M O R E   A S S E S S M E N T   S T U F F
NEXT PART after the test you just took:

1. If you haven't already looked at the Juan write-up, go back
there and read it. And answer the questions in the small blue
boxes. Write your general assessment of Juan in your notebook.

2. Go to the
Developmental Red Flags again and read all of the
sections you have not previously read. Give me your general
impressions of these red flags as well. Do you think that the
warning flags are too detailed and picky? Do you think that this
page is valuable to you as a professional?

3. Read through chapter 6 in your text book, "Using
Conversations to Listen to Language and Speech."

4. Do the first exercise on page 143. Write your responses in
your notebooks.

5.  Try to find one child to interview. Note their name and age. (If
you are worried about confidentiality, use a fake name). (But use
their real age). Talk to them about whatever you want. You can
use the 'mini-outline' on pages 145 and 146 if you would like.
Record it if you can. Transcribe the conversation into your
notebook. THEN give your general impressions of the interview.

6. Make sure that you include "conversations" in your
assessment type pages, listing the advantages and

7. Always look at the end of the chapters at the reflective journal
page. Use these if you desire. Using your own personal reflective
journal  can be enlightening in the assessment of children. You
would not put your own reflective journal into any child's file or
introduce it in any public forum. But you can personally make
notes of progress or problems.
Chapter 7: Using Time Samples

1. Read the chapter, making notes as necessary or desired.

2. Do you believe that children REALLY have short attention spans? Or do
you think that attention spans can be increased by activities that the child
finds interesting or enjoys? Do you think that a child's success can
influence attention span?

3. A time sample is a good way to track the choices a child makes and
then the amount of effort that is put into that choice, as well as the friends
that are involved. Add time samples to your page on assessment type
page, noting the advantages and disadvantages.

4. Look at the time sample example on page 169. Then do the exercise at
the top of the next page, page 170. Read through the analysis, next, and
see if your answer matches the answer given after each question (answer
in your head before you read the answer, or look back and find the

5. Just for poops and giggles, do the learning assessment on the top of
page 172.
Chapter 8 -- Using Standardized Tests to Look at Cognitive

The standardized test is used frequently in public schooling. The
standardized test is what we use to determine if people are worthy to
attend college. Actually, it is the opinion of your instructor that we overuse
standardized tests, and that the results gleaned from them are often not
reflective of the true abilities or disabilities of the child. But, hey. That's
just my opinion. OK?

1. Read chapter 8.

2. Define these terms:

3. Here is a list of some of the statistics terms you need to know if you are
going to understand standardized testing scores. The definitions of these
are in my glossary, but it is wonderful if you understand what they mean
anyway. So define these words:
BELL CURVE                
STANDARD DEVIATION                

4.  Carefully read the Topics in Conversation pages 193 -- 195.

5. Here is a list of standardized screening tools and assessment
instruments for use with infants and young children. Choose one, and do
a search to see what you can find out about it. If you find nothing, choose
another, until you find one that you can write a few words about. Then
write your impression of the screening instrument in a paragraph or two.
Report validity and reliability.  See if the test is norm-referenced or
~Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ)
~AGS Early Screening Profile
~Battelle Developmental Screening Test
~Denver II            
~Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning -- Third Edition
~FirstSTEP: Screening Test for Evaluating Preschoolers
~The Clinical Assessment of Language Comprehension
~Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test -- Third Edition (PPVT-III)
~Preschool Language Scale -- 3 (PLS-3)
~Test of Early Language Development -- 2 (TELD-2)
~Scales of Independent Behavior -- Revised
~AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale -- School Edition: 2
~Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI)
~Bayley Scales of Infant Development II
~Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
~Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System (AEPS)
~Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development -- Revised
~The Carolina Curriculum of Handicapped Infants and Infants At Risk and
the Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers (Second Edition)
~Hawaii Early Learning Profile (HELP)

6. Add standardized testing to your assessment types, add advantages
and disadvantages.
Chapter 9 -- Using Rating Scales to Look at Literacy

1. Read all of Chapter 9.

2. Define these things:

3. Add Rating Scales to your assessment types and list advantages and

4. Have you ever taken a survey where you were asked to give an
answer based on 1 -- 5, one being agree a lot and 5 being disagree a
lot? Describe the test.

5. Can you think of any other rating scale that is used all of the time for
all schools from kindergarten through college??

