macedoiné -- mixture of diced fruits and vegetables; medley; mixture.

macroculture -- Overarching cultural structure of a society represented by the cultural aspects that all members of that society share.

macrocephaly -- large head size.

macrocytic anemia -- A failure in the oxygen transport system characterized by abnormally large immature red blood cells.

macromolecules -- there are four classes of macromolecules that constitute all living matter: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and  nucleic acids.  

macroorchidism -- having abnormally large testicles; found in Fragile X syndrome.

macrophages -- a type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. They are key players in the immune response of the  body to foreign invaders such as infectious microorganisms.
Macrophages help destroy
bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells.

macrophobia -- fear of long waits.

macrosomia -- excessive size and stature at birth; large body size.

macrostomia -- large mouth. (See crazy picture.)

macrosystems --
The idealogical, cultural, and institutional contexts that encompass the micro-, meso-, and exosystems; Bronfenbrenner.

macula -- The area of the retina that contains the greatest concentration of cones and the fovea centralis. (See picture.)
macular degeneration --
An age-related condition in which the macula (tissues within the break down, resulting in distorted and blurred vision.

macule -- a flat, distinct, colored area of the skin that is less than 10 millimeters in diameter and does not include a change in skin texture or thinness.                      

maenads -- a female votary of Dionysus, who took part in the wild orgiastic rites that characterized his worship, bacchante; a frenzied or raging woman.

mage -- magician, wizard.

magian -- a member of the Zoroastrian priestly caste of the Medes and Persians; a sorcerer; a magician.

magisterial -- having the characteristics of a master or teacher; marked by overbearingly dignified or assured manner or aspect; required for a master's degree; a magistrate's office or

magnanimous -- courageously noble in mind and heart; generous in forgiving; eschewing resentment or revenge; unselfish.

magnesium -- atomic number 12; symbol Mg; a light, silvery-white, moderately hard alkaline earth element that in ribbon or powder form burns with a brilliant white flame; used in structural
alloys, pyrotechnics, flash photography, and incendiary bombs; occurs principally in magnesite, dolomite, and carnallite; one of the 13 most common elements in the human body; discovered
in 1808 by
Sir Humphrey Davy.

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) --
A magnetic imaging technique by which computers create cross-sectional images of specific body areas or organs; imaging procedures that uses the
magnetic resonance of atoms to provide clear images of interior parts of the body. It is particularly useful in diagnosing structural abnormalities of the brain.

magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) -- A study that can be done as part of a regular MRI scan. Rather than provide a picture of the brain, it analyzes the presence and amount of
certain metabolic components in various brain regions. It is particularly helpful in diagnosing certain
inborn errors of metabolism, such as mitochondrial disorders.

mahatma -- a person to be revered for high-mindedness, wisdom, and selflessness; a person of great prestige in a field of endeavor.

mahout -- the keeper and driver of an elephant.

maieusiophobia -- fear of childbirth.

maiden archetype -- Jung: represents purity, innocence, and, in all likelihood, naiveté (------------------------------->>).
mail-order brides --
Agencies specializing in so-called mail-order brides publish profiles and photos of women mainly for the benefit of American men seeking wives.
mainstream -- The educational concept that a child with disabilities should be placed in a general education setting for all or part of the day. This was the government's
first attempt at providing a
free, appropriate public education for all children in the least restrictive environment. The word was replaced with "inclusion."

maintenance stage of learning --
the stage of learning in which the aim is for the mastered skills to remain at the same level of performance as during the proficiency stage.

major depression -- a prolonged period of depressed mood.

major health impairments -- includes blood disorders (e.g., hemophilia, sickle cell anemia), congenital heart defects, chronic renal failure, and type 1 diabetes. Medication can
sometimes control the symptoms of these illnesses, and there is generally little impact on development. Another term for "
Other Health Impairments."

make-believe play -- A type of play in which children pretend, acting out everyday and imaginary activities. According to Vygotsky, this is the ideal social construct for fostering cognitive
development in early childhood.

malabsorption -- difficulty digesting or absorbing nutrients from food.

malabsorption syndrome -- an alteration in the ability of the intestine to absorb nutrients adequately into the bloodstream. It may be due to an abnormality of the gut wall, failure to produce
or bile to aid digestion, or abnormalities in the flora of the gut. Common disorders that can lead to malabsorption syndrome are cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, celiac
disease, short bowel syndrome, intestinal lymphangiectasia, Whipple's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.  

maladroit --
lacking skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations; inept.

malady -- sickness, illness; ague; ictus; ailment.

malagrugrous -- adjective: dismal; the wrinkling of one's brow.

malaise -- a condition of general bodily weakness or discomfort; often marking the onset of a disease; a vague or unfocused feeling of mental uneasiness; lethargy; discomfort.

malapropism, malapropped -- the act or habit of misusing words ridiculously, especially by the confusion of words that are similar in sound. Mrs. Malaprop, a character in the 18th century
British comedy,
The Rivals, by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, constantly confuses words. Malapropisms are named after her.

malapropos -- out of place; inappropriate; in an inopportune or inappropriate manner.

malar hypoplasia -- underdeveloped mid face.

malaria -- An infectious, febrile illness caused by a protozoa; transmitted by mosquitoes; tends to become chronic.

malaxophobia -- fear of love-play.

male menopause -- physical changes in men related to age, similar to those that occur in women during menopause.  

male-pattern baldness --
the most common type of hair loss in men, following a typical pattern of receding hairline and hair thinning on the crown, and
is caused by hormones and genetic predisposition.
(See picture.)  

malevolent --
having or showing a wish to do evil to other.

malfeasance -- the performance by a public official of an act that is legally unjustified, harmful, or contrary to law; wrongdoing especially of a public trust.  

malignant; malignancy --
the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse and to potentially result in death.  

malleable -- moldable; able to be modified; easily reshaped; having the ease of form.

malleus -- one of the three small bones in the middle ear that help amplify sound (----------------->).  

malnourished --
suffering from improper nutrition.  

malnutrition --
prolonged inadequate or excessive intake of nutrients and/or calories required by the body.  

malocclusion --
A condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly. (See picture.)

maltreated children -- those children under age 18 who have been physically, mentally, or sexually abused or neglected by those adults responsible
for the child's welfare.

mammary glands -- glands in mammal females that produce and secrete milk for the nourishment of the young.

mammatus cloud -- also known as mammatocumulus (mammary cloud or breast cloud); a cellular pattern of pouches hanging underneath the base of a cloud; most often associated with
cumulonimbus but may also be found under altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus, and cirrus clouds, as well as volcanic ash clouds.

mammeogenesis -- the development of the mammary gland.

mammoplasty -- surgical alteration of the shape of a breast.

mana archetypes -- Jung: If you dream about long things, Freud might suggest these things represent the phallus and ultimately sex. But Jung had a very different interpretation. Even
dreaming quite specifically about a penis might not have much to do with some unfulfilled need for sex. In primitive societies,
phallic symbols do not usually refer to sex at all. They usually
symbolize mana, or spiritual power. These symbols would be displayed on occasions when the spirits are being called upon to increase the yield of corn, or fish, or to heal someone.

managing stress -- Pauline Boss's alternative to the phrase coping with stress; individual family members' use of their own resources to help their family deal with a stressor or work
through a crisis.

mandala -- universal symbol combining circle and intersecting lines; Jung: The self, often shown in archetype, is the ultimate unity of personality and is
symbolized by the circle, the cross, and the mandala figures that
Jung was fond of painting. From the Sanskrit word for "circle", the mandala symbolizes "a safe
refuge of inner reconciliation and wholeness." (
Jung). Jesus and Buddha are often represented in mandalas, and both achieved perfection on earth. Jung said
that perfection can only come in death

mandate --
an authoritative order or command; something that must be done.

mandated testing -- testing in public schools that is required at certain grade levels; mandated assessment times are set up by individual states in K -- 12

mandated reporters -- those individuals who by law must report suspicions of child abuse to specified agencies; in Tennessee, everyone is considered a mandated reporter of child abuse.

mandatory -- something that is required; no choices or alternatives available.

mandatory arrest laws -- laws that require police to arrest violent intimates when probable cause exists; such laws currently exist in many US
states and local jurisdictions.

mandatory reporting laws -- laws that require certain classes of professionals to report cases of suspected child or adult abuse, such laws
currently exist in all US states.

mandible -- lower jaw bone -------------------------------------------------------------------------------->.

mandibulofacial dystosis --
see Treacher Collins syndrome.

mandrake roots -- a part of the plant genus Mandragora, belonging to the nightshades family. When a mandrake plant is dug up, the root screams and kills all who hear it. A potion made
from mature mandrake roots is curative to a person hurt by the gaze of a basilisk (
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, J.K. Rowling). A group of mandrake roots is a bawl. A
mandrake baby is a sapling.  

manganese -- atomic number 25, symbol Mn; a gray-white or silvery brittle transition metallic element found worldwide; obtained from pyrolusite, psilomelane, rhodochrosite, and in nodules
on the ocean floor; used in making steel and ferromagnetic alloys; discovered in 1774 by
Johann Gahn.

mania --
1) According to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of six basic styles of loving: obsessive love, which consists of strong sexual attraction and emotional
intensity, extreme jealousy, and mood swings alternating between ecstasy and despair; 2) a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. This mood
disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause impairment in function; 3) a personality characteristic of a person who speeds by you on the interstate (maniac).

maniaphobia -- fear of insanity.

manic depression -- see bipolar disorder. Manic depression is a psychiatric disorder consisting of distinct periods of elevated mood and depressed mood. This is a type of psychosis
and is associated with disorganization of personality and distortion of reality.

manifestation determination -- When disciplining a student who receives special education services, the school must determine whether the student's behavior is a manifestation "caused
by" his or her disability. This process must occur when the school proposes to change the student's placement for more than 10 days (according to
IDEA 1997; IDEA 2004 has changed this
to Special Circumstances: Child may be removed to an
Interim Alternative Educational Setting (IAES) for not more than 45 days, without regard to whether or not behavior is a
manifestation of the disability, for violations involving weapons, drugs, or infliction of serious bodily injury).

manifest content -- Freud: what we usually think of as the dream itself, and what Freudians see as surface, a disguise of the true latent dream material.

manifest functions -- according to the structural-functional perspective, functions that are open, stated, and conscious.

manioc -- Cassava: any of several tropical American plants, shrubs, and trees of the spurge family having edible starchy roots.

manipulative area -- a place in an early childhood setting for children to enhance their fine motor skills, develop hand-eye coordination, and increase mental, language,
and social skills through the use of play materials such as pegboards, puzzles, and games.

manipulative materials -- materials that children can handle and work with, such as puzzles, blocks, buttons, and wooden beads.

manipulative skills -- are defined as any gross motor skill that usually involves an object being manipulated. More commonly, however, "manipulative" refers to fine motor skills.

manipulative tantrums -- tantrums children throw to manipulate others into giving them what they want.

manit -- how much work a man does in a minute.

manitou -- spirit or force of nature, either good or bad.

mannequin -- articulated human figure used for design.

mansuétude -- disposition of one's mind leading to indulgence, clemency.

mantelletta -- sleeveless vestment worn by cardinals.

mantic -- of or relating to the faculty of divination; prophetic.

manticore -- a sentient creature, capable of human speech. A manticore is very violent, has a human-like head, a lions' body, and the tail of a scorpion. The tail secretes a venom that is
instantly fatal to the victim of its sting. A manticore's skin repels virtually all spells and charms, so it is extremely difficult to subdue. The manticore has three rows of gleaming teeth and blood-
red eyes. It's shrill sound sounds much like a flute. It is very powerful and can jump great distances. It is a ravenous beast, fond of human flesh. A blast-ended screwt is the result of the
mating of a manticore and a fire-crab. Manticores originated in Greece. A group of manticores is a fatality. A manticore baby is a cupcake.

manual approach -- involves teaching the use of sign language (ASL) for communication.

manual communication -- any formal or established system of hand gestures used for communication, such as fingerspelling or American Sign Language.

manual interpreter -- An individual who translates spoken language into sign language (ASL) for people who are deaf.

manual prompt -- positioning the teacher's hand around the learner's and putting the learner through the motions required to perform a particular act.

manubrium -- the broad, upper part of the sternum. (See picture.)

manxome --
a word invented by Lewis Carroll (Jabberwocky): fearsome; a portmanteau of manly and buxom; monstrous; frabjously nonsensical.

maple syrup urine disease -- A disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism with four identified clinical variants (classic, intermittent, intermediate, and thiamine-responsive); the
classic form comprises 75% of cases and is characterized by severe
opisthotonos (spasm with body in a bowed position and head and heels bend backward), hypertonia, hypoglycemia,
lethargy, and respiratory difficulties. Symptoms appear within the first 48 hours of life; if untreated, it is most often fatal within one month. Untreated survivors have severe intellectual
and spasticity. The intermittent form presents with periods of ataxia, behavior disturbances, drowsiness, and seizures. Attacks are triggered by infections, excessive protein
intake, or other physiological stresses. Individuals with the intermittent form usually demonstrate mild to moderate
intellectual disability. Associated complications: acidosis, hypoglycemia,
growth retardation, feeding problems, acute episodes that are characterized by muscle fatigue, vomiting, impaired cognitive ability,
hyperactivity, sleep disturbance, hallucinations,
dystonia, and ataxia. Caused by a deficiency in branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase caused by mutations in the genes (at chromosome locations 1p31, 6p22--p21, and 19q13.1--
q13.2) making up this enzyme complex;
autosomal recessive. Maple syrup urine disease affects approximately 1 out of every 180,000 newborns in the United States each year. However, in
Old Order Mennonites in southeastern Pennsylvania, the disorder affects 1/200 newborns.

MAPs -- a process that customizes students' educational programs to their specific visions, strengths, and needs. It is especially effective in planning transitions from school from preschool

maquette -- scale model of a large item.

maraschino -- cordial made from the fermented juice of the Marasca cherry.

marasmus -- a disease usually appearing in the first year of life that is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. Leads to a wasted condition of the body.

marble -- highly polished building material; irregularly colored.

marcascent -- flower term, withering, but not falling off.

marchen -- the German word for fairy tales.

Marfan syndrome -- tall, thin body; upward dislocation of ocular lens; myopia; spider-like limbs; hypermobile joints. Average intelligence expected, although
learning disabilities have been reported in up to 50% of children with Marfan syndrome. Associated complications are aortic dilatation or dissection,
congestive heart failure, mitral valve prolapse, a caved-in or domed breastbone, flat feet, a high arched palate that causes teeth to be crowded, dislocated lens
in the eye, nearsightedness,
glaucoma, cataracts, emphysema, sleep apnea, and scoliosis. Caused by a mutation in the fibrillin (FBN-1) gene located on
chromosome 15q15--q21.3;
autosomal dominant. A cause of deaf-blindness. Marfan syndrome affects 1/20,000 people in North America. See two pictures.

marginal --
living within the majority culture but feeling alienated or outcast.

marginalia -- marginal notes or embellishments (as in a book); nonessential items.

marionette -- a puppet bound by strings and controlled with wooden bars.

marital adjustment -- a measure of marital quality that combines questions that reflect feelings and questions about interaction, communication, and conflicts.

marital quality -- marriage success measured in terms of stability, happiness, and flexibility.

marital rape -- sexual assault by one's spouse.

marital scripts -- expectations a person has about what is appropriate behavior for husbands and wives.

marital stability -- refers to whether a married couple stays together; to marriage does not end by separation, divorce, or other means.

marital success -- also called marital quality, characteristic of marriage measured in terms of stability, happiness, and flexibility.

marmalade -- jellylike preserve made from the pulp of fruits, especially citrus fruits.

marmoreal -- of, like, made of , or related to marble.

Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MPS VI) -- see mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). (A cause of deaf-blindness.)

marriage -- an emotional and legal commitment between two people to share emotional and physical intimacy, various tasks, and economic resources.

marriage and family enrichment (also called enhancement) -- programs designed to strengthen couples and families.

marriage bureaus -- services that arrange introductions for a fee.

marriage gradient -- see mating gradient.

marriage sabbatical --
a personal timeout from daily routines for creative, professional, or spiritual growth, for study, reflection, or renewal.

marriage squeeze -- a factor that influences dating: one sex has a more limited pool of eligible marriage candidates than the other sex has.

married couple household -- a household in which the householder is married and living with his or her spouse.

Mars -- the fourth planet from the sun in our solar system. It was named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often called the "Red Planet" because of the iron oxide prevalent on its
surface. It has two moons -- Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. It has been known since prehistoric times. Mars is 141,633,260 miles from the sun, mass of 0.107
earths; orbit is 687 earth days, rotation 24 hours, 38 minutes.

Marshall syndrome -- a very rare genetic disorder (autosomal dominant) that equally affects males and females. It is caused by an abnormality in collagen, a key part of connective
tissue. Characteristic facies include an upturned nose, eyes spaced widely apart, and a flat nasal bridge. This gives the person a child-like appearance. The upper part of the skull is
abnormally thick, and deposits of
calcium may appear in the cranium. There may also be palate abnormalities and early osteoarthritis. Myopia, cataracts, and glaucoma are common;
moderate to severe
hearing loss preceded by many incidents of otitis media. It is caused by a genetic mutation on COL11A1 (collagen, type XI, alpha 1) on chromosome 1; a cause of

martyr parenting style --
parenting style in which parents sacrifice everything for their children and exercise little or no authority over them.

masculinists -- people who believe that the patriarchal system causes oppression and isolation but who are in favor of males trying to achieve self-realization and self-expression.

masculinity -- a gender-linked constellation of personality traits and behavioral patterns traditionally associated with males in a society.

masochism -- Freud: caused by an alloy of eroticism and a sadistic superego. It fills the ego with a desire to atone by punishing itself. An original or primary masochism develops into a 1)
feminine; 2) erotogenic; or 3) moral masochism via a turning of unresolved
sadism against oneself (secondary masochism). Too much internalized death drive and you get masochism; when
directed outward, sadism.

masque -- a dramatic entertainment, usually performed by masked players representing mythological or allegorical figures, popular in England in the 16th and early 17th centuries.

masquerade -- festive gathering characterized by participants wearing masks.

massed practice -- extra practice of a skill to ensure mastery.

mass number -- number of neutrons plus number of protons in an atom.

mass spectrometry --
a technique used for identifying chemical, drug, or metabolic abnormalities in the blood or urine.

mast cell -- a group of cells called leukocytes. Leucocytes are white blood cells found in plasma with red blood cells (erythrocytes). Mast cells have immunological functions. When
they are stimulated, they release chemicals that signal either injury or infection, and cause an inflammation in the area. See
white blood cells.

mastery --
competency, clear-cut understanding of a complete skill or knowledge.

mastery-oriented attributions -- attributions that credit success to high ability and failure to insufficient effort. Lead to high self-esteem and a willingness to approach challenging tasks.

mastigophobia -- fear of flogging.

mastoiditis -- infection of the mastoid air cells that rest in the temporal bone behind the ear. This is an infrequent complication of a chronic middle ear

matching --
recognizing the similarities of an attribute of objects.

matching hypothesis -- the idea that people seek romantic partners who are similar in level of physical attractiveness.

material -- secular; worldly; the substances of which a thing is made or composed.

maternal conditions -- infections, diseases, or disorders that occur in a mother during pregnancy, sometimes having the potential to injure the unborn child.

maternal deprivation -- process of being denied access to bonding with one's mother. This is a catch-phrase summarizing Bowlby's early work on the effects of separating infants and
young children from their mothers. He believed that maternally deprived children were likely to develop asocial or antisocial tendencies, and that juvenile delinquency was mainly a
consequence of such separations. The corollary of this was his advocacy of continuous mother-child contact for at least the first five years of  life, which earned him the opprobrium of
feminists. Subsequent research has confirmed that lack of maternal care does lead o poor social adjustment and relationship difficulties, but suggests that disruption, conflict, and poor
maternal handling are more common causes of difficulties later than the loss of the mother in itself.

