|Moral Development (scroll
|Dr. Howard Gardner is a professor of neuroscience at Harvard. He believes that children are all gifted in some way, and disagrees with the
conventional use of talented and gifted programs in public schools, which only award mathematical or language talents.
He first theorized 7 different types of intelligences. His first seven were:
Then, he decided to add:
Finally, (I think), he has added:
He believes that everyone has all of these, but that one is generally the strongest within each person. There may be additional ones, as well.
Take this test to see what your intelligence is. Then come back here and you can look at the power points about each intelligence. Does
it seem like you? Do you have more than one strength?
_____ I enjoy categorizing things by common traits.
_____ Ecological issues are important to me.
_____ Classification helps me make sense of new data.
_____ I enjoy working in a garden.
_____ I believe preserving our National Parks is important.
_____ Putting things in hierarchies makes sense to me.
_____ Animals are important in my life.
_____ My home has a recycling system in place.
_____ I enjoy studying biology, botany and/or zoology.
_____ I pick up on subtle differences in meaning.
_____ TOTAL for NATURALIST
_____ I easily pick up on patterns.
_____ I focus in on noise and sounds.
_____ Moving to a beat is easy for me.
_____ I enjoy making music.
_____ I respond to the cadence of poetry.
_____ I remember things by putting them in a rhyme.
_____ Concentration is difficult for me if there is background noise.
_____ Listening to sounds in nature can be very relaxing.
_____ Musicals are more engaging to me than dramatic plays.
_____ Remembering song lyrics is easy for me.
_____ TOTAL for MUSICAL
_____ I am known for being neat and orderly.
_____ Step by step directions are a big help.
_____ Problem solving comes easily to me.
_____ I get easily frustrated with disorganized people.
_____ I can complete calculations quickly in my head.
_____ Logic puzzles are fun.
_____ I can't begin an assignment until I have all my "ducks in a row".
_____ Structure is a good thing.
_____ I enjoy troubleshooting something that isn't working properly.
_____ Things have to make sense to me or I am dissatisfied.
_____ TOTAL for LOGICAL/ MATHEMATICAL
_____ It is important to see my role in the “big picture” of things.
_____ I enjoy discussing questions about life.
_____ Religion is important to me.
_____ I enjoy viewing art work.
_____ Relaxation and meditation exercises are rewarding to me.
_____ I like traveling to visit inspiring places.
_____ I enjoy reading philosophers.
_____ Learning new things is easier when I see their real world application.
_____ I wonder if there are other forms of intelligent life in the universe.
_____ It is important for me to feel connected to people, ideas and beliefs.
_____ TOTAL for EXISTENTIAL
_____ I learn best interacting with others.
_____ I enjoy informal chat and serious discussion.
_____ The more the merrier.
_____ I often serve as a leader among peers and colleagues.
_____ I value relationships more than ideas or accomplishments.
_____ Study groups are very productive for me.
_____ I am a “team player”.
_____ Friends are important to me.
_____ I belong to more than three clubs or organizations.
_____ I dislike working alone.
_____ TOTAL for INTERPERSONAL
_____ I learn by doing.
_____ I enjoy making things with my hands.
_____ Sports are a part of my life.
_____ I use gestures and non-verbal cues when I communicate.
_____ Demonstrating is better than explaining.
_____ I love to dance.
_____ I like working with tools.
_____ Inactivity can make me more tired than being very busy.
_____ Hands-on activities are fun.
_____ I live an active lifestyle.
_____ TOTAL for BODILY/ KINESTHETIC
_____ Foreign languages interest me.
_____ I enjoy reading books, magazines and web sites.
_____ I keep a journal.
_____ Word puzzles like crosswords or jumbles are enjoyable.
_____ Taking notes helps me remember and understand.
_____ I faithfully contact friends through letters and/or e-mail.
_____ It is easy for me to explain my ideas to others.
_____ I write for pleasure.
_____ Puns, anagrams and spoonerisms are fun.
_____ I enjoy public speaking and participating in debates.
_____ TOTAL for VERBAL/ LINGUISTIC
_____ My attitude effects how I learn.
_____ I like to be involved in causes that help others.
_____ I am keenly aware of my moral beliefs.
_____ I learn best when I have an emotional attachment to the subject.
_____ Fairness is important to me.
_____ Social justice issues interest me.
_____ Working alone can be just as productive as working in a group.
_____ I need to know why I should do something before I agree to do it.
_____ When I believe in something I give more effort towards it.
_____ I am willing to protest or sign a petition to right a wrong.
_____ TOTAL for INTRAPERSONAL
_____ Rearranging a room and redecorating are fun for me.
_____ I enjoy creating my own works of art.
_____ I remember better using graphic organizers.
_____ I enjoy all kinds of entertainment media.
_____ Charts, graphs and tables help me interpret data.
_____ A music video can make me more interested in a song.
_____ I can recall things as mental pictures.
_____ I am good at reading maps and blueprints.
_____ Three dimensional puzzles are fun.
_____ I can visualize ideas in my mind.
_____ TOTAL for VISUAL/ SPATIAL
Add up your totals for each section. The section with the most checked is your personal strength. You may have more than one; that is just fine!
|Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg was a professor at Harvard. He came up with his Moral Development Theory, based on a series of moral steps that one must pass through in
order to attain the highest morality, or level six. He developed this theory by assessing young, white boys with a situation (see below)and then rating their responses according
to his steps. He based much of his thought on the work of Piaget and Dewey.