6. Look at the NAEYC Accreditation Self-Study Criteria on page 220.
Think of either the place you work right now or a place you have
worked or observed in the past. How does it rate?

7. Use the Language-Reasoning Rating Scale, ECERS-R on page 221
and 222 to rate a preschool environment also. How did it rate?
Do the assignments from the Juan assessment write up through
Disability laws. Turn in your notebooks to my box by noon on
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 2. I will return them to you by noon on
TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 7. Then you can proceed with chapter 10
and the next test.


1. Go to this page of my website: Disability Laws. Read over the laws
that have been passed concerning children with disabilities. In your
notebook, list each law, indicating the title and date it was passed, and
give a brief explanation of each law.

2. Notice that the laws all have links to definitions or other pages
concerning that particular word. Do as much linking as you want to so
that you understand the terms. Write definitions  of terms you may not
know in your notebook.

3. In the first law listed (PL 94-142), there are 11 categories of
disabilities listed. The law was reauthorized in 1990 (PL 101-476) and
two more categories were added (totaling 13). List all 13 of the disability
categories provided for in the law.

4. What is the name of this law now? What was its name when it was
first passed in 1975? When was the last time that it was reauthorized?
Can you figure out when it will be reauthorized again?

5. Go to each page of the disability category links and write a brief
description of each category in your notebook.

6. Write a list of major provisions of these laws for children with
disabilities, their parents, and professionals.

7. What is the proper label for a preschooler, toddler, or infant with a
disability, according to the law?

8. Describe "person first terminology."

9. Give your best explanation of "least restrictive environment."
Chapter 10 Using Work Samples to Look At Creativity

1. Read Chapter 10. Make notes as appropriate.

2. Add Work Samples to your assessment types and add advantages and disadvantages.

3. Read the very full Figure 10-4 -- Work Sample types. As you read through the examples of Work Samples, what are your thoughts? Do you think
that a work sample can be anything other than the child's own work? Or do you think that work samples could be written or drawn by the teacher? Do
you think that work samples could be a photograph? A video tape? What do you think? Look at the Work Samples checklist example, pages 245 and
246. How does this describe work samples to you?

4. While this is an assessment class, and I generally do not have you do much with the developmental aspects of the chapters, you have to look at the
drawings on page 258 and see how different they are. All of the pictures were drawn by 4-year-old boys. And art is a very large part of the Reggio
Emilia curriculum. Read that section, it is really interesting. Finally, read the Topics in Observation on pages 261 through 264. Consider this whenever
you are talking to children.

5. Now take your test. After you take it, email it to me.
Turn in your notebook to me again by noon on Thursday, November 16. I will return
them the next Tuesday, November 21 by noon. Have your test to me by Thursday the 16th. I will return them with your notebooks,
November 21.
THEN enjoy Thanksgiving but come back to work on the Monday after, November 27. And we will rush through a couple more
chapters then your final will be due in December at some point during finals week.

1. _______________ stands for the National Association for the Education of Young Children.

2. Including children with disabilities or developmental delays in the educational setting where they would have been if they did not have a disability or
a developmental delay is called ________________.

3. A test with specific characteristics:
1) developed according to set guidelines with high reliability and validity;
2) prescribed methods for administration and security;
3) scoring systems based on comparisons with other people or to a specified criterion is called a(n) ________________________________________.

4. The Education for All _______________________    ______________________ Act of 1975 (PL 94-142) established policies for the education of
children with disabilities, ages 3 to 21, including the use of IEPs.

5. The ___________________ with _____________________ Education Act of 1997 (PL 105-17) expanded and reauthorized IDEA from 1990.

6. In 1986, PL 99-457 mandated the provisions of PL _________________ for children with disabilities ages 3 through 5 and provided incentives for
serving younger children, including IFSPs.

7. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 1990 (PL ________________), renamed PL 94-142, and reauthorized it.

8. The _________________ with ________________ Act (PL 101-336), required equal access and reasonable accommodation for individuals with

9. ________________  _________________ are behaviors that should warn you to stop, look, and think about what is going on with a child.

10. Children who have environmental, physical, social, cognitive, or other characteristics that have the potential to impede their developmental
progress are considered _____ _________.

11. _______________ refers to one's individual matrix of characteristics, including race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, educational level,
place of residence, family structure, values, etc.