maternal drug use (during pregnancy) -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

maternal infections -- infections in a mother during pregnancy, sometimes having the potential to injure the unborn child.

maternal obesity -- degree of excessive weight in a pregnant woman.

maternal Rh incompatibility -- a condition that occurs when a baby with Rh+ blood is born to a mother with Rh- blood. This leads to a breakdown of red blood cells in the baby.

maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein -- a prenatal test to detect spina bifida.

maternogenic -- relating to a disorder that may have been caused maternally, such as in labor and delivery.

mathematics learning disabilities -- condition wherein a student's learning disability is most significant in areas related to mathematics.

mating gradient -- the tendency of women to marry men who are better educated or more successful than they are.

matriarchal -- female-dominated, female-identified, and female-centered.

matriarchal family -- family in which the mother holds the power.

matriarchal group -- a group in which the mother or eldest female is recognized as the head of the family, kinship group, or tribe. Descent is traced through this woman.

matriculate -- to become admitted into membership in a body, society, or institution.

matrilineal -- family/kinship system whereby children trace their descent, and perhaps rights and property, through the mother's line.

matrilineal society -- a society in which descent, or lineage, is traced through females.

matrilocal society -- a society that encourages newly married couples to live with or near the wife's kin, especially her mother's kinship group.

maturation -- The biologically controlled process by which each child "unfolds" according to the child's individual timetable.

maturational delay -- delay in maturation of the neurological system; a possible cause of learning disabilities.

maturationist -- one who believes the human development is a natural unfolding of innate abilities and nearly independent of environmental influence.    

Maturation theory --
a set of ideas based on the notion that the sequence of behavior and the emergence of personal characteristics develop more through predetermined growth
processes that through learning and interaction with the environment; the theory of growth and development proposed and supported by
Dr. Arnold Gesell and associates.

mature love -- companionate love.

mature minor --
a teenage minor who may give consent because the physician judges that he or she understands the nature, purpose, and risks of the proposed treatment; generally limited
to minors at least 15 years old where the treatment is for the patient's own benefit and is judged necessary by conservative medical opinion (compare
emancipated minor).

matutinal -- of, relating to, or occurring in the morning; early.

maudlin -- overly sentimental; saccharine; mawkish; self-pitying.

mausoleum -- large, stately tomb or building housing several tombs.

mauve -- a type of pinkish purple.

maxilla -- the bony region of the upper jaw (------------------------------------------------------------------->).

maxillary --
pertaining to the upper jaw bone.

maxillary hypoplasia -- underdeveloped or incomplete upper jaw.

mayhap -- perhaps.

mayhem -- willful and permanent crippling, mutilation, or disfigurement of any part of the body and especially deprivation of a bodily member; needless or willful damage or violence.

Mazda -- Ahura Mazda, a god of the earliest civilizations in West Asia; the god of wisdom, intelligence, and harmony; the Persian-Zoroastrian god.

McCune-Albright syndrome (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia) -- large cafe-au-lait spots with irregular borders; fibrous dysplasia of bones (thinning of the bone with replacement of
marrow with fibrous tissue, producing pain and increasing deformity); bowing of long bones; premature onset of puberty; advanced bone age. Associated complications: hearing or
visual impairment,
hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism (increased activity of the parathyroid gland, which controls calcium metabolism), abnormal adrenal function, increased risk of
malignancy, occasional
spinal cord anomalies. Caused by a post mitotic mutation in the GNAS1 gene (causing a defect in the enzyme adenyl cyclase) located on 20q13 chromosome; new
mutation arising after fertilization, passed
autosomal dominant if reproductive organs are involved; theoretically lethal unless present in the mosaic form.

mean -- the average score in a distribution.

meander -- to follow a winding and turning course; to move aimlessly and idly without fixed direction; circuitous journey or excursion; ramble; an ornamental pattern of winding or intertwining
lines, used in art and architecture.

meaningful curriculum -- chronologically age-appropriate, relevant curriculum provided for each student according to interests, personal goals, and limitations in reaching those goals.

meaningful knowledge -- the form of knowing that is learned within the context of what is already known; that knowledge that has meaning because it has particular significance of value to
an individual.

