, when, and how behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions are to be shared with others.

private adoptions -- also called independent adoptions; adoptions arranged directly between birth mother and adoptive parent or parents.

private separation agreement -- in English history, an agreement between a husband and wife on how to divide their property and money and keep their finances separate in the future.

private (inner) speech -- the language children use for self-guidance and self-direction, as well as for helping them think about their behavior and plan for action; once known as
egocentric speech, it is used for self-regulation. Children may use private speech more often when tasks are difficult, after they make errors, or when they are confused. According to
Vygotsky
, this is for self-guidance.

proactive stance -- working to influence others positively toward a particular position.

problem-centered coping -- an approach to coping with stress in which the individual appraises the situation as changeable, identifies the difficulty, and decides what to do about it.

problem drinking -- alcohol consumption that results in functional disability.

problem-focused coping strategies -- efforts to manage or modify the source of a stressful situation.

problem solving meeting -- a meeting that focuses on a problem exhibited in class. Students explain the problems they see, and then the effects of those problems, as well as possible
solutions are discussed. The meeting concludes with an agreed-upon plan.

problem solving skills -- the process of searching, analyzing, and evaluating facts using various reasoning and thinking skills to develop appropriate and effective solutions.

procedural due process -- Set of legal steps guaranteed in federal law PL 94-142, designed to protect an individual's constitutional and legal rights.

procedural knowledge -- understanding of the rules and procedures.

procedural safeguards -- rights guaranteed to families of children eligible for services under IDEA: the right to examine the child’s records, participate in all meetings, obtain independent
evaluation, written prior notice, native language, mediation, file a complaint, impartial due process hearing, full disclosure, appeal, maintain current educational setting, seek an alternative
educational placement, discipline, reimbursement, attorney’s fees (all with conditions, of course ...).

process assessment -- procedures used to determine the manner in which students derive a particular answer when solving a problem.

process over product -- the process that leads to originality (exploration and experimentation with materials) is more important than the end product.

process theories of child abuse -- theories that emphasize specific precursors that lead to child abuse and neglect.

procrastinate -- to put off intentionally and habitually; to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done.

procreation -- reproduction, or the bringing forth of children.

procuress -- a female procurer, or panderer; pimp, ponce.

prodigal -- characterized by profuse or wasteful expenditure; recklessly spendthrift; yielding abundantly; luxuriant; lavish; profuse.

prodigies -- children who show exceptional abilities at a very young age in one domain of intelligence but not necessarily in others.

prodigious -- resembling or befitting a prodigy; strange, unusual; exciting amazement or wonder; extraordinary in bulk, quantity, or degree; enormous.

prodromal -- the appearance of the first nonspecific signs of infection; this stage ends when the symptoms characteristic of a particular communicable illness begin to appear.

production deficiency -- the failure to produce a mental strategy when it could be helpful.

profeminists -- this liberal branch of the men's movement, profeminists agree with feminist women that a system of patriarchy benefits white heterosexual males but forces all men, including
minorities and gays, into restrictive gender roles.

professional -- one engaged and participating in a profession and accepting the technical and ethical standards of that profession; in early childhood terms, one who has accumulated
methods, course work, and teaching experience with young children along with attitudes of competency, flexibility, and continual learning.

professional confidentiality -- spoken, written, or acted on in strict privacy, such as keeping the names of children or schools in confidence when discussing observations.

professional organizations -- those associations developed for the purpose of extending knowledge and teaching/learning opportunities in the field of education.

professionalism -- the competence or skill expected of a professional; in early childhood education, this includes a sense of identity, purpose to engage in developmentally
appropriate practices; a commitment to ethical teaching and to child advocacy; and participation in the work as a legitimate livelihood.

proficiency stage of learning -- the stage of learning in which the aim is for the learner to perform the skill accurately and quickly.

profound hearing loss -- 71 decibels (dB) and greater; may hear very loud environmental sounds nearby without amplification but not speech of typical conversational volume. Even
with amplification, some consonant sounds are likely to be missed. Visual communication strategies (
sign language) is a great option.

profound intellectual disability -- generally, considered to be below 20 IQ. Only approximately 1% of people who are intellectually disabled are considered profoundly intellectually
disabled. Some
gross motor development is evident, but fine motor skills are delayed. The individual is usually nonambulatory and not capable of independent mobility within the
environment. The individual may lack perceptual-motor skills. Additionally, people who are profoundly mentally retarded generally do not exhibit spontaneous communication patterns.

Echolalic
speech, speech out of context, and purposeless speech may be evident. More respectful language for "mentally retardation" is "intellectual disability."

progesterone -- a hormone secreted by the placenta during most of pregnancy that keeps the uterus relaxed and the cervix firm and inflexible.

progestin -- a hormone connected with pregnancy and contained in oral contraceptives.

prognosis -- prospect of recovery as anticipated from the usual course of a disease.

program evaluation -- A process that addresses a program's progress in achieving overall outcomes and effectiveness.

program monitoring -- The process of collecting information about how children are progressing towards meeting their individual goals and objectives.

program planning -- Identifying desired goals outcomes for the IFSP/IEP and intervention. This is the third step in the assessment process (screening, eligibility, program planning).

progressive -- Medical disorder that gets worse over time and may lead to death; in terms of health, a condition that gets steadily worse or better.

progressive bulbar palsy -- a motor neuron disease. This disorder involves the brain stem, which controls the motor neurons needed for swallowing, speaking, chewing, and other
functions. Symptoms may include problems swallowing, weak jaw and facial muscles, progressive loss of speech and tongue muscle
atrophy, limb weakness, and outbursts of laughing or
crying.

progressive condition -- medical disorder that gets worse over time and may lead to death.

progressive infection -- An infection that gradually becomes more severe.

progressive muscular atrophy -- a condition similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that progresses more slowly, spasticity does not occur, and muscle weakness is less severe. The
earliest symptoms may be involuntary twitching of muscle fibers. The hands are usually affected first, followed by the arms, shoulders, and legs. Eventually the whole body is affected.
Progressive muscular atrophy is a
motor neuron disease.

progressivism --
A school of thought founded by John Dewey. Emphasis is placed on a child's interest rather than activities chosen by the teacher.

progress monitoring -- the process of collecting information about how children are progressing towards meeting their individual goals and objectives.

progress monitoring and evaluation -- a process of collecting information about a child's progress, the family's satisfaction with services, and overall program effectiveness.

progress report -- a periodic written overview of short-term goals the child has achieved.

project approach -- an in-depth study of a particular subject or theme by one or more children. Exploration of themes and topics over a period of days or weeks. Working in small groups,
children are able to accommodate various levels of complexity and understanding to meet the needs of all the children working on the project.

Project Follow Through -- A federal program that attempts to continue the gains developed through Head Start. Funding is available for children in kindergarten through Grade 3. Children
receive educational, health, and social service benefits.

Project Head Start -- A federally funded program aimed at young children in poverty; designed to increase the chances of
success in school and opportunities for achievement. In the 1960s, Johnson's
War on Poverty brought about many programs for
economically disadvantaged people, including Project Head Start. This program provided ~2 years of preschool as well as
nutritional and health services for the family.

projection -- the attribution of unacceptable impulses or characteristics to other people. Freud: experiencing someone
emotionally in the present in terms of someone in your past.

prokaryotic cells -- cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus. They have few internal distinguishable structures. These are
bacterias and cyanobacterias. Instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called a
plasmid. They come in three major shapes: rod-shaped, spherical, and spiral. They divide by
binary fission. (See--->>.)

prolapse of the umbilical cord --
when the baby presses on the umbilical cord during delivery and blood flow is stopped
(also
oxygen supply for the baby). (See illustration.)

prologue --
a preliminary discourse; a preface or introductory part of a discourse, poem, or novel.

promethean -- boldly creative, defiantly original, deviating genius.

promethium -- atomic number 61, symbol Pm; a radioactive rare-earth element prepared by fission of uranium or by neutron
bombardment of neodymium, used as a source of beta rays; discovered in 1945 by
J.A. Marinsky; named for the god Prometheus
(who stole fire out of the sky and gave it to man).

prompting -- verbal, gestural, or physical assistance that helps the child to learn a skill or participate in an activity.

promulgate -- to make known (a decree, for example) by public declaration; announce officially; to put (a law) into effect by formal public
announcement.

pronatalist bias -- the cultural attitude that takes having children for granted.

prone -- lying on the stomach; face down.

prone board -- A therapeutic device to help a child maintain a standing position.

pronoun -- a small class of words that replace nouns and nouns phrases and that have very general reference, as I, you, he, this, who, what, me, my, mine, we, us, our, you, your, he, she, it,
him, her, his, hers, its, they, them, their, theirs, this, that, these, those, myself, someone, anyone, no one, everyone, somebody, each, neither, something, anybody, anything, nobody,
nothing, everybody, everything, both, few, several, one, each, either, neither, some, any, all, both, few, most, many, who, whose, whom, which, what, ...).

propagate -- to cause an organism to multiply or breed; to breed offspring; to transmit characteristics from one generation to another; to cause to extend to a broader area or larger number;
spread; to make widely known; publicize; to cause to move in some direction or through a medium; transmit.

prophase -- the initial step in cell division when the chromosomes thicken and shorten to look like separate strands.

prophylaxis -- preventive agent.

propinquity -- nearness in time or place; in mate selection, the tendency to choose someone who is geographically nearby.

propionic acidemia -- a disorder of organic acid metabolism characterized by periods of vomiting, lethargy, and coma; hypotonia; bone marrow suppression; enlarged liver
(
hepatomegaly), characteristic facies with puffy cheeks and exaggerated Cupid's bow upper lip; impaired antibody production, intellectual disability, seizures in 50%, abnormalities of
muscle tone, lack of appetite, prolonged drowsiness, rapid difficult breathing. A late onset form of proprionic acidemia has been described with average onset at 16 months. Cause: deficiency
of enzyme propionyl-CaoA carboxylase (PCC) cause by mutations in the PCCA gene on chromosome 13q22 and the PCCB gene on chromosome 3q21--q22;
autosomal recessive. See
ketotic hyperglycinemia.