Kohlberg was challenged by many because of his methodologies. Particularly noteworthy was Carol Gilligan, who disagreed with Kohlberg’s ideas that men could attain higher
levels of morality just on the basis of their gender. She challenged him in many fabulous writings.
LEVEL 1–Preconventional Morality (ages 4–10)
Moral value resides in a person’s own needs and wants.
STAGE 1: OBEDIENCE and PUNISHMENT ORIENTATION:
Individual and moral judgment is motivated by a need to avoid punishment.
STAGE 2: INSTRUMENTAL-RELATIVIST ORIENTATION:
Individual and moral judgment is motivated by a need to satisfy one’s own desires.
LEVEL 2–Conventional Morality (ages 10–13)
Moral values reside in performing good or right roles, in maintaining the convention order, and in pleasing others.
STAGE 3: “GOOD BOY/NICE GIRL” ORIENTATION:
Individual’s moral judgment is motivated by a need to avoid rejection, disaffection, or disapproval from others.
STAGE 4: LAW AND ORDER ORIENTATION:
Individual and moral judgment is motivated by a need to not be criticized by a true authority figure.
LEVEL 3–Postconventional Morality (adolescence–adulthood)
Moral values reside in principles, separate from those who hold apart from a person’s identification with the enforcing group. Most people never reach the last level.
STAGE 5: LEGALISTIC ORIENTATION:
Individual and moral judgment is motivated by community respect for all, respecting social order, and living under legally determined laws.
STAGE 6: UNIVERSAL, ETHICAL ORIENTATION:
Individual and moral judgment is motivated by one’s own conscience.
According to Kohlberg, here would be the typical reactions to the situation, according to the level:
Stage 1 (need to avoid punishment): The husband should not steal the drug because he would be punished by authorities if he is caught.
Stage 2 (need to satisfy one's own desires): The husband should steal the drug because he is worried about his wife and will feel better if she is not sick.
Stage 3 (need to avoid rejection, disaffection, or dissatisfaction from others): The husband should steal the drug because good husbands care about their wives. Other
people would disapprove if he let his wife die.
Stage 4 (need to not be criticized by true authority figure): The husband should not steal the drug because stealing is against the law and the laws must be maintained
even at the expense of a personal loss.
Stage 5 (community respect; respect for order and law):
The husband should steal the drug because society places more value on the right to have medicine than on the right to make large profits. Everyone has the right to get
needed medicine regardless of the laws against stealing.
Stage 6 (motivated by one's own conscience): The husband should steal the drug because a human life takes precedence over any other moral or legal value.
HERE IS THE SCENARIO:
What about these scenarios? What level is each person acting on?
~Freddie does not drive faster than the speed limit because that is the law and he would feel bad if he were caught.
~Darren does not steal from stores because he would be ashamed of himself for doing so.
~Sarah always obeys her teacher because she would be embarrassed if she got into trouble.
~Robert donates to charity because his conscience tells him to do so.
~In order to avoid time-out in nursery school, Nolan does not steal snacks from the other kids.
~Carol does not smoke marijuana because it is against the law.
~Genny does not talk during church service so that her parents will give her a sucker afterward.
~Siobhan does not steal from department stores because she wouldn't want her friends to think of her as a thief.
~Ben picks up his toys so he won't have to go to bed early.
~Hannah feels that it is her duty to vote in the elections.
~Joseph always gives Aunt Brenda a big hug when he sees her because she usually brings candy for him.
~Rick rakes his neighbor's leaves because he knows that they appreciate him doing it.
~Brianne volunteers to help in the soup kitchen and her name is read at her church service the next week.
~Larissa refuses to pay income taxes because she does not believe that they are fair.
~Emily enjoys helping at a telephone crisis line because she knows it is the right thing for her to do.
~Seth cleans his room, in anticipation of his parents' praise.
~Noah plays with his cousin Sarah so his parents will be proud of him.
~Suzanne does not hit her younger brother so her parents will not yell at her.
|A woman was near death from a rare form of cancer. There was one drug that
doctors thought might save her: a form of radium that a druggist in the same town
had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000–ten times what the
drug cost to manufacture. The sick woman’s husband went to everyone he knew
to raise the money, but he could only get together about half of the money. He
explained to the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell him the
medicine at a reduced rate or let him pay the balance later. But the druggist said,
“No.” So the desperate husband chose to break into the man’s store and steal the
|MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES by Howard Gardner
Well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings, and rhythms of words.
These learners have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They think in words rather than pictures.
Ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns.
These learners are always curious about the world around them; asking lots of questions. These learners love to do experiments.
Ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch, and timbre.
Musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms, and patterns. The immediately respond to music either appreciatively or critically. Many of these learners
are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g., crickets, bells, dripping taps, snoring).
Capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly.
Visual learners need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, etc.
Ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully.
These learners express themselves through movement. They have a good sense of balance and eye-hand coordination (e.g., play ball, balance beams).
Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember and process information.
Capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations, and desires of others.
These learners try to see things from others' points of view in order to understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense
feelings, intentions, and motivations. Generally, they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage cooperation. They use both verbal and non-verbal
language to open communication channels with others.
Capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs, and thinking processes.
These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams, relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.
Ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals, and other objects in nature.
These learners have the ability to appreciate, understand, and enjoy the natural world, the ability to observe, understand, and organize patterns in the natural
environment, and the ability to nurture plants and animals.
Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.
|Moral Development Theory
Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg