Na -- atomic number 11, symbol for sodium.

NAEYC -- See National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Nager syndrome --
see acrofacial dysostosis------------------------------------------------>.

naiad --
a nymph; a river, lake, fountain, or spring nymph or spirit.

naïve psychology -- Vygotsky's second stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language.

naïveté -- inexperience; quality of being naïve; artlessness.

namby-pamby -- insipid and sentimental; lacking vigor or decisiveness; spineless.

nanometer -- a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a meter.

narcissism -- inflated, grandiose, or unjustified favorable self-views; Freud: the investment of libido into oneself. The libidinal equivalent of egotism. Freud
regarded it as a perversion until 1914, when in On Narcissism he wrote that normal development means transferring more and more attention and interest
into other people and thereby decreasing one's original or primary state of narcissism. Primary narcissism is the self-involvement all infants start out with;
secondary narcissism is a turning of libido away from objects back to the
ego, as with what we now call the narcissistic personality.

nargles -- In the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling) nargles are creatures that Luna and Xenophilius Lovegood believe to exist. Nargles infest mistletoe
and are mischievous thieves. Luna's butterbeer cork necklace keeps nargles away. A group of nargles is an infestation. A nargle baby is a giggle.
picture of a nargle from

NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa) -- one of the mitochondrial disorders; retinitis pigmentosa, sensory neuropathy, seizures,
dementia, ataxia, proximal weakness. Caused by a mutation  in the ATP synthase 6 gene; maternal through mtDNA.

narrative -- method that tells a story, includes all the details of an incident, or the sequence of events.

narrative therapy -- developed out of social constructionist and postmodern thinking, this approach to counseling seeks to create a new story for the individual
and the family that works better than the old approach.

nasal bone -- two small oblong bones that together form the bridge of the nose. See picture.

nasal cannula --
plastic prong placed in the nostrils to deliver oxygen; plural, cannulae.

nasal cavity -- a large, fluid filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. The air passing into the
nasal cavity is warmed or cooled to within 1 degree of body temperature and also humidified and filtered. The nasal
cavity is divided into two segments: the
respiratory and the olfactory. See picture.

nasal hypoplasia --
underdeveloped nasal cavity with all of its many varieties.

nasal pillows -- a prop attached to an oxygen line to permit the flow of oxygen directly into the nose.

nasal septum – the partition dividing the nasal cavities ----------------------------------------------------------->>.

nascent --
coming or having recently come into existence.

nasogastric (NG) feeding tube -- a plastic feeding tube placed in the nose and extended into the stomach.

nasopharynx -- posterior portion of the oral cavity above the palate (see picture below nasal septum).

natal -- pertaining to birth -- before, during, and immediately after.

National Association for the Education of Young Children -- an organization that is dedicated to improving the well-being of all young
children, with particular focus on the quality of educational and developmental services for all children from birth to age 8. NAEYC was
founded in 1926.

National Association of Social Workers (NASW) -- professional organization of social workers.

National Council for the Social Studies' National Standards -- a set of national standards developed for children (K--12) identifying
learning experiences that make up a fundamental knowledge of social studies.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

National Instructional Materials Standard (NIMAS) -- a standard in the IDEA 2004 regulations requiring states to provide instructional materials in accessible format to students with
disabilities (e.g., electronic versions of textbooks).

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) -- group of representatives from ten professional and parent organizations concerned about and working on behalf of
individuals with learning disabilities.

National School Lunch Program

National Science Education Standards -- a set of national standards on science education, presenting an outline of what students (K--12) need to know, understand, and be able to do to
be "scientifically literate" at each grade level.

native language -- the first language a child learns to speak fluently.

native speaker -- a speaker of a particular language who has spoken that language since earliest childhood.

nativist -- theorists who believe that skills are innate and naturally occur as a child matures. The nativist language theory says that humans are programmed to learn language due to innate
and universal features of the mind.

nativist model -- a theoretical model in which hereditary factors are considered to be the primary influence on development.

natural, or prepared, childbirth -- an approach designed to reduce pain and medical intervention and to make childbirth a rewarding experience for parents.

natural consequence -- a consequence that would occur without a parent or teacher's intervention.

natural environment -- Placements -- such as child care, home, and preschool -- that use play and other developmentally appropriate activities and learning opportunities; a philosophy
that emphasizes providing early intervention in settings viewed as typical for youngsters without disabilities.

natural line of development -- Vygotsky's term for developmental changes governed by genetic and biological factors.

naturalistic approach -- an instructional approach that emphasizes teaching within the context of a daily routine.

naturalistic observation -- A systematic process of gathering information by looking at individuals and their behavior in their natural environment; a research method in which the
researcher observes the behavior of interest in the field, or natural environment, of the one(s) behaving.

naturalistic study -- method in which researchers observe the behavior of people in their natural environments.

naturalistic teaching -- language instruction that occurs in natural settings.

naturalist intelligence -- one of Howard Gardner's nine distinct intelligences listed in his Multiple Intelligence theory. The human ability to discriminate among living things (plants,
animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hungers, gatherers, and farmers.
It continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.

natural methods of assessment -- a method of assessment that used information from the child's environment.

natural routines -- activities that normally take place in the daily routine of infants and toddlers and their families.

natural selection -- the process, in nature, whereby individuals who are best adapted to their surroundings survive and reproduce, and the adaptive characteristics of those individuals are
passed on to the next generation; sometimes called
evolution; Darwin.

natural setting -- placements in normal settings, such as a regular classroom with typical children who do not have disabilities.

natural stage (or primitive stage) -- Vygotsky's first stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language.

natural supports -- the student's family and classmates. These individuals make up a support network of mutual caring that promotes greater inclusion within the classroom and school,
access to effective instruction, and the development of social relationships (friendships).

nature vs. nurture -- controversy concerning how much of a person's ability is related to sociocultural influences (nurture) as opposed to genetic factors (nature).

NCLB -- see No Child Left Behind.

NDT --
see neurodevelopmental therapy.

neanderthal --
an extinct human species or subspecies living during the late Pleistocene Epoch throughout most of Europe and parts of
Asia and northern Africa and associated with Middle Paleolithic tools; crude, boorish; slow-witted; primitive; uncivilized; ultraconservative;

near death experiences -- Jung had a near-death experience in 1944 when he had a heart attack. His vivid encounter with the light,
plus the intensely meaningful insights led
Jung to conclude that his experience came from something real and eternal. Jung recalled the
meditating Hindu from his near death experience and read it as a parable of the archetypal Higher Self, the God-image within.

near poverty -- the economic state that results when the annual income of a family of three is no greater than $22,722.

nebula -- an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen gas, helium gas, and other ionized gases. (See amazing picture of the Orion nebula.)

nebulaphobia --
fear of fog.

nebulous -- hazy, vague, indistinct, or confused; cloudy or cloudlike; of or resembling a nebula or nebulae; nebular.

NEC -- see necrotizing enterocolitis.

neck righting reflex --
As the asymmetrical tonic neck response is "lost," it is replaced with a neck-righting reflex, in which
passive or active rotation of the head to one side is followed by rotation of the shoulders, trunk, and pelvis in the same direction
tonic-neck reflex). (See illustration.)

necrophobia -- fear of corpses.

necrosis -- death of the tissue.

necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) -- severe inflammation of the small intestine and colon, more common among premature infants.

needs assessment -- an assessment that is conducted by the district to determine the transition practices that currently exist in the district.

nefarious -- infamous by way of being extremely wicked; evil, wicked, sinful; morally bad in principle or practice.

negative blood -- blood that does not have the Rh factor, a protein on the surface of the red blood cells.

negative feedback -- information or communication that is intended to minimize change in a system.

negative reinforcement -- response to a behavior that decreases the likelihood that the behavior will recur; for instance, a teacher's glare might stop a child from whispering at group time,
and from then on, the anticipation of such an angry look could reinforce not whispering in the future. Behavioral phenomenon in which an individual's behavior permits an unpleasant event to
be avoided or escaped, with a resultant increase in this behavior in the future.

negative sentences -- statements using "no," "not," "can't," and so on.

negative sentiment override -- a state in which the negative emotions shared by a couple far outnumber the positive emotions.

neglect -- the withholding of basic survival needs: food, water, shelter, clothing, medical care; constitutes maltreatment.

neglected children -- children who are reasonably well liked by their peers, but who lack friends. In a study of peers, these children were seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively.

neglect response -- a destructive reaction that tends to occur when a person is not much invested in the relationship, doesn't want to deal with any problems in it, and is willing to let the
partnership simply wither away.

negligent -- failing to practice or perform one's duties according to certain standards; careless.

negotiated farewell -- a relationship-ending strategy in which both partners recognize the problems with the relationship and mutually agree to end it.

nelophobia -- fear of glass.

nemesis -- source of harm or ruin; unconquerable foe or enemy; vengeful opponent.

nenuphar -- a water lily, especially an Egyptian lotus.

neolocal residence -- situation in which newly married partners set up their own household, not connected with parents of the bride or the groom.

neolocal society -- a society that encourages newly married couples to establish their own separate, autonomous residence, independent of either partner's parental kinship group.

neon -- atomic number 10, symbol Ne; a rare, inert, noble gas element occurring in the atmosphere at 18 parts per million; colorless, but glows reddish orange in an electric discharge;
discovered in 1898 by
Sir William Ramsay; used for lighting; obtained from liquid air.

neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy -- see adrenoleukodystrophy, neonatal form.

Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) -- a test developed to assess the behavior of the infant during the newborn period; developed by T. Berry Brazelton.

neonatal conjunctivitis -- eye condition caused by exposure of the newborn’s eyes to chemical, chlamydial, bacterial, or viral agents. Chemical
conjunctivitis usually occurs as a result of silver nitrate that is put in newborns’ eyes to prevent a
gonococcal infection --------------------------------->>.

neonatal herpes simplex -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) --
hospital unit specializing in providing newborn life support treatments.

neonatal lupus erythematosus -- a rare form of temporary lupus that affects a fetus or newborn (usually coming to the fore in the first few months
of life). It occurs when the mother's
autoantibodies are passed to her child in utero. These antibodies can affect the skin, heart, and/or blood of the baby. It sometimes appears as a rash
developing soon after birth and can last several months before disappearing. This is not a permanent condition, but half of all babies born with neonatal lupus may present with a heart
condition -- one that is permanent, but treatable with a pacemaker. Only about 1% of infants who receive positive maternal autoantibodies will develop neonatal lupus, and females more often
than males.

neonatal mortality -- the number of deaths in the first month of life per 1000 live births.

neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis -- an acute inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by tissue death that may lead to the perforation of the bowel and peritonitis or infection of

neonatal seizure -- a seizure that manifests as arm and/or leg tonic/clonic movements seeming like bicycling or rowing movements of the legs and/or arms. Movements may also be more
subtle (e.g., orolingual movements such as spasmodic lip smacking or tongue thrusting, ocular movements such as excessive blinking or prolonged eye opening/staring,

neonate -- an infant who is in the first one to two months of life ------------------------------>>.

neophobic -- fear of things that are new and unfamiliar.

neoteny (neotenise, neotenous) -- retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species, as among certain amphibians; the attainment
of sexual maturity by an organism still in its larval stage.

nephophobia -- fear of disease; fear of clouds.

nephritis -- an inflammation of the kidney, caused by toxins, infections, and autoimmune disease.

nephroblastoma --  a tumor that originates in the kidneys – also called Wilms Tumor.

nephron -- functional unit of the kidney that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. There are about 1,000,000 nephrons in each
human kidney.

nepotism -- favoritism show or patronage granted to relatives, as in business.

neodymium -- atomic number 60, symbol Nd; a bright, silvery, rare-earth metal element, found in monazite and bastnaesite and used for coloring glass and ceramics and infrared radiation
filtering; lanthanide series; discovered in 1925 by
C.F. Aver von Welsbach.  

neophyte --
a novice; tyro; beginner.

neoplasm -- an abnormal mass of tissue (tumor) that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign or malignant. See tumor.

neoteny, neotenous, neotenised -- retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species, as among amphibians; the attainment of sexual maturity by an organism still in its larval

nepenthe -- drug of forgetfulness; anti-depression drug; remedy for sorrow.

nepheliad -- cloud nymph; nymph designated or of the clouds.

nephew -- the son of a brother or sister in relation to you.

Neptune -- the eighth planet that is farthest from the sun in our Solar System. It is the fourth largest by diameter, and the third largest by mass. It is 17 times the mass of earth. It is named for
the Roman god of the sea,
Neptune. It was discovered by Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams, and Johann Galle on September 23, 1846. Neptune's atmosphere is composed
primarily of hydrogen and helium.
Galileo drew pictures of Neptune on December 28, 1612 and again on January 27, 1613 but mistook it for a fixed star. Neptune and Uranus are considered
ice giants. Neptune has a planetary ring system (Adams, Lassell and Arago, Leverrier, Galle).
 Neptune is on average, 4.50 billion km from the sun, and completes an orbit on average every
164.79 years. Neptune has 13 known moons: Triton, Nereid, Proteus, Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatea, Larissa, Halimede, Sao, Laomedeia, Psamathe, Neso). Neptune is never visible to
the naked eye. For a couple of years, and previous to Pluto's demotion, Neptune was the 9th planet from the sun because of Pluto's eccentric orbit.

neptunium -- atomic number 98, symbol Np; a silvery, metallic, naturally radioactive element, the first of the transuranic elements; longest-lived isotope has a half-life of 2.1 million years;
found in trace quantities in uranium ores; produced synthetically by nuclear reactions and as the by-product of the production of plutonium; discovered in 1940 by
E. M. McMillan; named
after the planet Neptune.

nerve blocks -- direct injection of denaturing agents into motor nerves.

nerve cells -- also called neurons, cells of the nervous system, specialized to carry messages through an electrochemical process. The human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons.

nerve conduction velocity -- measure of nerve function.

nervous system -- a complex system divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The spinal cord and the brain make up the CNS. Its
main job is to get the information from the body and send out instructions. The PNS is made up of all the nerves and wiring. This system sends the messages from the brain to the rest of the

nescience -- absence of knowledge or awareness; ignorance; agnosticism; unbelieving.

netroots -- the grassroots political activists who communicate via the Internet especially by blogs.

netsuke (NETS-kay) -- a small and often intricately carved toggle (as of wood, ivory, or metal) used to
fasten a small container to a kimono sash.

networking -- making connections with others who can further career and professional opportunities.

neural -- Involving the nerves and the nervous system. (See picture.)

neural crest --
The part of the ectoderm in a vertebrate embryo that lies on either side of the neural
tube and develops into the cranial, spinal, and autonomic
ganglia. (Same picture.)

neural fold --
during embryonic life, the fold created when the neural plate expands and rises; later it
becomes the spinal column.
(Same picture.)

neuralgia --
pain that follows the path of a nerve. Symptoms are impaired function of body part due to
pain, muscle weakness, or nerve damage; increased sensitivity of the skin or numbness; pain located anywhere, usually near or on the surface of the body.

neural groove -- A longitudinal groove between the neural folds of the vertebrate embryo before the neural tube is completed. (Same picture.)

neural hearing impairment --
hearing impairment attributed to abnormality or failure of the auditory nerve pathway. May also be called sensorineural hearing loss.

neural network -- a network involving many brain regions working in concert to store and use information obtained from the environment.

neural plate -- earliest fetal brain mass development derived from the ectodermal germ layer of the embryo in the first 7 weeks of gestation. (Same picture, above.)

neural tube --
precursor of the spinal column; the stage of central nervous system (CNS) development that follows neural plate formation, which subsequently gives rise to the various
parts of the brain (i.e., the
forebrain folding into the cerebrum and the hindbrain into the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord). (Same picture, above.)

neural tube defects --
disorders in the development, closure, and formation of the neural groove, the vertebral
column (which houses the spinal cord), or other soft tissue structures surrounding the nerves. A group of
malformations of the spinal cord, brain, and vertebrae. Three major neural tube defects are
encephalocele (a
malformation of the skull which allows a portion of the brain to protrude),
anencephaly (no neural development
occurs above the
brain stem), and spina bifida (see illustration of types of spina bifida).

neurobiological disorder --
a condition of the nervous system that may be caused by genetic or biological

neuroblastoma -- cancerous growths in the nerves which can appear anywhere in the body. These tumors
generally form in infancy and early childhood. Many start in the
adrenal glands, but 2/3 of them start in the

neurochemicals -- chemical processes and phenomena related to the nervous system. Neurotransmitters are
one type of
neurochemical. Serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, glutamate (GABA), etc.

neurodegenerative -- the progressive loss of structure or function of the neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's

neurodevelopmental -- development of the neurological systems.

neurodevelopmental approaches -- explanations of development that focus on the relationship of brain development to behavior and thinking.

neurodevelopmental disorders -- caused by irregularities in brain development as a result of genetic and environmental factors. Includes Fragile X, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and
Autism spectrum disorders. Children can experience these disorders with other disorders.

neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT) -- specific training a physical therapist may receive, specifically focused on providing physical therapy for children. Therapy that includes an
understanding and utilization of typical developmental stages in working with children; commonly used theory underlying physical and occupational therapy.

neurodevelopmental training (NDT) -- a program used by occupational and physical therapists that concentrates on manipulating and handling the child at either head, shoulders,
trunk, or hips.

neuroectoderm -- fetal skin cells that differentiate to form the retina and central nervous system.

neurofibromatosis (type 1) (Von Recklinghausen disease) -- multiple cafe-au-lait spots, axillary (armpit) and inguinal (groin) freckling, nerve tumors (fibromas) in body and on skin,
Lisch nodules (brown bumps on the iris of the eye), glaucoma, scoliosis, hypertension, ADHD, macrocephaly or hydrocephalus, visual impairments (secondary to optic
glaucomas), increased risk of numerous
malignant and benign tumors in the nervous system (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in 8% ti 13% of patients), verbal and non-verbal
learning disabilities occur in 30% to 65% of patients. Caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene, which codes for neurofibromin protein, on chromosome 17q11.2; autosomal dominant;
although may be new mutation. Can cause

neurofibromatosis, type II --
bilateral vestibular schwannomas (benign tumors of auditory nerve), cranial and spinal tumors, neuropathy, cafe-au-lait spots (usually fewer than 6); in
contrast to type I, no
Lisch nodules or axillary freckling are seen. Associated complications: deafness (average age of onset is 20 years); cataracts or other ocular abnormalities,
(tumor of the meninges), tumor growth rates are variable within the same patient and between patients. Caused by a mutation in the tumor-suppressor (NF2) gene encoding
merlin protein on chromosome 22q12.2; genotype/phenotype studies show that nonsense mutations (mutations that create a stop codon) are associated with more severe disease
presentation than other type of genetic mutations;
autosomal dominant, although may be new mutation; may cause deaf-blindness. Hearing loss is present in 45% of individuals with this
syndrome. The loss is unilateral in 75% and is progressive. Any adult presenting with noncongenital unilateral hearing loss has neurofibromatosis II until proven otherwise.

neurogenic -- starting with or having to do with the nerves or the nervous system.

neurogenic voice disorders -- due to nerve or brain damage, includes paralysis of the vocal cords.

neuroimaging -- non-invasive method of viewing parts of the brain; helpful in determining the presence of certain disabilities.

neuroleptic malignant syndrome -- a rare toxic reaction to a medication in which there is a potentially life-threatening high fever.

neurological -- Referring to the nerves and the nervous system in general.

neurological factors -- possible cause of learning disabilities; anoxia, abnormal fetal positioning during delivery, prenatal infections, prenatal injury, etc.

neurological impairment -- any physical disability caused by damage to the central nervous system (i.e., the brain, spinal cord, ganglia, or nerves).

neurological soft signs -- common characteristic of learning disabilities; may include poor fine motor coordination, balance, and tactile discrimination. Also strabismus and poor visual-
motor coordination.

neurological system -- organ system including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

neurologist -- physician specifically trained in sensory or motor responses due to nervous system impairments (that guy over there
looking in the centaur's head is, himself, a neurologist. The others are just assistants).

neuroma --
a growth or tumor of nerve tissue.

neuromotor impairments -- includes disorders that involve the central nervous system and affect both the nerves and the muscles.
cerebral palsy, spinal cord disorders and injuries, seizure disorders, and traumatic brain injury. These can impair a child's
movement and posture, inhibiting or preventing the child from maneuvering through the environment.

neuromuscular -- relating to the coordination of the central nervous system and the muscular-skeletal system.

neuromuscular impairment -- a neurological problem that affects the muscles, such as muscular dystrophy.

neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, juvenile -- see Batten disease.

neuronal migration disorder -- a diverse group of congenital brain abnormalities that arise specifically from defective formation of the central nervous system. During early brain
development, neurons are made and move to make different parts of the brain, per genetic instructions and proper environmental factors. If this does not go as planned, gross malformations
may occur. Most people with neuronal migration disorders will have
seizures and intellectual disability. Some neuronal migration disorders are lissencephaly,  Zellweger syndrome,
Kallman syndrome, periventricular heterotopia, schizencephaly, and polymicrogyria.

neurons -- nerve cells in the brain that store and transmit information. Neurons are similar to other cells in the body because: they are surrounded by a cell membrane; they have a
nucleus containing
genes; they contain cytoplasm, mitochondria, and other organelles; and they carry out basic cellular processes such as protein synthesis and energy production.
They differ from other cells in the body because: neurons have
dendrites and axons; neurons communicate with each other through an electrochemical process; and they contain
specialized structures (for example,
synapses) and chemicals (for example, neurotransmitters).  

neuropathy -- disorders of the nervous system.

neuroscience -- the study of how the brain develops and changes.

neuroscientists -- Those who study the brain and the nervous system.

neuroses -- any of a group of non-psychotic disorders characterized by unusual levels of anxiety and associated problems; psychiatric disorders associated with unresolved conflicts and
characterized by anxiety, but without the disorganization of personality and distortion of reality that occur in
psychoses. Examples of neuroses include panic disorder, conversion
hysteria, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobias; Maslow: the lack of basic physiological needs may lead to a very specific hunger for the things that are missing. If you have specific
problems in your development (extreme insecurity or hunger, loss of a family member, etc.) you may "fixate" on that set of needs for the rest of your life.
Freud: a conflict between ego and id
that produces symptoms of psychological discomfort. This physiologic-sounding term has been changed to "
anxiety disorder." That's regrettable, since many neuroses don't involve
conscious anxiety. Neurosis results when we live in cultures that require for their cohesion a renunciation of our drives, a repression that makes us a bit irrational.
Rogers: the result of a real
self - ideal self incongruity.

neurotic disorders -- behavior characterized by combinations of anxieties, compulsions, obsessions, and phobias.

neurotoxin -- a chemical that damages the central nervous system or neurons; also called neurotoxicant.

neurotransmitter -- a chemical released at the synapse that permits transmission of an impulse from one nerve to another.

neurotropin -- any nutrient that enhances brain function. May include food, hormones, or medications.

neurulation -- sequential central nervous system (CNS) developmental processes of neuron cell proliferation and migration of nascent neurons outward from the center of the developing
brain to the outer

neutralized symmetry -- a style of communication in which partners respect each other, approach each other as equals, and avoid exerting control over the other.

neutral stimulus -- something that initially does not elicit a particular response.

neutron -- an electrically neutral subatomic particle in every atomic nucleus except for ordinary hydrogen. It has a mass nearly 1,840 times the mass of the electron.

neutropenia -- low white blood cell count.

neutrophils -- the most common type of white blood cell, comprising about 50% to 70% of all white blood cells. They can ingest other cells,. They are the first immune cells to arrive at a
site of infection, through a process called
chemotaxis. They have a half-life of only 4 to 10 hours when not activated. They immediately die when ingesting a pathogen. They are the main
component of pus, and responsible for its whitish color.  

newborn reflexes -- muscle reactions to stimuli; present in children who are just born. The reactions are not controlled by intent.

newborns -- babies less than 2 weeks old.

new life stage of grief -- the period during which the bereaved establishes a new lifestyle and exhibits to society and his or herself that he or she can live satisfactorily as a single person.
The last of
Brubaker's three stages of the grieving process.

newspeak -- propagandistic language marked by euphemism, circumlocution, and the inversion of customary meanings: double-talk.

NF-2 Bilateral, acoustic -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

NG tube --
see nasogastric tube.

niacin --
also known as vitamin B3.

niche-picking -- a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environments that complement their heredity.

nickel -- atomic number 28, symbol Ni; a silvery, hard, ductile, ferromagnetic transition metallic element; name came from the German word
kupfernickel; used for electroplating metal alloys, nickel-cadmium batteries; obtained from pentlandite; discovered in 1751 by
Alex Cronstedt.

nickelodeon --
a theater that charges a nickel for entry.

nicker -- to neigh softly; to laugh quietly; a pound sterling (100 pence).

nictitate -- wink.

NICU -- see neonatal intensive care unit -------------------------------------------------->>.

nidicolous --
remaining in the nest for some time after hatching, as some birds; living in the nest of another species.

Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B -- lysosomal storage disorder; type A presents in infancy with failure to thrive, enlarged liver and spleen, rapidly progressive neurological
decline. Death occurs by age 2 -- 3 years. Associated complications:
intellectual disability, ataxia, myoclonus, eye abnormalities, coronary artery disease, lung disease; type B is
variable but not compatible with survival to adulthood and may cause few or no neurological abnormalities. Main clinical features of type B are enlargement of the spleen and liver resulting in
liver dysfunction as well as cardiac disease, lipid abnormalities, pulmonary involvement, and growth retardation. Cause: sphingomyelinase enzyme deficiency caused by mutations in the
sphingomyelinase (SMPD) gene on chromosome 11p15.4;
autosomal recessive.

niffler -- a treasure-hunting creature with a long narrow snout. They are attracted to shiny things. They are a creature in the Harry Potter series (J.K.
). A group of nifflers is a treasury. A niffler baby is a sparkle. See the adorable knit niffler from http://pandorasknittingbasket.blogspot.com

night blindness (nyctalopia) -- the inability to see well or at night in dim light. It is not a disorder itself, but rather a symptom of an underlying disorder or
problem, especially untreated
myopia. It can  also be caused by glaucoma medications, cataracts, retinitis pigmentosa, or vitamin A deficiency.

nightmare -- an evil spirit formerly thought to oppress people during sleep; a frightening dream that usually awakens the sleeper; something (as an
experience, situation, or object) having the monstrous character of a nightmare or producing a feeling of anxiety or terror.

night terrors -- sleep disturbance characterized by repeated episodes of abrupt awakening, accompanied by intense anxiety, disorientation, unresponsiveness, and an inability to remember
details about the event.

nimbostratus -- a formless cloud layer that is almost uniformly dark gray; generally denotes moderate to heavy precipitation.

nimbus -- dark, gray cloud bearing rain; splendid atmosphere or aura; cloudy radiance.

nimiety -- excess, overabundance, superfluity.

ninja -- a person trained in ancient Japanese martial arts and employed especially for espionage and assassinations.

Nirvana -- in Buddhism, a state of perfection in which the soul resides after liberation from the cycle of rebirths through enlightenment. In Hinduism, this state
is called moksha.
(See all those pictures over there --------------------------->>.)

Nirvana Principle --
Freud: Barbara Low's term for the psychological equivalent of homeostasis, the push for the least amount of tension. Different from
the pleasure principle in that 1) pleasure sometimes increases with tension, and 2) the Nirvana Principle is primarily under the sway of the death drive,
whereas the pleasure principle is powered by the

niobium -- atomic number 41, symbol Nb; a silvery, soft, ductile transition metallic element used in steel alloys, arc welding, and superconductivity research;
discovered in 1801 by
Charles Hatchet; obtained from columbite and tantalite; named after Niobe, daughter of mythical kin Tantalus.  

nitrogen --
a common normally colorless, odorless, tasteless, and mostly diatomic non-metal gas. It has five electrons in its outer shell. It has the atomic
number 7; symbol
N. Nitrogen constitutes 78% of the earth's atmosphere and is a part of all living tissues. Nitrogen is an essential element of life, because it
is a constituent of
DNA, and as such, is part of the genetic code. Nitrogen is one of the 13 most common elements in the body. It was discovered in 1772 by
Daniel Rutherford; obtained from liquid air.

niveous -- snowy or resembling snow; like, of, relating to, or made of snow.

NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor -- a receptor for the amino acid called glutamate, which is found in every cell in the body and which plays a
central role in brain function.

nobelium -- atomic number 102, symbol No; a radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series; artificially produced in trace amounts from bombarding
curium with carbon ions; discovered in 1957 at the Nobel Institute for Physics; named after
Alfred Nobel.

noble savage -- Rousseau's view of the child as naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth.

no cessation -- refers to the discipline of students under IDEA and means that the school may not expel or suspend a student with a disability for more than
10 school days in any one school year, regardless of what the student did to violate a school code. This has been changed by
IDEA 2004, in which a child
can be moved to an
Interim Alternative Educational Setting (IAES) for up to 45 days (if the violation involves drugs, weapons, or bodily harm) regardless
of whether or not the behavior was a manifestation of the disability.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110) -- Federal school reform legislation reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and
including increased school accountability for student learning, more choices for parents and students, greater flexibility for schools in the use of funds, and
an emphasis on early reading intervention. The stated purpose of this law is "that all children will have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to receive a
high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic standards."

nocive -- harmful, injurious, or causing pain.

noctilucence -- cloud phenomenon typified by lights at night, being visible or glowing at night.

noctiphobia, nyctophobia -- fear of night.

nocturnal asthma -- suddenly worsens in the middle of the night, typically between 2 and 4 am. With nocturnal asthma, people often fall asleep quickly due
to physical exhaustion only to wake 3 or 4 hours later with breathing difficulties. They cough and wheeze, take medications, try to go back to sleep, which leads to exhaustion during the day.
This is very serious, and there is a high frequency of respiratory arrest and death with this kind of asthma.

nocturnal enuresis -- repeated bed-wetting during the night. Most of the time, the problem has biological roots, and can be treated medically with anti-depressant drugs, which reduce the
amount of urine produced.

nocturnal seizures -- seizures that occur during sleep, but not only at night.

no-fault divorce -- divorce laws that do not place blame for the divorce on either spouse. One party's assertion that irreconcilable differences exist is reason.

nominative aphasia -- see anomic aphasia or amnesic aphasia; word finding problems.

nomothetic approach -- a theoretical approach that focuses on developing a theory that works for a great number of cases. Researchers using this approach believe it is possible to
develop a general family theory.

nonambulatory - Describes the inability to move oneself about, usually the inability to walk.

noncategorical approach -- special education services delivered in terms of students' needs, not in terms of an identified disability; cross-categorical special education.

nonchalant -- feeling or appearing casually calm and relaxed; indifferent.

noncommunicative language -- speech that does not convey meaning to a listener.

noncongenital unilateral hearing loss -- usually postlingual hearing loss in just one ear.