propitiate (proh-PISH-ee-ayt) -- to gain or regain the favor or goodwill of; appease; conciliate.

propituous -- favorably disposed; benevolent; being of good omen; auspicious; tending to favor; advantageous .

proprioception --
our sense of movement and location in space, arising from stimuli within the body.  

proprioceptive -- one of the six sensory systems, pertaining to movement.  

proptosis --
a bulging of one or both of the eyes. Also called exophthalmos. The sudden onset of proptosis is considered serious, as it can be a symptom of Graves disease, sinus
infection,
abscess, head trauma, inflammation, arterio-venus malformations, orbital tumors, or cancer.

proscenium -- Greek or Roman theater stage; the part of the stage in front of the curtain.

proselytize -- to induce someone to convert to one's faith; to recruit someone to join one's party, institution, or cause.

prosencephalon -- see forebrain.

prosocial --
socially acceptable.

prosocial, or altruistic, behavior -- actions that benefit others without any expectation of a reward.

prosody -- the melodic quality of speech; the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech.

prosophobia -- fear of progress.

prospective -- pertaining to 1) treatment in anticipation of the development of a disorder or 2) a managed health care model based on payment (e.g., of insurance premiums) before
services are rendered.

prostaglandins -- hormones produced by the placenta that soften the cervix so that it will dilate during labor.

prostate gland --
a gland located near the base of the male urethra that produces some of the fluid in semen that nourishes and transports sperm.

prostheses -- Devise used to replace or aid a missing or impaired portion of the body.  

prosthetic device --
Any device used to replace or aid a missing or impaired portion of the body.  

prosocial --
behaviors that are considered positive and social in nature, such as sharing, inviting, including, and offering help or friendship.  

protactinium --
atomic number 91, symbol Pa; a rare, extremely toxic, radioactive element chemically similar to uranium; most common isotope has a half life of 32,480 years; occurs in
uranium ores and produced by neutron irradiation of thorium; discovered in 1917 by
Fredrich Soddy.

protective factor -- a variable that precedes a negative outcome and decreases the chance that the outcome will occur.  

protective order (
restraining order) -- a court order that prohibits a person from threatening, harassing, or hurting a victim. May also prohibit a person from approaching or being near a
victim.

protective techniques -- for individuals who are blind, and especially for individuals who are deaf-blind, these techniques allow them to travel independently, yet safely, within familiar
places. These techniques are primarily for use in familiar indoor environments and are designed to provide information about the environment. Upper hand and forearm protection skills in
which the arm is bent and held across the body at shoulder height, parallel to the floor, with the palm facing outward and fingertips extended, will provide protection at head and chest level.
Lower body protection is done with the arm extended down and held diagonally across the body.

protégé -- one under the care and protection of another.

protein -- class of nutrients used primarily for structural and regulatory functions.

protein synthesis -- the process whereby DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins, through two processes: transcription and translation.

protocol --
a format to be followed during an assessment which can include the skill areas on which to focus and/or the specific skills to be observed.

proton -- a subatomic particle with a positive electric charge. It is found in the nucleus of an atom, along with neutrons.

prototype --
an approach to defining a particular concept in terms of its best example or set of features.

protozoa -- single-celled eukaryotes that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and
heterotrophy.  See wonderful picture from animalpicturesarchive.com.

proviglerization --  

provocative --
tending or serving to provoke; inciting, stimulating, irritating, or vexing.  

proxemics --
study of acceptable spatial distances between people of various cultures and backgrounds; an area of difficulty for many
students with autism spectrum disorders.

Proxima Centauri -- a red dwarf star about 4.22 light years distant in the constellation of Centaurus; discovered in 1915 by Robert Innes;
nearest known star to the sun; too faint to be seen with the naked eye; diameter of about 1/7 that of our sun; may be a part of a triple star system
with Alpha Centauri A and B.
See the picture of Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, with Proxima Centauri indicated in red.

proximal --
describing the part nearest the trunk or midline.

proximal stability -- ability to sit upright to participate in tabletop activities.

proximal weakness -- weakness of the muscles closest or proximal to the trunk of the body.

proximity -- close together in spatial or geographic terms; a positive factor in initial attraction; the quality or state of being proximate; closeness.

proximodistal -- development of muscle control from center of body to extremities (literally, proximo = near; distal = far).

proxy consent -- consent for treatment or research given by a parent or guardian for a child or incompetent adult.

prune belly anomaly  or syndrome -- a rare congenital disorder, more common in males, consisting of deficiency of abdominal wall muscles – absent or hypoplastic –  undescended
testicles, and malformations in the genitals and the urinary tract.