12. The obtaining and use of facts, information, data, etc. without distortion by personal feelings or prejudice is called _______________________.

13. ______________________ refers to the extent to which any assessment technique yields results that are accurate and consistent over time.

14. ______________________ refers to the extent to which any assessment technique fulfills the purpose for which it is intended.

15. The zone of __________________  ______________________ is a Vygotskian concept that refers to the area of development that is emerging. A
particular skill may be within the child's zone, but cannot yet be done independently, but with the aid of an older peer or adult.

16. A curriculum that is designed to meet and enrich the developmental expectations of the children in the classroom is referred to as developmentally
___________________________ practice.

17. Focused, short, narrative accounts of a specific  even are called __________________________________.

18. Which of the following is something that CANNOT be measured by counts or tallies:        
1. presence of a behavior
2. frequency of a behavior
3. duration of a behavior
4. love

19. The ____________________   ______________ tallies each time a behavior occurs and documents the number of times or rate of occurrence.

20. Several of the purposes of a(n) ________________________ are to determine a child's progress, to show a child's growth over time, and to
identify those who need special help.

21. Check which of these would be appropriate to include in a portfolio (there are 8 correct answers):
teacher's reflective journal
pet dogs
child's journals
pay stubs
anecdotal records
child's awards
child abuse forms
participation charts
teacher's resume
child's art work
parent-teacher conference notes

22.  Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria for the selection of a portfolio item?
1. representative of meaningful classroom activities
2. informative
3. pretty
4. easy to collect

23. Comments  or reflections on portfolio items can be made by the child, the teacher, or both, and might include which of the following comments?
(there are seven correct answers)
dictated or written remarks by a child
child self-assessment or reflection
teacher's spouse's assessment of the child
reasons the items were chosen to include in the portfolio
observations by the teacher
State of the Union address notes
analysis of what the work shows about the child's learning
comparisons with previous work
IQ scores of all other children of the same age in the school district as compared to this child
personal responses or observations

24. To ensure that the authenticity and trustworthiness of the data collected for the portfolio, check to make sure (check eight):
that there are ENOUGH samples
that the samples are REPRESENTATIVE of what is assessed
that the samples are BALANCED, using different sources and methods
that the evidence CONVERGES
that the child is still LIVING
that information is CONSISTENT over time, sources, contexts, methods
that the last teacher wasn't FIRED
that evidence corresponds to REALITY


ATTENTION SPAN                                                                      AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
                                                                   CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENTS
DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW                                                           HIGH STAKES TESTS INCLUSION                     
INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS                                                   INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
NTERRATER RELIABILITY                                                         ITINERANT TEACHER
MEAN                                                                                           MEASUREMENT                                                  
MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY                                     MEDIAN                                                                
MODE                                                                                          NEUROLOGIST                                                     
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND                                                            NORM                                                                   
NORM-REFERENCED ASSESSMENTS                                    PEDIATRICIAN                                                      
QUALITY POINTS                                                                       QUANTITATIVE SCORING                                    
RATING SCALE                                                                           RAW SCORE                                                         
REFLECTIVE JOURNAL                                                              RELIABILITY                                                         
RESOURCE TEACHER                                                              SCREENING                                                          
SELECTIVE METHOD                                                                STANDARD DEVIATION                                        
                                                           STANDARD SCORES
                                                    TALENTED AND GIFTED

25. ________________________ This assessment type refers to listening and speaking, as well as subtle, and sometimes not so subtle clues given
about the speakers such as teeth formation, facial expression, body language, eye contact, sense of humor, vocabulary choice, etc.

26. ________________________ conversations designed to yield developmental information about a child.

27. ___________________________ spontaneous conversations between adult and child that yield information.

28. ___________________________ planned conversations to find out specific information about a child.

29. ___________________________ method of recording where children are by choice at a certain time, measuring attention span and interests.

30. ___________________________ focus perceptual processes on a specific aspect of the environment.

31. ___________________________ Method of evaluating ability level using a fixed methodology and normative data; a test with specific
characteristics: 1) developed according to APA/AERA guidelines with high levels of reliability and validity; 2) prescribed methods for administration and
security; and 3) scoring systems based on comparisons with other people or to a specified criterion.

32. ___________________________ an assessment tool that reports results with a numeric score.