noncontingent helping -- providing assistance without effort or request from the recipient.

noncortical -- not having to do with the cortex, which is the outer portion of an organ. This is only my guess about "noncortical."

non-directive therapy -- Rogers: see client-centered therapy.

nondiscriminatory -- Appropriate to the child's language and cultural background.

nondiscriminatory and multidisciplinary assessment -- Core principle of IDEA establishing that no instruments and procedures used to assess students for special education services
shall be biased. Testing must be done in the student's native or primary language; the use of evaluation procedures should be administered in a culturally and racially sensitive way;
validation of assessment tools necessary; done by a team of school professionals; utilizing several assessment tools to formulate a decision.

nondiscriminatory evaluation -- an IDEA principle that requires schools to determine what each student's disability is and how it relates to the student's education. The evaluation must be
carried out in a culturally sensitive way.

nondisjunction -- failure of a pair of chromosomes to separate during mitosis or meiosis, resulting in an unequal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells.

nonessential amino acids -- amino acids that are produced in the body, and whose uses and functions in our body are equally as the limiting amino acids. The limiting amino acids can be
found in food. The 12 (??14??) nonessential amino acids are alanine (removes toxic substances from breakdown of protein during intensive exercise), cysteine (abundant in nails, skin, and
hair; acts as an
antioxident and has a synergetic effect when taken with other antioxidents such as vitamin E and selenium), cystine (removal of toxins and formation of skin), glutamine
(promotes healthy brain function), glutathione (antioxident and anti-aging effects, removes toxins), glycine (component of skin and beneficial for wound healing; acts as a neurotransmitter),
histidine (synthesis of
red and white blood cells; sexual arousal, blood flow), serine (constituent of brain proteins and aids in the synthesis of immune system proteins; muscle growth),
taurine (necessary for proper brain function and synthesis of
amino acids), threonine (balances protein levels, promotes immune system, beneficial for the synthesis of tooth enamel and
collagen), asparagine (promotes equilibrium in the central nervous system, aids in balancing emotion), apartic acid (enhances stamina, removal of toxins and ammonia from the body,
aids in
synthesis of proteins in immune system), proline (plays a role in intracellular signalling), and L-arginine (blood vessel relaxation, stimulating and maintaining erection, production of
ejaculate, removal of excess ammonia).

nonfamily household -- household that consists of a person who lives alone OR people who live with unrelated individuals within a housing unit.

non-fluent aphasia -- see motor aphasia or Broca's aphasia; difficulty speaking; words are stuttered and halting. Articulation coordination is difficult.

non-Hodgkin lymphoma -- any of a large group of cancers of the lymphocytes (white blood cells). It can occur at any age and is marked by lymph nodes that are larger than normal,
fever, and weight loss. Other symptoms are abdominal pain or swelling, chest pain, coughing, trouble breathing, fatigue, and night sweats.

nonimmune -- not related to the antigen-antibody response.

noninvasive -- a procedure that does not involve penetrating the body (such as ultrasonography).

nonlocomotor skills -- are movements performed in place, usually while standing, kneeling, sitting, or lying. They involve the axis of the body rotating around a fixed point. Some textbooks
describe these as non-manipulative skills.

non-love -- a type of love relationship characterized by the absence of commitment, intimacy, and passion; situation in which all elements are missing from a relationship between two people.

nonmarital cohabitation -- couples who live together without being married.

nonobligatory movement -- muscular movement once involuntary that has become voluntary.

nonoptical devices -- devices or strategies that do not involve optics used to improve visual performance of tasks for individuals with low vision; examples include book stands, writing
guides, lighting, and large type materials.

nonorganic failure to thrive -- a growth disorder usually present by 18 months of age that is caused by lack of affection and stimulation; abuse.

nonparticipant observation -- observational research in which researchers observe their subjects without interfacing with them.

nonpathogenic -- incapable of causing disease.

nonplus -- to cause to be at a loss as to what to say, think, or do: perplex.

nonpunitive -- methods that do not involve or aim at punishment; for instance, letting a child be hungry later when he refuses to eat at snack time is a non-punitive method of enforcing the
need to snack with the group; hunger is a natural and logical consequence of the child's behavior rather than a punishment meted out by the teacher (such as scolding or threatening).

non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep -- a "regular" sleep state in which the body is quiet and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and regular.

nonrepresentative sample -- not scientifically valid; a sample in which researchers pick people for convenience or availability.

nonrepresentational -- young child's drawing a symbol of mental image; not able to "represent" a recognizable symbol; difficult to draw what they are thinking.

nonsense mutation -- gene defect in which a single base pair substitution results in the premature termination of a message and the resultant production of an incomplete and inactive

nonsense verse -- fun and nonsensical verse and poetry such as Lewis Carroll's "How Doth the Little
                                                      How doth the little crocodile                   
                                                         Improve his shining tail,
                                                    And pour the waters of the Nile
                                                         On every golden scale!
                                                   How cheerfully he seems to grin,
                                                     How neatly spreads his claws,
                                                      And welcomes little fishies in,
                                                          With gently smiling jaws!

nonsensical -- lacking intelligible meaning; foolish; absurd; incongruous; preposterous; meaningless; nonsense; ...

non-sequitur -- Latin for "it does not follow"; also called false cause or irrelevant reason; the conclusion does not follow logically from the supposed
reasons stated earlier.

nonsocial activity -- unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play.

nonsocial play -- According to Mildred Parten, social development in children proceeds in a three step sequence. This is the first, and involves unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary
play. The other three (really four) are:
parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play.

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- medicines used primarily to treat inflammation, mild to moderate pain, and fever. Specifically, they are used to treat headaches, arthritis,
sports injuries, and menstrual cramps. Examples of NSAIDs are aspirin, celebrex, motrin, aleve, naprosyn, etc.

nonverbal communication -- the communication of emotions by means other than words, such as touch, body movement, facial expression, and eye contact.

nonverbal learning disability -- subgroup of students with learning disabilities who cannot interpret nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions, posture, and eye contact. A
neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative, and holistic processing functions.

nonverbal working memory -- an executive function that involves the ability to retrieve auditory, visual, and other sensory images of the past.

noodlehead tales -- humorous stories about impractical, foolish people.

Noonan syndrome -- short stature, characteristic facial features (triangular shaped face, deep philtrum, down slanting palpebral fissures, ptosis), low-set ears, low posterior hair line,
short or webbed neck, congenital heart defects (usually
pulmonary valve stenosis), shield-shaped chest, mean IQ score of 85 -- 90, sensorineural deafness, malocclusion, learning
with deficits in verbal learning, ADHD, poor motor coordination, bleeding abnormalities. Cause: mutations in the PTPN11 gene cause approximately half of cases; additional
patients have been found to have mutations in the KRAS gene; majority are new mutations with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed from an affected individual.

noradrenaline -- a common neurotransmitter, primarily involved in our arousal states: fight or flight, metabolic rate, blood pressure, emotions, and mood.

norepinephrine -- a neurotransmitter.

norm -- standard against which others are measured; statistically determined age levels for developmental milestones. (See picture of Norm ----->>>.)

normal --
average; a characteristic or quality that is common to most individuals in a defined group.

normal appearing family -- one of two broad family system types in which incest occurs. These families look healthy and functional to outsiders but
have serious problems, including incest. The family structure is often traditional, but family members lack nurturing abilities.

normal curve -- theoretical construct of the typical distribution of human traits such as intelligence; see bell curve.

normal development -- a sequence of changes across time that is very similar for all children.

normal deviation -- Minor irregularities that often occur in young children; the irregularities are usually self-correcting in typically developing children.

normalization -- Allowing each person's life to be as normal as possible in all aspects, including residence, schooling, work, recreational activities, and overall independence; a principle that
children with disabilities, even severe disabilities, should live at home with their families to provide the child with a normalized life experience. Historically, many young children with disabilities
were placed in institutions soon after birth and isolated from society.

normalized intervention model -- instruction that is stressed across a number of settings, using age-appropriate materials and strategies, avoiding contrived reinforcement and aversive
control, and supporting parents.

normal, or typical, development -- An ongoing process of growing, changing, and acquiring a range of complex skills.

normative approach -- an approach in which measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.

normative sample -- the people who are given a text and whose scores provide a basis with which later test takers' scores are compared.

norm-based averages -- comparisons of a person's performance with the average performance of scores of age-mates.

norm group -- a comparison group that usually represents an average standard of achievement or development for a specific age group or grade level.

norm-referenced assessments -- A standardized test in which the performance of an individual is interpreted relative to the performance of a group of others at the same age or grade

norm-referencing -- a means of determining an individual's performance in relation to the performances of others on the same measure. The meaning of the score emerges from
comparison with the group of children, who constitute the norm.

norms -- an expression (e.g., weeks, months, years) of when a child is likely to demonstrate certain developmental skills; belonging to Norm.

Norrie Disease -- an inherited eye disorder that leads to blindness in male infants at birth or soon after. It causes abnormal development of the retina, with masses of immature retinal
cells accumulating at the back of the eye.
Pupils appear white when light is shone on them, a sign called leukocoria. The irises or the entire eyeball may shrink and deteriorate during the
first months of life and
cataracts may develop. About 1/3 of people with Norrie disease develop progressive hearing loss, and more than 1/2 developmental delays in motor skills. Other
characteristics may be mild to moderate
intellectual disability, psychosis, abnormalities in circulation, breathing, digestion, excretion, or reproduction. It is a rare disorder. It is caused by
mutations in the NDP (Norrie Disease Pseudoglioma) gene on the X chromosome,
 X-linked recessive; a cause of deaf-blindness.

Northern Lights --
see aurora.

nose -- that organ on your face with which you smell and breathe. It also helps you taste things. The nose has two nostrils separated by the nasal septum.
Behind the nose is the nasal cavity.
See picture.

nosegay --
a small bunch of flowers.

nosocomephobia -- fear of hospitals.

nosophobia -- fear of disease.

nostophobia -- fear of returning to home.

notarized -- official acknowledgement of the authenticity of a signature or document by a notary public.

notch -- a V-shaped hollow in an edge or surface; a narrow pass between two mountains; degree; step.

noun -- simply (and now, unpopularly), a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, or idea.

novae -- plural collapsing or dying stars.

novella -- short prose tale often characterized by moral teaching or satire.

novercaphobia -- fear of a stepmother.

novitate -- novice; the living place of a novice; the state of being a novice; neophyte.

NSAIDs -- see nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

NTDs --
see neural tube defects.

nuclear decay --
the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles or radiation. Also called radioactive decay.

nuclear envelope -- the double-layered membrane that envelopes the nucleus of an eukaryotic cell, separating the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm.

nuclear family -- a kinship group in which a husband, a wife, and their children live together in one household; also called a conjugal family system; also once thought of as the modern
family; term was coined by Robert Murdoch in 1949.

nuclear-family model monopoly -- model in which the first-marriage family is seen as the legitimate model for how families should be, and all other forms are seen as deficient alternatives.

nuclear membranes -- the double membrane of a nucleus. The inner membrane encloses DNA and any other genetic material. In between the membranes is the perinuclear space. The
outer membrane is on the outside of the nucleus ... yes?

nucleated cells -- cells that have a nucleus or nuclei.

nucleomitophobia -- fear of nuclear weapons or atomic energy.

nucleotides -- the four base compounds of DNA -- adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; also called nucleotide bases.

nucleus -- the core, or central part around which other parts are grouped or gathered; (biology): the large membrane-bounded organelle that contains genetic material in the form of
multiple linear
DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes; (physics): the positively charged center of an atom that usually contains the protons and neutrons;
chemistry): a fundamental arrangement of atoms that occur in compounds through substitution of atoms without a change in structure; (astronomy): the center of the head of a comet or the
central or brightest part of a nebula or
galaxy; (meteorology): a particle on which water vapor molecules accumulate in free air to form water drops or ice crystals; (botany): the central kernel
of a nut or seed or the center of a starch granule; (
anatomy): a group of specialized nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord.

nuclide -- a species of atom as characterized by the number of protons, neutrons, and the energy state of the nucleus. A nuclide is characterized by its mass number and its atomic
number. Nuclides are associated with radioactive decay and may be stable or unstable. There are about 1700 known nuclides, of which 300 are stable and the rest radioactive. Here is
a nuclide table.

nudophobia, nudiphobia -- fear of nudity.

nugacious -- trifling, trivial, insignificant, unimportant, worthless.

nullibicity -- state of non-existence; quality or state of being nowhere.

nullifidian -- a person having no faith, religion, convictions, or beliefs.

numbness -- a stage or emotion of grief.

numeral -- symbol used to represent, denote, or symbolize a number.

numina -- plural: presiding divinities or spirits of a place; creative energies.

numinous -- supernatural, mysterious; filled with a sense of the presence of divinity; holy; appealing to higher emotions or to the aesthetic sense; spiritual.

numismatics -- study or collection or currency, coins, paper money, etc.

nurse -- A person trained to care for the sick or disabled under the supervision of a physician.

nurture assumption -- the belief that parents are the most important part of a child's environment.

nurturing -- encouraging, supporting, caring, nourishing.

nurturist model -- a model of development in which environmental factors are considered to be the primary influence on developmental changes.

nutmeg -- an aromatic seed produced by an evergreen tree native to the Maluccas; the ground seed used as a spice.

nutrient -- the components or substances that are found in food.

nutrient intake -- consumption of foods containing chemical substances (nutrients) essential to the human body.

nutrient strengths -- nutrients that occur in relatively large amounts in a food or food group.

nutrient weaknesses -- nutrients that are absent or occur in very small amounts in a food or food group.

nutrition -- adequate intake of nourishment.

nutrition claims -- statements of reduced calories, fat, or salt on the food labels.

nutrition education -- activities that impart information about food and its use in the body.

nutritionist -- A person trained and specializing in the study of proper dietary habits.

nuts! -- usually expressed when a certain event causes excitement or a change in feeling; synonymous with crazy; another word to use instead of "shucks."

nymph -- a nature goddess in Green mythology. Nymphs were the frequent target of satyrs. They live in mountains and groves, by springs and rivers, in trees, and in
grottoes. A group of nymphs is a flight. A nymph baby is a naiad

nystagmus --
uncontrolled and involuntary rapid eye movements. An unsteady jiggling of the eyes. When the sensory input to the brain from the eye is impaired (for a
variety of reasons), the eye becomes unsteady.
oasis -- fertile, vibrant, or green spot in a desert or wasteland.

obese -- weighing more than 20 percent over one's ideal weight (based on height, sex, and body composition).
See picture.

obesity --
The condition of being considerably overweight. A greater than 20% increase over average body
weight, based on an individual's age, sex, and physical build.
See picture.

object --
Freud: a mental representation of a person. Also called an imago.

objective -- detached, impersonal, unprejudiced, data-only recordings.

objectivity -- the state or quality of being able to see what is real and realistic as distinguished from subjective
and personal opinion or bias.

objet d'art -- object of art; valuable or highly artistic piece of work.

objurgation -- a harsh rebuke.

oblivion -- condition or quality of being completely forgotten; void; forgetfulness.

obloquy (OB-luh-kwee) -- censure, blame, or abusive language aimed at a person or thing, especially by numerous persons or by the general public; discredit, disgrace, or bad repute
resulting from public blame, abuse, or denunciation.

object permanence -- the cognitive understanding that objects and persons continue to exist even when out of sight.

obsequious -- fawning, sycophantic, servile.

observing -- watching children to know more about their development.

observation -- to inspect and take note of the appearance and behavior of other individuals.

observational learning -- learning by watching and imitating another's actions; also called modeling.

observational measurement- - the process of observing and assessing behavior in ways that yield descriptions and quantitative measures of individuals, groups, and settings.

observational research -- research method whereby researchers collect data by observing people in their natural surroundings.

obsessions -- persistent thoughts, impulses, or images of a repetitive nature that create anxiety.

obsessive compulsive disorder -- a psychiatric disorder in which recurrent and persistent thoughts and ideas that cannot be suppressed are associated with repetitive behaviors, such as
hand-washing. Characterized by recurrent thoughts, feelings, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) or behaviors that make a person feel driven to perform (
compulsions). A person may have
both obsessions and compulsions. An example of obsessive-compulsive disorder is excessive, repeated hand washing to ward off infection. Also called
compulsion neurosis.

obsessive reactions -- prolonged concern, thought, emotion, or impulse even when it is unreasonable.

obsidian -- volcanic glass of a black shade.

obstreperous -- noisy and difficult to control.

obtuse -- dull.

occipital -- the back section of the head ----------------------------------------------------------------------------->>.

occipital lobe -- located in the rear of the cerebrum. One of the four major areas of the upper brain, this lobe processes our vision. The other three
areas are
parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes ------------->.

occult brain lesion -- a lesion in the brain that is not readily detectable.

occluder -- The object the examiner uses to prevent the child from seeing (usually one eye at a time).

occlusion -- To obstruct; as used here, to prevent vision; ALSO the closing and fitting together of dental structures.

occupational therapist (OT) -- A professional who programs or delivers instructional activities and materials that help children and adults with motor-related disabilities participate in
activities. OTs generally focus on activities that provide ease in movements to complete tasks and living skills; professionals who specialize in developing self-care, work, and play activities to
increase independent function and quality of life, enhance development, and prevent disability.

occupations -- A Froebelian concept describing arts and crafts type activities used to develop eye-hand coordination and fine motor skills.

ocean -- the entire body of salt water that covers more than 70% of the earth's surface; a very large stretch of sea, especially one of the five oceans of the world: Atlantic, Pacific, Indian,
Arctic, and Antarctic Oceans. The average salinity of ocean water is about 3%. The deepest known area of the ocean is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean which is 36,192 feet deep.
The word 'sea' commonly refers to large landlocked (or almost) salty waters, such as the Mediterranean Sea or the Bering Sea. Sailors have long referred to all the world's waters as the
seven seas. Many people think this term referred to the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf, Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, Caspian Sea, and the Indian Ocean.

ocelot -- undomesticated cat, akin to a small leopard.

ochlophobia -- fear of crowds.

ochophobia -- fear of automobiles.

pchre -- any of various natural earths containing ferric oxide, silica, and alumina: used as yellow or red pigments; a moderate yellow-orange to orange color.

ochronosis -- a bluish black discoloration of certain tissues such as ear cartilage or eye tissue. It is sometimes seen in alkaptonuria, a metabolic disorder. It can occur also as a result of
exposure to various substances such as phenol or mercury.

ocular -- pertaining to the eye.

ocular motility -- the eye's ability to move.

oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum; Goldenhar syndrome; hemifacial microsomia) -- unilateral external ear deformity ranging from absence of an
ear to
microtia (tiny ear), preauricular (earlobe) tags or pits, middle-ear abnormality with variable hearing loss, facial asymmetry with small size unilaterally, macrostomia (large mouth),
cleft palate, microphthalmia or eyelid coloboma, vertebral anomalies, occasional heart and renal defects, intellectual disability in 10%. Unknown cause; may be sporadic
inheritance resulting from maternal
diabetes; additionally cases with clear autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported.

oculocerebrorenal syndrome -- see Lowe syndrome.

oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) -- an extremely rare genetic condition that typically results in small eyes (microphthalmia), underdeveloped teeth, and syndactyly and malformation
of the fourth and fifth fingers. Visible features are small teeth more prone to cavities, a long thin nose, and characteristic hair (fine, thin, dry, or fragile, and in some cases, curly). Adults may
show neurological abnormalities, such as
conductive deafness, paresis, ataxia, spastic paraplegia, difficulty controlling the eyes, gradual vision loss, and bladder and bowel
disturbances. Less common features are sparse hair growth (
hypotrichosis), brittle nails, camptodactyly, syndactyly of the toes, microcephaly, cleft palate, impaired speech, and
palmoplantar keratoderma (the skin on the palms and soles of the feet becomes thick, scaly, and calloused). It is commonly an autosomal dominant condition, but can be autosomal
recessive. It is believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, located on the long arm of chromosome 6.

oculomandibulodycephaly with hypotrichosis -- see Hallerman-Streiff syndrome.

oculomotor -- 1) moving, or tending to move the eyeball; 2) of or relating to the oculomotor nerve, which is cranial nerve 3, controlling most of the eye's movements, including constriction of
the pupil and maintaining an open eyelid.

odalisque -- female servant; female servant in a harem.

ODD -- see oppositional defiant disorder.

odd day cycle menus --
menus planned for a period of days other than a week that repeat after the planned period; cycles of any number of days may be used. These menus are a means
of avoiding repetition of the same foods on the same day of the week.

odious -- arousing or deserving hatred or repugnance; hateful.

odontophobia -- fear of teeth.

odynophobia -- fear of pain.

oecophobia, oikophobia -- fear of home.

Oedipus complex -- in Freudian theory, the uncomfortable group of feelings and unconscious desires that young males feel toward their mothers during development of the superego; also
called Oedipus conflict;
Freud: the boy's tendency, around the age of five, to experience his freshly awakened sexual strivings toward his mother while wanting to replace his father in her
affections. Mostly unconscious. When successfully resolved, these feelings are fully repressed, and the boy, afraid of castration, learns to identify with his father. As a result of all this, he
internalizes his parents and acquires a superego whose ego ideal replaces some of his earlier narcissism. The feminine equivalent has been named the
Electra Complex, but for Freud,
women have inferior superego development and therefore an inferior conscience because they never have to disidentify with mother as boys do.
Freud saw an unresolved Oedipal conflict
as the cause of every significant neurosis. The name comes from
King Oedipus, who killed his father, married his mother knowingly, and put his own eyes out (which Freud interprets as
symbolic castration) when he discovered the truth of his origins. In a late innovation,
Freud was prompted by the work of female analysts like Helene Deutsch to emphasize the initial pre-
Oedipal strength of the mother-daughter bond.

oeillade -- an amorous glance; ogle.

oenophobia, oinophobia -- fear of wine.

oeuvre -- the corpus of an author, canon, or a collective symposium.

ogre -- a large, cruel, and hideous humanoid monster. Ogres feed on human beings. They have large heads, abundant beards and hair, a voracious appetite, and strong bodies. They are
disgusting beings who exploit, brutalize, and devour their victims. A group of ogres is an ochlocracy. An ogre baby is a sweet pea.

old age -- arbitrarily defined as beginning at age 65, which coincides for most people with retirement.

oleander -- a type of flower.

olfactophobia, osmophobia, osphresiophobia, ophresiophobia -- fear of odors.

olfactory -- of or relating to the sense of smell.

olfactory nerve -- one of the 12 cranial nerves; cranial nerve 1; instrumental in the sense of smell.

olfactory sense -- sense of smell.

oligohydramnios -- the presence of too little amniotic fluid. It can cause fetal deformities including club foot and hypoplastic lungs.

ombrophobia -- fear of rain.

omission -- articulation disorder in which some of the sounds of a word are omitted.

ommatophobia, ommetaphobia -- fear of eyes.

omnibus clause -- clause added to divorce laws in the 19th century which allowed courts to grant divorces in certain circumstances beyond customary grounds.

omnipotence -- having very great or unlimited power; God.

omnipresent -- present in all places all the time.

omniscient -- having complete or unlimited knowledge, awareness, or understanding; perceiving all things.

omphalocele -- congenital herniation of abdominal organs through the navel.

one-to-one correspondence -- ability to count objects accurately by assigning one number to each object.

one-way communication -- communication sent from school to inform families without the expectation of a response.

ongoing assessment -- assessment of a child during typical daily activities.

onlooker behavior -- a sub-stage of parallel play in which children watch each other play.

onomatopoeia -- the formation or use of words such as buzz, or murmur, that mimic sounds (buzz, hiss, splash, wow, kerplunk, bam, smooch, yawn, boom, bang, slash, slurp, gurgle, meow,
woof, clap, rip, zip, munch, whisper, crunch, tick tock, slap, clink, clank ...)

                            The rusty spigot
                               a splutter,
                 spatters a smattering of drops,
                             gashes wider;
                      finally stops sputtering
                               and plash!
                    gushes rushes splashes
                         clear water dashes.
             ("Onomatopoeia" by Eve Merriam)

on point --
having a direct application to the facts of a case currently before a tribunal for determination; directly applicable or dispositive of the matter under consideration. Really spelled
"en pointe".

onlooker play -- watch others play; may talk or ask questions.

onset -- the part of the syllable that precedes the vowel of the syllable. Examples are "sp" in "spit," and "p" in "pie."

on-task behavior -- behavior focused on the task at hand.

ontogenesis -- the development of the individual through childhood and adulthood. Distinguished from phylogenesis and microgenesis.

ontogeny -- the development of an individual.

onychomycosis -- a fungal infection of the nails.

opacity -- opaqueness; obscurity; impenetrability.

opalescent -- milky and iridescent; shimmering with the colors of an opal.

opaque -- impenetrable to light; not reflecting light; difficult to explain or understand.

open adoptions -- adoptions in which both birth parents and adoptive parents have more active contact, as in a meeting before the birth or even lifelong communication.

open-couple single -- a single person with a steady partner, but the relationship is open enough that he or she can have romantic or sexual relationships with others.

open courtship system -- society in which people make their own decisions about marriage.

open-ended -- activities that do not have a specific end or goal.

open-ended activities -- activities that do not have a specific end or goal.

open ended meeting -- a meeting in which students discuss how they would deal with problems and take a "What would you do if ...?" approach to problem-solving.

open-ended question -- a question to which the respondent is free to give an answer in his or her own words.

open fields -- settings in which people do not normally interact and thus make it difficult to meet a potential partner.

open head injury -- injury in which the brain is damaged when the skull is fractured and the membrane surrounding the brain is penetrated. It can result from such things as bullet wounds,
or other external forces that open the head and penetrates the skull. Damage can be extensive and fatal, but it is usually focal.

open marriage -- also called sexually open marriage; marriage in which a married couple agrees that each may have emotional and sexual relations with others -- they go out separately
as well as together -- while still keeping the marriage the primary relationship.

open method -- recording method that preserves the raw data; only records actions and words so separate conclusions can be drawn.

openness to experience -- Rogers: a characteristic of a fully functioning person -- this is the opposite of defensiveness -- the ability to accept reality and one's own feelings.

open question -- no single, correct answers, creative answers.

open school -- a style of education, developed in progressive American schools and in the British infant schools, that is organized to encourage freedom of choice and that does not use
predetermined roles and structures as the basis of education; an educational setting whose ultimate goal and base for curriculum is the development of the individual child, rather than of
programmed academic experiences.

open system -- a family system that is open to growth and change; also called a morphogenic system.

open type family -- marriage/family system that is sensitive to both individual and family needs and tries to achieve consensus in ideas and feelings; one of three types of marriage/family
systems proposed by
David Kantor and William Lehr in 1975.

operant conditioning -- a category of learning in behavior theory that involves a relation between a stimulus and a response. The response is learned, rather than reflexive, and is
gradually and carefully developed through reinforcement of the desired behavior as it occurs in response to the stimulus; behavior leading to a reward;

operant control -- control established and maintained by operant contingencies (i.e., the relationships in effect between the behavior and its consequences).

operant learning -- learning that is controlled by the consequences of behaviors.

operations -- mental representations of actions that obey logical rules (Piaget).

operose -- involving or displaying much industry or effort.

ophidian -- snake-like; like, shaped-like, or relating to snakes.

ophidiophobia, ophiophobia, ophiciophobia -- fear of snakes.

ophthalmologist -- a physician specializing in the treatment of eye diseases; licensed to perform surgery on the eye.

ophthalmophobia -- fear of being stared at.

ophthalmoplegia -- paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles that control eye movement. It can be due to muscle or nerve impairment.

ophthalmoscope -- an instrument containing a mirror and a series of magnifying lenses used to examine the interior of the eye.

opiates -- any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plant, as well as many semisynthetic chemical derivatives. Major opiates are opium, morphine,
codeine, thebaine, papaverine, heroin, oxycodone, hydrocodone.

opiate antagonists -- a category of medications that block endorphin receptors of the brain.

opinicus (epimacus) -- a fabulous creature that belongs to the griffin family. It has the body and legs of a lion, the head, neck, and wings of an eagle, and
the tail of a camel. A group of opinici is an olaus. An opinicus baby is a magnus.

opinions --
thoughts and feelings about a given topic.

opisthotonos -- a spasm in which the head and heels are bent backward and body bowed forward; positioning of the body in which the back is arched
while the feet and head touch the bed.

Opitz syndrome (Opitz G/BBB syndrome; Opitz-Frias syndrome; Opitz oculogenitolaryngeal syndrome, previously called G syndrome) -- (G refers to the surname of original
patient described)
Hypertelorism, hypospadias, imperforate anus, dysphagia, bifurcated nasal tip, broad nasal bridge, widow's peak, occasional cleft lip/palate, mild to moderate
intellectual disability in 2/3 of affected individuals, gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal dysmotility (poor movement of food through the esophagus), hoarse cry, occasional
congenital heart defects, agenesis of corpus callosum, platelet abnormalities, structural cerebellar anomalies including Dandy-Walker malformation. Cause: MID1 gene on Xp22.3
is known to cause the
X-linked form; the gene believed to cause the autosomal dominant form has been linked to 22q11.2.

opportunistic infection -- an infection caused by germs that are not usually capable of causing infection in healthy people but can do so given certain changes in the immune system.

opportunity costs -- the loss of wages and investments that parents sacrifice by devoting their time and energy to family and children.

oppositional behavior -- Patterns of child behavior that adults consider excessively negative, troublesome, or challenging.

oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) -- developmental disorder characterized by non-compliance and excessive anger. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at
least 6 months, during which 4 or more of the following are present: a) often loses temper; b) often argues with adults; c) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or
rules; d) often deliberately annoys people; e) often blames others for his/her mistakes or misbehavior; f) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others; g) is often angry or resentful; h) is often
spiteful or vindictive. Note: consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level. ~The
disturbance or behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. ~The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a psychotic or
mood disorder. ~Criteria are not met for
conduct disorder, and, if the individual is not 18 or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

opprobrium -- the disgrace or the reproach incurred by conduct considered outrageously shameful; infamy; a cause or object of such disgrace or reproach.

oppugn (uh-PYOON) -- to fight against; to call in question.

opsin -- the protein in rods and cones necessary for vision.

optic atrophy -- a degenerative disease caused by deteriorating nerve fibers connecting the retina to the brain.

optician -- a technician who makes and fits corrective lenses.

optic nerve -- the nerve that connects the eye to the visual center of the brain (visual cortex). It is the 2nd of the 12 cranial nerves.

Optico-Cochleo-Dentate degeneration -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

optokinetic -- pertaining to the movement of the eyes.

optometrist -- a non-medical professional who specializes in examining, measuring, and treating visual defects by means of corrective lenses or other methods.

optophobia -- fear of opening one's eyes.

opulence -- wealth, affluence; great abundance; profusion; pretentiousness.

opusculum -- a minor work of literature.

oral -- uttered by mouth; spoken; transmitted by speech; articulated with none of the voice issuing through the nose, such as with the normal English vowels and the consonants B and V.

oral approach (method) -- an educational approach used with children who are deaf that stresses learning to speak as the essential element for integration into the hearing world.

oral aural -- one communication method available to those who are hearing impaired that includes the use of hearing aids, speech-reading, and visual aids.

oral literature -- material composed by unknown authors and transmitted by word of mouth. It includes narratives, epic poems, ballads, nursery rhymes, proverbs, and dramatic material with
multiple variants. It is a convenient collective term for the various genres of orally transmitted material; the term "literature" is usually reserved for written materials.

oral motor exam -- an examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw.

oral motor dysfunction -- a disorder in the development of jaw, cheek, tongue, and lip movements to allow voluntary feeding skills. Oral motor dysfunction can manifest developmentally with
such things as
jaw thrust, tonic bite reflex, jaw clenching, and jaw retraction, all of which may be patterns associated from cerebral palsy. It can also occur as the result of a
neurological abnormality due to
stroke or head trauma; or to injuries, disease, or other congenital sources.

oral motor skills -- ability to use information obtained through oral cues to regulate a pattern of motor responses needed for speech, chewing, and swallowing. Oral motor skills include
muscle tone, muscle strength, range of motion, speed, coordination, and dissociation (the ability to move structures such as the tongue and lips independent of one another).

oral-motor tone -- the tone of the lips, jaw, tongue, and soft palate, especially related to speech, and for other oral motor skills.

oral preparatory phase -- the step preceding swallowing in which food is formed into a bolus in the mouth.

oral stage of development -- the first stage in Freud's model of development, during which psychic energy focuses on and is invested in and around the mouth. The ego directs activities
(birth to 1 year).

oral transport stage -- the transport of a bolus of food to the back of the mouth so that it can be swallowed.

orbit -- the eye socket on the skull.

orbital -- of, pertaining to, or relating to an orbit.

orchestra -- a large group of musicians with a variety of instruments.

ordering (seriation) -- a mathematical skill involving the ability to perceive opposite ends of a series (e.g., big to little).

ordinality -- a principle specifying order (more than and less than) relationships between quantities.

ordinal numbers -- indicating the order or succession; such as first, second, third.

organelles -- any one of various particles of living substances within all eukaryotic cells, which include the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic
reticulum, the lysosomes, and the centrioles. Organelles are specialized, membrane-bound, cellular structures that perform a specific function.

organic -- Within the individual's own body or neurological system.

organic acid -- an organic compound with acidic properties, such as carboxylic acids.

organic acidemias -- class of inborn errors of metabolism affecting organic acid metabolism. These include propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia,
multiple carboxylase deficiency.

organic articulation disorder -- a kind of developmental articulation disorder: occurs due to some detectable abnormality, such as hearing loss, cleft lip, cleft palate, etc. Children
who have a
congenital hearing loss will have difficulty learning to speak, and their speech may be imprecise, unusual in pitch, and nasal sounding. Children who have frequent middle ear
infections may have similar problem.

organic disorder -- a disorder caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism.

organic reading -- a system of learning to read, popularized by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, that lets children build their own vocabulary with the words they choose.

organism -- a total living form; one individual.

organismic event -- a biological or maturational event that provides stimulation for the organism.

organismic model -- orientation with the assumption that people are active rather passive learners.

organismic theory -- developed by Jean Piaget, and expanded by later theorists, a theory of child development emphasizing that children's minds develop through various stages and that
children think very differently from adults; sees child-thought as primitive and mystical, with logical reasoning developing slowly into adulthood.

organismic trusting -- Freud, Rogers: a characteristic of a fully functioning person: we trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes naturally.

organismic valuing -- Rogers: We seek to be the best we can be; we know instinctively what is good for us. We seek food when we are hungry, and seek food that tastes good. Food that
tastes bad might be rotten, spoiled, unhealthy; so we don't eat that food. This is an example of organismic valuing.

organization -- In Piaget's theory, the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system. In information processing, the
memory strategy of grouping related items.

organized play -- an open, flexible type of play, with some structure provided in terms of materials.

Organ of Corti -- a series of hair cells in the cochlea that form the beginning of the auditory nerve.

organogenesis -- the formation and development of the organs of living things. Organogenesis occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy.

organoleptic -- being, affecting, or relating to qualities (as taste, color, odor, and feel) of a substance (as a food or drug) that stimulate the sense organs; involving use of the sense organs.

organomegaly -- the abnormal enlargement of the organs.

organ pleasure -- physical sensation associated with the reduction of tension.

orientation -- conceptual, perceptual, sensory, and body awareness of space and environment. Refers to the skills necessary to use sensory
information to move purposefully in the environment, using environmental cues (e.g., sounds, smells, visual, or tactile stimuli) to provide information
about the present location and information about this location relative to other locations.

orientation and mobility specialist -- Therapist who teaches individuals with vision impairments awareness of their position in the environment,
of significant objects within the environment (orientation), and how to move safely and efficiently (mobility) by utilizing their remaining senses; a
professional trained to assist persons with vision impairments to travel safely and efficiently in their environments.

oriflamme -- a banner, symbol, or ideal inspiring devotion or courage.

original man archetype -- Jung: represented in western religion by Adam.

Orion --
a prominent constellation that is visible throughout the world. It is one of the most recognizable constellations in the night sky. It is named for
Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its stars include Rigel, Betelgeuse, and Bellatrix, and 8 of its stars have planets. The seven main stars are
Betelgeuse, Rigel, Bellatrix, Mintaka, Alnilam, Alnitak, and Saiph.

ork --
a very ugly, crude, green-faced, highly aggressive alien. Although the ork society is entirely primitive and brutal,
they are also the most successful race in all of the galaxy, spreading throughout the galaxy and outnumbering perhaps
every other race. But because they are so violent and aggressive, they war between themselves as often as with other
races. A group of orks is an ugliness. An ork baby is a snotling.
See picture from http://earthdawn.lrgames.com.

ornery --
mean-spirited, disagreeable, and contrary in disposition; cantankerous; stubborn or vile-tempered.

ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) -- an enzyme in the urea cycle, a deficiency of which leads to an inborn error
of metabolism characterized by episodes of encephalopathy.

ornithophobia -- fear of birds.

orographic lift -- occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.

oropharynx -- the oral part of the pharynx which reaches from the soft palate to the level of the hyoid bone ------------->>.

orolingual -- pertaining to the mouth and the tongue.

orthodontist -- dentist who specializes in the correction of irregularities of the teeth or the improper alignment of the jaw.

orthography -- the use of letters and the rules of spelling in a language.

orthomolecular therapy -- the use of at least 10 times the required amount of vitamins; also called megavitamin therapy.

orthopedic -- relating to bones or joints.

orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders -- disorders of the child's skeletal system. Includes scoliosis, which involves
curvature of the spine; other spinal disorders; hip conditions, which may result in dislocation;
contractures, which involve
shortening of muscles and tendons;
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; and disorders of the foot and ankle. These disorders may cause pain and discomfort as well as hinder movement.

orthopedic development -- the development of the bone and muscle tissue.

orthopedic impairments -- IDEA term for students with physical disabilities; a category in IDEA; bodily impairments that interfere with an individual's mobility, coordination, communication,
learning and/or personal adjustment. A physical impairment of the muscular or skeletal system that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments
caused by a congenital anomaly (e.g.,
clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments due to the effects of a disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and
impairments from other causes (e.g.,
cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

orthopedic problems -- bodily impairments that interfere with an individual's mobility, coordination, communication, learning and/or personal adjustment. Children with Down syndrome
frequently have abnormally loose
ligaments, spinal problems, flat feet, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

orthophobia -- fear of propriety.

orthoses -- orthopedic devices, most commonly splints or braces, used to support, align, or correct deformities or to improve the function of limbs.

orthotic devices -- Braces and other devices used to stabilize legs and support the weight of an individual with a physical disability, so that the person can walk or maintain balance; aids
needed for proper body alignment, including braces and splints; devices used to promote body alignment, stabilize joints, or increase motor functioning.

orthotist -- professional trained in the fitting and construction of splints, braces, and artificial limbs.

oscillate -- to swing or move in an uninterrupted motion.

osculate -- kiss.

Osgood-Schletter Disease (OSD) -- an inflammation (swelling and pain) of the bone, cartilage, and/or tendon at the top of the shinbone, where the tendon from the kneecap attaches. It
usually strikes active teens around the beginning of their growth spurts, the approximate 2-year period during which they grow most rapidly.

osmium -- atomic number 76, symbol Os; a bluish-white hard metallic element, found in osmiridium, nickel, and platinum ores; used in making pen points, phonograph needs, and instrument
pivots; discovered by
Smithson Tenant in 1803.

ossicles -- the three small bones in the middle ear, the stapes, incus, and malleus-->>.

ossicular chain -- the three small bones, the malleus, incus, and stapes (or hammer, anvil, and stirrup), that transmit
vibrations through the
middle-ear cavity to the inner ear.

ossification – the development of bone.

ossuary -- place, container, or receptacle for holding the bones of the dead.

ostensible -- intended for display; open to view; being such in appearance; plausible rather than demonstrably true or real.

osteoarthropathy -- disorder affecting bones and joints.

osteoarticular -- pertaining to or affecting the bones and joints.

osteoarthritis -- degenerative joint disease.

osteoblast -- cell type that produces bony tissue.

osteoclast -- cell type that absorbs and removes bone.

osteogenesis imperfecta -- seven distinct forms of this metabolic disease of bone have been described. Type I is
characterized by typical height or mild short stature, bone fragility, and blue
sclera. Type II usually presents with severe
bone deformity and death in the newborn period.
Type III is characterized by progressive bone deformity, short stature,
triangular face, severe
scoliosis, and dental abnormalities. Type IV is clinically similar to Type I, but presents with normal
sclerae, milder bone deformity, variable short stature, and dental abnormalities.
Type V is associated with mild to moderate short stature, bone deformity, and other bone abnormalities. Type
is characterized by severe bone deformity with moderate short stature and a fish scale pattern of bone deposition. Type VII causes moderate bone deformations, mild short stature, with a
shortening of the
long bones (humerus and femur). Associated complications: increased prevalence of fractures (may be confused with physical abuse) that decreases after puberty,
scoliosis, mitral valve prolapse, occasionally progressive adolescent-onset hearing loss. Cause: mutations in one of the genes regulating collagen formation. Type I maps to 17q21--q22
Types II through IV map to both the COLA1 gene and 7q21 -- q22 (COLA2). The genetic cause of Types V, VI, and VIII are yet to be determined. Inheritance: Type I, IV, V, VI:
autosomal dominant;
type II -- autosomal dominant (all Type II cases are new mutations; recurrence risk is 6% due to gonadal mosaicism); Type III is occasionally autosomal
recessive; type VII is autosomal recessive (seen only in indigenous people in Northern Quebec).