prurient -- marked by or arousing an immoderate or unwholesome interest or desire; especially marked by, arousing, or appealing to sexual desire.

psellismophobia -- fear of stuttering.

psephology -- the scientific study of elections.

pseudo-deescalation -- an indirect relationship-ending strategy in which one or both partners state that they want the relationship to be less close or intense, when they actually want the
relationship to end.

pseudoeducational -- pertaining to the testing of intelligence, academic achievement, and other types of psychological and educational processes.

pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy -- another name for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

pseudohypertrophy --
enlarged but weak muscles, as found in muscular dystrophy.

pseudo-kin group --
a type of kinship group in which relationships resembling kinship ties develop among "unrelated" individuals.

pseudomutuality -- a false sense of togetherness.

pseudoxanthoma  elasticum -- a progressive disorder characterized by accumulated deposits of calcium and other mineral in elastic fibers, which are a component of connective
tissue. This may result in yellowish bumps (papules) on the neck, underarms, and elsewhere on the skin. The eyes may be affected with angioid streaks, which can lead to bleeding and
scarring of the
retina, causing vision loss. Other symptoms are cramping and pain in the arms and legs with exercise, chest pain on exertion, and rarely, heart attack. Bleeding in the
digestive tract may also occur. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum occurs from 1/25,000 to 1/100,000. It is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, located at 16p13.1 on the 16th chromosome,

autosomal recessive
.

psithurisma --
whisper; sound of wind through the trees; sound of wind-rustled leaves.

psittacism -- automatic speech without thought of the meaning of the words spoken.

psoriasis -- a common skin condition that causes skin redness and irritation.  Psoriasis can show with thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called scales. Or the skin may be irritated
in patches, most often on the elbows, knees, and trunk. The skin may be pink-red in color or dried and covered with scales, or raised and thick. Other symptoms may be genital lesions
(males), joint pain or aching, and nail changes.  

PSR -- see positive support reflex.

psyche --
soul, mind, breath, life; the forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior, and personality. Freud: the psyche is composed of three parts: the id, the ego, and the
superego
. Jung: psyche and soul are different and the psyche is the totality of all psychic processes, conscious and unconscious.

psychiatric conditions -- one of the associated complications of autism; children with autism are at greater risk for depression, mood disorders, ADHD, and anxiety.

psychiatrist -- a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders. A psychiatrist can prescribe medications, conduct physical examinations, order and
interpret laboratory tests and
electroencephalograms, computed tomography, MRI, and PET scans.

psychic divorce -- the sixth of Bohannan's six stations of divorce; after a period of mourning, one separates from one's former partner emotionally and is free from his or her influence.

psychic energy -- in Freudian theory, the unconscious energy behind, and driving, the psychodynamic system.

psychic seizure -- a simple partial seizure characterized by an attack of psychic phenomena such as a dreamy state, deja vu, autonomic sensation or emotion; commonly, but not
exclusively, associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

psychoanalysis -- Freud: the theories and therapies that have evolved from Freud's work with his own patients. Examples include neoanalysis, object relations, ego psychology, self
psychology, and intersubjectivity.

psychoanalytic perspective -- an approach to personality development introduced by Freud that assumes that children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts
between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety. Dreams and
stories are symbolic representations of this conflict that are not normally available to individuals in the conscious state. In literary criticism, scholars look for these symbolic representations for
explanation of the material's underlying meaning or character's unexpressed motivations.

psychobabble -- language characterized by the often inaccurate use of jargon from psychiatry and psychotherapy.

psychodynamic -- Freud: the perspective that personality it constituted by interacting and sometimes conflicting psychological forces.

psychodynamic theory -- the psychological theory of Freud and others; it asserts that the individual develops a basic personality core in childhood and that responses stem from
personality organization and emotional problems as a result of environmental experiences.

psycholinguist -- Person who studies the relationship between language (linguistics) and developmental thinking, learning, and behavior (psychology).

psycholinguistics -- the study of the role of language in thinking and learning.

psychological disorders -- behaviors associated with distress (pain), disability (impaired functioning), and risk of pain, death, or loss of freedom.

psychological divorce -- one of Bohannan's six different but overlapping experiences of divorce; involves the regaining of individual autonomy.

psychological maltreatment -- emotional abuse caused by threatening harm or conveying to an individual that he or she is worthless, unloved, or unwanted.

psychological processes -- function of the brain, measured indirectly, through which it takes information in, interprets it, and acts on it.

psychologist --  Person trained to perform psychological analysis, therapy, or research.

psychometric -- having to do with measurement of mental traits, abilities, and processes; usually a formal assessment using a standardized test.

psychomotor --
of, relating to, or characterizing movements of the body associated with mental activity.

psychopathic personality -- a personality disorder characterized by an abnormal lack of empathy combined with strongly amoral conduct, masked by an ability to appear outwardly normal.
"Lacking in conscience and empathy, they take what they want and do as they please, violating social norms and expectations without guilt or remorse." (Robert Hare,
Hare Psychopathy
Checklist
) "intraspecies predators" "What is missing, in other words, are the very qualities that allow a human being to live in social harmony." Current language for psychopathy and
sociopathy is "
antisocial/dissocial personality disorder". See sociopath.

psychopathologist -- An individual who specializes in viewing mental disorders from a psychological perspective.

psychophobia -- fear of the mind.

psychophysiological methods -- methods that measure the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. Among the most common are measures of autonomic nervous
system activity (such as heart rate and respiration) and brain functioning (such as the EEG and the MRI).

psychosexual development -- Freud's stage theory of development, based on how the libido is transformed into different structures and modes of expression. Many of his notions were
inspired by
Karl Abraham's original work, centered around the idea that libido invests certain bodily zones with energy as the child grows older. The order of stages is oral (birth to 8
months),
anal (8 months to 2 years), phallic (two years to 6 years), latency (six to 12 years), genital (puberty to adult). As one masters the stages, one's ability to exert ego control over
one's drives grows. Family conflict can fixate a person on any of these stages and thereby produce a lasting effect on character: the greedy, ever-empty, grasping oral type; the fanatically
orderly and controlling anal type; the thrusting, ambitious phallic type; the quiescent latent type (this one isn't seen as so pathological) -- and the mature outcome of a successful upbringing
or analysis, the genital type, devoted to love and work, but not necessarily in that order. **NOTE -- the ages of these stages stated here differ from the ones presented in texts.**

psychosexual stages -- the stages of development within Freud's psychosexual theory, each of which is based on, but qualitatively distinct from, the others and invariant in its appearance.
The theory is based on how the
libido is transformed into different structures and modes of expression.

psychosexual theory -- Freud's theory, which emphasizes that how parents manage children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality
development.

psychosis -- a generic term for a severe departure from normal actions, thinking, and feelings that interferes with everyday activities, often characterized by delusions (false ideas about
what is taking place or who one is) and
hallucinations (seeing, hearing, feeling, or otherwise perceiving things which aren't there). Symptoms include loss of touch with reality, hallucinations,
disorganized thoughts and/or speech, abnormally exhibited emotion, extreme excitement, confusion, depression and
suicidal ideations, unfounded fear or suspicion, illusions, delusions.
Freud
: whereas a neurosis is a conflict between the ego and id, psychosis is a conflict between ego and reality. Rogers: the end result of a threatening situation. Psychosis occurs when a
person's defenses are overwhelmed, and their sense of self becomes shattered into little disconnected pieces. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having
pscyhotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense. His emotions may be inappropriate. He may lose the ability to differentiate self and non-self, and to become
disoriented and passive (see:
threatening situation).

psychosocial -- those psychological issues that deal with how people relate to others and the problems that arise on a social level; a modification by Erikson of the psychodynamic theories
of
Freud with attention to social and environmental problems of life.

psychosocial crisis -- in Erikson's lifespan theory, the struggles that occur at the various stages of development between two conflicting personality characteristics.

psychosocial disadvantage -- category of causation for intellectual disability that requires evidence of subnormal intellectual functioning in at least one parent and one or more siblings,
often associated with impoverished environments involving poor housing, inadequate diet, and inadequate medical care. May be called cultural-familial retardation.

psychosocial dwarfism -- A growth disorder observed between 2 and 15 years of age. Characterized by very short stature, decreased GH secretion, immature skeletal age, and serious
adjustment problems, caused by emotional deprivation.

psychosocial factors -- influences on students' psychological and social development that includes the people around them, the events they experience, and their living conditions.

psychosocial moratorium -- a period during which youths are reasonably free of adult responsibilities that might prevent them from adequately addressing identity issues.

psychosocial sexual dysfunction -- impairment of the ordinary physical responses of sexual excitement or orgasm as a result of psychological, developmental, interpersonal,
environmental, or cultural factors.

psychosocial theory -- Erikson's model of psychodynamic development, which emphasizes the resolution of psychosocial conflicts at different stages across the life span. Deals with how
people relate to others and the problems that arise on a social level; a modification by
Erikson of the psychodynamic theories of Freud with attention to social and environmental problems of
life.

psychotherapy -- providing treatment for an individual with an emotional disorder. There are varying types of psychotherapy ranging from supportive counseling to psychoanalysis. These
services are usually provided by a psychologist, psychiatrist, or
social worker.

psychotic disorders --
a general term referring to a serious behavior disorder resulting in loss of contact with reality and characterized by delusions, hallucinations, or illusions.

psychrophobia --
fear of cold.

PT -- see physical therapist.

pteronophobia --
fear of feathers.

ptosis -- drooping of eyelid.

PTSD -- see post-traumatic stress disorder.

puberty --
developmental milestone reached when a person becomes sexually mature and capable of having children.

pubescence -- the period of time during which sexual maturation takes place.

pubis -- the ventral and anterior of the three principle bones comprising either half of the pelvis.

public accommodations -- According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA; PL 101-336, 1990), restaurants, hotels, and retail stores may not discriminate against people with
disabilities. Physical barriers must be removed if possible, and if not, there must be alternative methods of providing services.  

public adoptions -- adoptions arranged through licensed agencies that place children in adoptive families.