33. ___________________________ tests that measure what children know or can do at a particular age or grade.

34. ___________________________ standardized tests that are intended to predict future performances or success in a given area of training or in
an occupation.

35. ___________________________ standardized tests used to identify or diagnose children with potential learning problems.

36. ___________________________ standard against which others are measured.

37. ___________________________ the extent to which any assessment technique yields results that are accurate and consistent over time.

38. ___________________________ the extent to which any assessment technique fulfills the purpose for which it is intended.

39. ___________________________ Ongoing assessment process that occurs within the student's natural environment and includes observation of a
student's performance as well as the necessary supports for the student. Authentic assessment also includes work samples that the student has

40. ___________________________ The identification of developmental problems or the potential for such problems; a procedure in which children
are examined or tested to identify children with high-risks, who are then referred for more intensive assessment; brief, relatively inexpensive
standardized procedures designed to quickly appraise a large number of children to find out which ones should be referred for further assessment.

41. ___________________________ Any assessment that has the potential to influence educational opportunities for children, such as placement in
special programs, ability grouping, or retention in grade.

42. ___________________________ a doctor who specializes in the field of medicine that deals with the care of children.

43. ___________________________ physician specializing in the nervous system and in brain functioning.

44. ___________________________ Federal school reform legislation reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education act and including
increased school accountability for student learning, more choices for parents and students, greater flexibility for schools in the use of funds, and an
emphasis on early reading intervention.

45. ___________________________ Children with special needs attend preschool, child-care, and recreational programs with typically developing
peers; belief system shared by every member of a school as a learning community; often based on a mission statement or vision, emphasizing the
commitment to educate ALL students so that they can reach their full potential; including children with disabilities or developmental delays in the
educational setting where they would have been if they did not have a disability or delay.

46. ___________________________ designation for higher than average cognitive, linguistic, social, creative development.

47. ___________________________ visits classrooms or home regularly to see that appropriate methods, materials, and services are provided.

48. ___________________________ assesses placement and provides instructional time outside of the regular classroom.

49. ___________________________ measuring a specific behavior, skill, or attribute by choosing from three or more descriptors.

50. ___________________________ milestones or measurement intervals on a rating scale.

51. ___________________________ two or more raters use the same instrument on the same child to control bias.

52. ___________________________ method that preserves the child's work as a documentation of development. Ex. Drawings, writings,
constructions, media-preserved work, such as audio or video recordings or photographs.

53. ___________________________ the recording instrument dictates what is to be observed.

54. ___________________________ Derived scores that have been transformed to produce a distribution with a predetermined mean and standard

55. ___________________________ a psychometric term that describes the average error of measurement contained in any given test score. It forms
a confidence interval around an individual's test score.

56. ___________________________ a statistical term that describes the average deviation of scores from the mean and is one of several ways to
measure variation of a distribution.

57. ___________________________ measures which are representative of a sample or population. They enable one to be more objective when
drawing conclusions or making inferences. These measures identify the center or middle of a set of values and best characterize the distribution.

58. ___________________________ the average score in a distribution.

59. ___________________________ the middlemost score in a distribution.

60. ___________________________ the most common score in a distribution.

61. ___________________________ quantification of some kind.

62. ___________________________ A standardized test in which the performance of an individual is interpreted relative to the performance of a
group of others at the same age or grade level.

63. ___________________________ The numerical figure, with the score of 100 being average, obtained from standardized tests and used to
express mental developmental ability.

64. ___________________________ The score a student receives on a test before it is converted to a standard score.

65. ___________________________ a private, written record in which to express feelings; not a part of child's record, but property of the writer.

66. ___________________________ the theoretical, natural distribution of a group of scores; most scores are in the middle range. The curve is
symmetrical, with a single peak in the center. The center is the mean score, and one standard deviation to either side of the mean represents
approximately 68% of the population; 2 standard deviations around the mean represent roughly 95% of the population. Another standard deviation
(i.e., 2 standard deviations to either side of the mean) represents roughly 99% of the population.

67. ___________________________ a point of reference for measurement and evaluation. Used especially in connection with content standards. For
example, standards may state that 'by the end of the second (or fourth, or eighth) grade, children should be able to . . . '

68. ___________________________ An evaluation method in which an individual's performance is interpreted relative to specific curricular objectives.
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