osteoid -- the substrate of bone.

osteomalacia -- a softening of the bones due to a lack of vitamin D or the body's inability to break down and use this vitamin. Symptoms are bone fractures which occur with little injury,
muscle weakness, widespread bone pain especially in the hips. Others are abnormal heart rhythms, numbness around the mouth, numbness of the arms and legs, and spasms of the hands
or feet. It is caused by a lack of
calcium and vitamin D.  

osteomyelitis -- a bone infection that is often caused by staphylococcus aureus bacteria, though other kinds of bacteria can cause it too. In children, osteomyelitis usually affects the long
bones of the arms and legs. Osteomyelitis often develops after an injury or trauma.

osteopenia -- the loss of bony tissue.

osteopetrosis -- a disorder in which bone becomes dense and scelrotic, leading to thickening of skull and long bones, head enlargement. Bone marrow is encroached upon, resulting in
anemia. This disorder often causes early death. Osteopetrosis is caused by a congenital abnormality of osteoclast cells and therefore failure of resorption of bone. Autosomal recessive.
X-rays reveal sclerotic skeletal system; can possible be improved with bone marrow transplantation. Associated complications are entrapment of
cranial nerves, anemia, growth delay,
blindness, deafness, and intellectual disability. Incidence: very rare. Less than 100 cases have been reported; recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25%.

osteoporosis -- a disease that involves a serious loss of bone density. Bone tissue becomes brittle, thin, and spongy. Bones break easily, and the spine sometimes begins to crumble and
collapse. Although the condition usually affects older people, children with eating disorders are susceptible to the condition. Exercising regularly and getting plenty of calcium can prevent or
delay osteoporosis later in life; multifactorial

osteosarcoma -- (osteogenic sarcoma)
a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor that usually develops during the rapid growth that occurs in adolescence, as a teenager matures into an
adult. Symptoms are bone fractures, bone pain, limitation of motion, limping, pain when lifting (if the tumor is in th arm), and tenderness, redness, or swelling at the site of the tumor. It is the
most common malignant bone tumor in youth. The average age of diagnosis is 15; boys are girls are equally affected. Cause is unknown.

ostomies --
artificial openings in the abdominal region for discharge of stool or urine.

ostraconophobia -- fear of shellfish.

OT -- see occupational therapist.

OTC --
see ornithine transcarbamylase.

cancers of childhood (not including bone cancer, leukemia, liver cancer, soft tissue sarcoma) -- cancer can occur anywhere in the body, but more common sites among
children are brain, nervous system (neuroblastoma), the retina (
retinoblastoma), or the kidney (Wilms tumor).

other health impairments -- IDEA category for students having medical conditions that result in limited strength, vitality, or alertness including a heightened alertness to environmental
stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems, such as
asthma, attention deficit disorder (ADD),
attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and
adversely affects a child's developmental/educational performance; any disability caused by disorders of the
musculoskeletal system. ADHD is generally diagnosed under this category.
Tourette Syndrome is also included here.

other syndromes associated with autism -- Moebius syndrome (facial diplegia), Joubert syndrome (cerebellar hypoplasia), Down syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Smith-Lemli-
Opitz syndrome, William syndrome, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Fragile X syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome.

otios -- indolent; lazy; serving no useful purpose; futile; being a leisure.

otitis media (middle ear infection or disease) -- An infection or inflammation of the middle ear that can cause a conductive hearing loss. Middle ear infections with fluid that may
be mediated by antibiotics and
tympanostomy tubes, or left to resolve. Children with chronic middle ear infections (more than 6 episodes within a 12-month period) can cause mild
conductive hearing losses. Ear infections usually begin with a cold or flu, which cause nasal congestion. The congestion affects the eustachian tubes, which connect the inner nasal
cavities with the middle ear for ventilation within the middle ear. When these tubes become congested, they seal pressure within the
middle ear. This negative pressure, combined with the
presence of excess mucous, creates an environment where bacteria can grow. This impairs hearing. Frequent occurrences of otitis media can affect the
development of speech and
If otitis media is not treated, permanent hearing loss and brain damage can occur.

otoacoustic emissions -- low-intensity sound energy emitted by the cochlea subsequent to sound stimulation as measured by a microphone coupled to the external ear canal.

otolaryngologist -- see ear, nose, and throat specialist.

otologist -- a medical specialist involved in the study of the ear and its diseases; see ear, nose, and throat specialist.

otosclerosis -- a disease of the ear characterized by destruction of the capsular bone in the middle ear and the growth of a web-like bone that attaches to the stapes. The stapes is
restricted and unable to function properly.

ototoxic -- toxic to the auditory nerve, leading to hearing impairment.

ototoxic agents -- a cause of hearing loss. Certain antibiotics used to treat severe bacterial infections in childhood can lead to a sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.
Traumatically loud noises can do this also (such as firecrackers, fireworks, cap pistols). Over time, exposure to such sounds can cause
permanent hearing loss.

OTR -- see occupational therapist.

oubliette --
dungeon with only opening at the top.

ouranophobia -- fear of heaven.

ourdir -- organize the elements of an intrigue; set a trap, a plot, a machination.

ouroboros -- a snake or dragon that is swallowing his own tail and making the shape of a circle. Since the dragon or snake is eating its own tail, the situation is
hopeless and desperate. A group of ouroboros is an eternity; a baby ouroboros is a ringlet.
See picture.

outcome assessment --
measurements that allow teachers and others to check the results of instruction.

outcome based intervention model -- an emphasis on development of skills for future usefulness.

outer-directedness -- a condition in which an individual distrusts his/her own solutions and seeks cues from others.

outer ear -- consists of the auricle and external auditory canal; see external ear.

outlandish -- of or relating to another country; foreign; strikingly out of the ordinary; bizarre; exceeding proper or reasonable limits or standards; remote from civilization.

out-of-school time care -- programs for school-aged children that takes place before and after their regular school day.

output adaptations -- accommodations that enable a test taker with a disability to record responses to test questions.

outsider perspective -- how researchers or therapists perceive a family, in contrast with how family members perceive the family.

oval window -- connects the middle ear to the inner ear.

ovarian follicle -- the egg and its encasing cells, at any stage in its development.

ovaries -- the female gonads (sex glands) which produce ova and hormones ------>>.

ovarian dysgenesis -- abnormal development of the ovaries.

overburdened child -- after a divorce, a child who tries to meet all of the parents' needs.

overdependence -- a child's inability or unwillingness to participate in activities without the aid of an adult.

overextension -- an early vocabulary error in which a word is applied too broadly -- that is, to a wider collection of
objects or events than is appropriate.

overfunctioner -- an individual who knows what is best not only for him or herself but for everybody else as well; they
cannot let others solve their problems themselves.

overgeneralization -- early stage in grammar construction where child adds "s" to all words for plural and "ed" to all
words for past tense.

overlap -- categorization of a research subject in one group on the basis of one variable (such as age) when that
subject is also at one extreme on another variable relative to that group.

overlapping-waves theory -- a theory of problem solving, which states that when given challenging problems,
children generate a variety of strategies and gradually select those that result in rapid, accurate solutions, yielding
an overlapping-waves pattern of development.

over-learn -- the continue to practice beyond the point of mastery.

overregularization -- Grammatical error; usually appearing during early language development, in which rules of the language are applied too widely, resulting in incorrect linguistic forms (i.
e., "childs" or "goed").

overrepresentation -- the assignment, to a special education category, of more students from a diverse group than would be expected on the
basis of the proportion of that diverse group in the overall population of students.

overt aggression -- a form of hostile aggression that harms others through physical injury or the threat of such injury -- for example, hitting, kicking, or
threatening to beat up a peer.

overweening -- presumptuously conceited, overconfident, or proud; exaggerated, excessive, or arrogant, immoderate.

overweight -- weight that exceeds (by 20% or less) the recommendations for "desirable" body weight.

overwhelm -- upset, overthrow; to cover completely, submerge; to overcome by superior force or numbers; to overpower in thought or feeling.

oviduct -- in the female reproductive system, one of a pair of tubes through which the ova travel from an ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes.

ovulation -- the regular monthly release in the female of one or more eggs from an ovary.

ovum -- the female reproductive germ cell, or egg, produced by the ovaries. (See series of pictures.)

oxidative phosphorylation --
a chemical reaction occurring in the mitochondrion, resulting in energy production.

oxygen -- a non-metallic element constituting 21% of the atmosphere by volume and 46% of the earth's crust by weight, where it is the most plentiful
element. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that occurs as a diatomic gas (O₂) and in many compounds such as water and iron ore. It combines with
most elements, is essential for respiration. Atomic number 8, atomic weight 15.9994; melting point -218.4° C; boiling point -183.0° C; gas density at 0
degrees C 1.429 grams per liter; valence 2. The human body is about 2/3 oxygen. It has the atomic number 8 and the symbol

oxygenation -- the provision of sufficient oxygen for bodily needs.

oxygen saturation -- a measure of how much oxygen the blood is carrying as a percentage of the maximum it could carry.

oxygen transportation system -- transports oxygen from the lungs to respiring tissue. It depends on the heart, tissues, and lungs functioning properly.

oxymoron -- incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side (a compressed paradox). Examples: "act naturally" "original copy" "found missing"
"alone together" "peace force" "definite possibility" "terribly pleased" "real phony" "ill health" "turn up missing" "jumbo shrimp" "loose tights" "small crowd"
"clearly misunderstood".

oxytocin -- a peptide also known as the "commitment molecule." It is released during sex and pregnancy and influences "unlearning" and pair bonding.
pregnancy, it is released to induce labor.
"The most wasted of
all days is one
without laughter."
e.e. cummings
The human egg, or ovum: top, before
fertilization; middle, after fertilization and 1
cell division; bottom, after 2 cell divisions.
A  B  C  D
E   F  G H I    JKL  M PQ   R  Sa--So   Sp--Sz   T U--Z