PL 90-538 -- The Handicapped Children's Early Education Assistance Act, passed in 1968, that provided grants for the development and implementation of experimental programs for
early education for children with special needs age birth to 6.

PL 91-230 -- In 1969, this act consolidated all other special education laws into the Education of the Handicapped Law.

PL 92-424 --
In 1972, this act, the Economic Opportunity Amendment, required that not less than 10% of Head Start enrollment opportunities be available to children with disabilities.

PL 93-112 -- Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 "No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or
otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives or benefits from federal financial assistance."

PL 93-380 -- In 1974, this law required states to establish the goal of providing full educational opportunities for all children with special needs birth to age 21.

PL 94-142 -- Education of the Handicapped Act of 1975, later renamed Education of All Handicapped Children Act, and currently called the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act (2004
); protects the educational rights of students with disabilities. Passed in 1975 (Ford), this federal law made a free and appropriate public education available to all
eligible students, regardless of the extent or type of disability. Eligible students must receive special education and related services necessary to meet their individual needs.

PL 99-457 -- In 1986 (Reagan), this law extended the requirements of PL 94-142 to include children birth to 3 years old; amended 94-142. Legislation that extended the rights and
protections of
Public Law 94-142 to preschool-age children (ages 3 through 5). The law also established an optional state program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

PL 101-336 -- Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Bush Sr.); public and private sectors, including libraries, state and local government facilities, restaurants, hotels, theaters,
transportation systems, and stores should be wheelchair accessible. Also closed captioning and nondiscriminatory hiring practices.

PL 101-476 -- The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (which renamed Education of the Handicapped Act) of 1990 (Bush, Sr), which changed the terminology from handicap
to disability, added
autism and traumatic brain injury as categories, required transition plans for children transitioning out of IDEA to be in place by the student's 16th birthday, emphasized
the role of parents, and recognized the importance of assistive devices. This reauthorization extended the definition of "special education services" to "instruction conducted in the classroom,
in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and other settings; and instruction in physical education." Also social work services and rehabilitative counseling were added as related services.

PL 102-119 -- A reauthorization of IDEA (1991) (Bush Sr) in which case management was changed to service coordinator. This law reauthorized the Part H program and amended definition
of children with disabilities to allow states to provide services to 3-5 year olds who are experiencing developmental delays. Also, the law required states to plan for transition of children from
Part H to preschool programs. This amendment also added vision services, assistive technology and services, and transportation to the definition of early intervention services. The
legislation amended language to support early intervention in integrated settings. Finally, DoD is required to provide early intervention services for eligible children with disabilities ages birth
to third birthday and a free appropriate education and related services for children with disabilities ages 3 through 21 enrolled in the
DoD Domestic Dependent Elementary and
Secondary Schools Arrangements and in overseas areas.

PL 105-17 -- A reauthorization of IDEA, 1997. Provided suspension and school discipline for children with disabilities, clarified Child Find and IEP terms, developed the term 'developmental
delay' for children ages 3 to 9 at state's discretion; and continued federal incentive monies for preschool and early intervention programs.

PL 107-110 -- No Child Left Behind Act (signed into law January 2002). Calls for more standardized testing, "highly qualified" goals for teachers; schools must show progress toward
"everyone" being able to pass standardized testing, making no allowances for children with disabilities. This law has as a stated purpose, "that all children will have a fair, equal, and
significant opportunity to receive a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic standards."

PL 108-446 -- Reauthorization of IDEA, 2004. Seeks to reduce paperwork for professionals and families, defines "highly qualified" as a requirement for special education teachers, provided
modifications for children in private educational settings, authorized the use of
IDEA monies for early intervention services, extended Part C beyond age 2, and provided for children who have
inflicted serious bodily harm on another person to be moved to an interim alternative educational setting.

public policies -- laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions.

PUBS -- see percutaneous umbilical cord sampling.

puffapod --
in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a magical plant that produces large pink seedpods filled with shining beans.

puffskein -- From the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a puffskein is a circular creature covered in soft fur. It is a popular pet. It eats anything from
leftovers to spiders, but loves to eat boogers. A group of puffskeins is a tribble. A puffskein baby is a pompom.
See picture of a knitted puffskein from
http://knitty-witty.blogspot.com/2008/12/puffskein-with-box_22.html

puggy -- a warm bun.  

pugnacious --
having a quarrelsome or combative nature; truculent; belligerent.  

pulchritude -- physical beauty, comeliness; loveliness; beauteousness; fairness.  

pull factors --
positive aspects of being unmarried that attract an individual to singlehood.  

pull out services --
Removing a student from a regular classroom to receive specific services, such as physical therapy.  

pullout therapy --
therapy that involves removing students from a regular classroom to receive specific services.  

pulmonary --
pertaining to the lungs.

pulmonary arteries -- arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs. The main pulmonary artery extends from the right ventricle and branches into the left and right pulmonary
arteries, which extends to the left lung and right lung.

pulmonary blood pressure -- blood pressure in blood vessels receiving oxygen from the lungs.

pulmonary hypertension -- increased back pressure in the pulmonary artery leading to decreased oxygenation and right heart failure.

pulmonary stenosis (pulmonary valve stenosis) -- a congenital defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The pulmonary
valve is found between the
right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It has 3 leaflets that function like a one-way door, allowing blood to flow forward into the pulmonary artery, but not
backward into the right ventricle. In pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary valve is defective, and may have only 1 or 2 leaflets instead of 3, or may have leaflets fused together, or also may
have thick leaflets that do not open all the way. Symptoms are heavy or rapid breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid heart rate, swelling in the feet, ankles, face, eyelids, and/or
abdomen, and fewer wet diapers or trips to the bathroom.

pulmonary valve -- valve that is located between the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. This valve prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped to the pulmonary
artery.

pulmonary vascular obstructive disease -- (Eisenmenger's Syndrome) a complication of uncorrected congenital heart anomalies that produce left-to-right shunting, increasing
pulmonary resistance, causing deoxygenated blood from entering the circulation, causing
hypoxia. Symptoms are cyanosis, finger and toe clubbing, syncope, dyspnea during exertion,
fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, slurred speech, visual problems, headaches, increased fatigue.

pulmonary vascular resistance -- vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels normally high during fetal life, which should relax immediately upon birth with the first breaths of life.

pulmonary vasodilation -- relaxation of the lung's blood vessels soon after birth to establish lung circulation and extinguish fetal circulation.

pulp -- the soft tissue under the dentin layer in teeth containing blood vessels, lymphatics (lymph vessels), connective tissue, and nerve fibers.

pulse oximeter -- a device that measures oxygen tension noninvasively.

pumpkin juice -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a cold drink favored by the wizarding world. At my house, we make pumpkin juice by adding sprite or ginger ale (cold) to the
orange flavor of V-8 fruit juice. You can also put 3 cups apple cider in a saucepan and add ginger, cinnamon, and cloves. Bring the whole thing to a boil and then simmer for 15 minutes on
low. Remove from heat and add 1/4 cup honey and 1/2 cup brown sugar. Stir and then chill until really cold. Add pumpkin puree (28 ounce can). Chill some more. OR if you have a juicer,
then you can juice about 2 cups of chunked pumpkin, and apples (about 2 cups juice) and pineapple (1/2 cup juice). Add 1 teaspoon honey and cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg to taste. Blend.
Chill.

pun -- "A pun is to treat homonyms as synonyms." A kind of word play intended to bring laughter and groans. "The ankle was an arch enemy of the heel because the heel had a sole that
could neither toe the line nor keep instep." "Illusionists always find themselves in tricky situations." "The lights were too bright at the Chinese restaurant so the manager decided to dim sum."

punchinello -- short, fat clown or clown puppet.

pungle -- to make payment or contribution of money -- usually used with "up".

punisher -- a stimulus event that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that it will occur again.

punishment -- technically, the presentation of an aversive event, or the removal of a positive event contingent upon a response that decreases the probability of a behavior's occurrence.
Punishment promotes immediate compliance, but not always lasting changes in behavior.

pupaphobia -- fear of puppets

pupil -- the expandable opening in the iris that dilates or constricts to control the amount of light entering the eye. (See illustration showing a white
pupil.)

purdah --
an Islamic practice that prohibits a woman from leaving her home except with her husband's permission and only then with her face and
body fully covered by loose garments.

puree -- rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender.

pure sounds -- sound waves of specific frequencies used to test an individual's hearing ability.

purified pleasure-ego -- Freud: that sector of the ego that rids itself of badness by projecting it onto external objects.

purine -- a type of organic molecule found in RNA and DNA.

purlicue -- space between the thumb and forefinger.

purpura -- discoloration on the skin due to tiny leakages of blood underneath.

pursuer -- an individual who wants a very high degree of togetherness and expression of feeling in a relationship.

pursy -- having a puckered appearance; purse-proud.

pus -- an indication that white blood cells are attacking infections present in or on the body. Pus can be white, slightly green or yellow, and is relatively thick, approximately the same as
Elmer's Glue. It is actually a collection of dead skin cells, white blood cells called
neutrophils, and some bacteria. It is a visible sign of infection.

PVL --
see periventricular leukomalacia.

PVR --
see pulmonary vascular resistance.

pyloric sphincter --
a ring of smooth muscle fibers around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum.

pyloric stenosis --
a narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine. A symptom is projectile
vomiting; multifactorial.

pylorus -- the valve separating the stomach from the first section of the small intestine, the duodenum.

pyramidal tract or pyramidal nerve group --
a nerve tract; also called the corticospinal tract, leading from the cortex into the spinal column and involved in the control of voluntary
motor movement. Damage to this tract results in
spasticity, commonly seen in cerebral palsy.

pyrexeophobia, pyrexiophobia --
fear of fever.

pyridoxine -- Vitamin B6.

pyrophobia -- fear of fire.

pyrrhic -- of a victory, having high levels of casualties or damage on both sides.
PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ
Quadlings -- the people who live in the Land of the South in Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum; noted for their use of red colors.

quadriparesis -- weakness of all four extremities.

quadriplegia -- a condition characterized by paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk.

quadruped position -- on hands and knees.

quaffle -- a ball used in the game of quidditch (Harry Potter series, J.K.Rowling). It is 12 inches in diameter, red, and leather covered. The chasers try to score by throwing the quaffle
through the opponents' three goal hoops. If it goes through, it is worth 10 points.

quagswagging -- the action of shaking to and fro.

qualitative -- pertaining to or concerned with quality or qualities; of, relating to, or involving quality or kind.

qualitative assessment -- a method of assessment that uses observations and other methods that do not focus on providing numerical data.

qualitative development research -- research that examines developmental phenomena within the social and political contexts within which they occur.

qualitative research -- research that focuses on individuals' perceptions of their world and how they live in it. Data are recorded in the form of words and stories that the individuals tell.
Verbal and written perceptions are analyzed by researchers looking for common themes that explain the processes of life.

qualities of movement -- are divided into six categories: sustained, suspended, swinging, percussive, vibratory, and collapsing.

quality points -- milestones or measurement intervals on a rating scale.

qualm -- a sudden attack of illness, faintness, or nausea; a sudden fear; a feeling of doubt or indecision in matters of right and wrong.

quantitative -- method that provides a numerical count of individual or group actions.

quantitative assessment -- a method of assessment that uses numerical values or quantities to describe skills levels.

quantitative research -- method that provides a numerical count of individual or group actions.

quantitative scoring -- an assessment tool that reports results with a numeric score.

quantum -- the smallest amount of a physical quantity that can exist independently, especially a discrete quantity of electromagnetic radiation; this amount of energy regarded as a unit; a
quantity or amount; a specified portion; some quanta take the form of elementary particles, for example, the quantum of electromagnetic radiation is the photon, while the quanta of the weak
force are the W and Z particles.

quaquaversal -- directed outward from a common center to all points; omnidirectional.

quark -- any of the hypothetical particles with spin 1/2, baryon number 1/3, and electric charge 1/3 or -2/3 that, together with their antiparticles, are believed to constitute all the elementary
particles classed as baryone and mesons; they are distinguished by their flavors, designated as up (u), down (d), strange (s), charm (c), bottom or beauty (b), and top or truth (t), and their
colors, red, green, and blue. The word was coined in 1963 by physicist
Murray Gell-Mann. I love and am thrilled by this definition and yet I don't understand it. I wish I did.

quasi-experiment -- a research method that meets some but not all of the strict standards of a true experiment.

quasi-kin -- the person a former spouse marries or any in-laws, both former ones from the previous marriage and added ones from remarriage.

querencia -- the area of the bull-ring where the bull makes its stand.

querulousness -- given to complaining; peevish; expressing a complaint or grievance; grumbling.

quickening -- fetal movements during pregnancy (usually refers to the first time movement is felt by the mother).

quidditch -- a wizarding sport played on broomsticks (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling). It is played by 2 teams of 7 people each -- 3 chasers, 2 beaters, one keeper, and one seeker. It
involves 4 balls: a quaffle, 2 bludgers, and a snitch.

quid pro quid -- a strategy for negotiating differences in which one person gets to do what he or she wants in exchange for doing something another person requests; "this for this".

quid pro quo -- a strategy for negotiating differences in which one person agrees to do something in exchange for the other person's agreement to do something else of equal value of
importance; "this for that".

quiescent -- marked by inactivity or repose; tranquilly at rest; causing no trouble or symptoms.

quiet area-- This activity area may contain books, bookshelves, manipulative toys, and comfortable seating.

quincunx (KWIN-kunks) -- an arrangement of five things in a square or rectangle with one at each corner and one in the middle.

quintaped -- also known as Hairy MacBoon, a dangerous mythical beast with five legs, each ending in a clubfoot, and covered with thick, red-brown
hair. It is carnivorous, and loves to eat humans. It is a creature in the
Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). A group of quintapeds is a tesselation. A
quintaped baby is a MacBoon
. See picture.

quintessence --
fifth element; perfect embodiment.

quisquose -- something which is difficult to deal with.

quiver -- shiver; shake; quaver; tremble.

quorum -- a select group; the number (as a majority) of officers or members of a body that, when duly assembled, is legally competent to transact business.

quotidian -- daily, every day, recurring daily.

QWERTY -- a standard typewriter or computer keyboard -- also called a QWERTY keyboard.
PQ
A    B    C    D   E   F    G  H   I  JKL   M    NO    R   
Sa--So    Sp--Sz   T       U--Z  
I don't believe. I
know. --
Carl Jung