mean length of utterances (MLU) -- the average length of a child's sentence, which usually increases with age.

measles -- a very contagious illness caused by a virus. Symptoms are bloodshot eyes, cough, fever, light sensitivity, muscle pain, rash, runny nose, sore throat, tiny white spots in the mouth.
Measles can be prevented by a MMR vaccine.

measurement -- quantification of some kind.

measurement bias -- an unfairness or inaccuracy of test results that is related to cultural background, sex, or race.

measures of central tendency -- measures which are representative of a sample or population. They enable one to be more objective when drawing conclusions or making inferences.
These measures identify the center or middle of a set of values and best characterize the distribution.

mechanistic model -- orientation based on the belief that it is useful to view human beings in terms of their reactive, machine-like characteristics.

mechanophobia -- fear of machinery.

meconium -- the thick, sticky, greenish-black feces passed by infants during the first day or two after birth ------->.

meconium aspiration --
potentially severe illness due to infant inhaling meconium (i.e., feces) into lung passages with first respiratory efforts. Can cause respiration
pneumonia and inadequate ventilation for the infant.

medallion -- jewelry or object worn from a necklace.

meddle -- to intrude into other people's affairs or business; interfere; to handle something idly or ignorantly; tamper; interfere officiously or annoyingly; to involve oneself unwarrantedly or

media -- any material used to create or enhance learning experiences for young children.

medial -- toward the center or mid-line.

median -- the middlemost score in a distribution.

median income -- the income midpoint -- half of a population earns more and half earns less.

median nerve -- the nerve that runs through the carpal tunnel of the wrist and connects with the thumb and all fingers of the hand, with the exception of the little finger. Median nerves
originate with the
cervical spine and are routed through the arm and the forearm. The nerve gathers in compressed form to run through the carpal tunnel and to the fingers. It controls
sensation in the hand, and aids in the general nerve function of the upper arm.

median plane -- the mid-line plane of the body. It runs vertically and separates the left and right halves of the body.

mediastinum -- the area located between the lungs that contains all of the principle tissues and organs of the chest except the lungs. It extends from the sternum back to the vertebral
column and is bounded laterally by the pericardium.  

mediated learning --
Based on the teaching premise that cognitive and social processes are independent factors in all learning.

mediation -- a process that is offered without cost to the parents for resolving disagreements for parents about school issues.

mediation (divorce) -- a specially trained, neutral person meets with two divorcing people, hears their respective claims, and tries to move them toward a mutual agreement.

mediators -- Teacher or other adults who facilitate learning by bridging the gap between the child and the learning environment.

mediator (variable) -- another term for intervening variable, that is, a variable that transmits the effects of another.

Medicaid -- a government-sponsored health care program for eligible people with disabilities and others that pays for hospital services, laboratory services, and early screening, diagnosis,
treatment, and immunization for children.

medical family therapy -- a therapeutic framework that uses family systems theory and the biopsychosocial approach in dealing with health problems in family members.

medically fragile -- a disability category that includes people who are at risk for medical emergencies and often depend on technological support, such as a ventilator or nutritional
supplements, to sustain health or even life.

medical model -- model by which human development is viewed according to two dimensions: normal and pathological. Normal refers to the absence of biological problems; pathological
refers to alterations in the organism by disease.

medical neglect -- a kind of child abuse in which there is failure to provide the medical, dental, or psychiatric care needed to prevent or treat physical or psychological injuries or illness.

Medicare -- a government-sponsored national insurance program for people over 65 years of age and eligible people with disabilities. Medicare may pay for hospital and physician-related

medicine -- in Native American religions this refers to a mystic power. A medicine bundle, worn on a belt in a pouch, will have various plant pollens and animal parts, such as a tooth or claw,
that are thought to impart their sacred power or protection to the wearer.

Medicine man -- in Native American societies a healer who is in touch with the spiritual world. A medicine man helps individual as well as the community. Also called a Shaman.

meditation -- Jung: a technique of focused introspection. Maslow: one of the aspects of the Fourth Force of Psychology.

medium; media -- art materials.

medium chain fatty acids -- fatty acids that can bypass the normal uptake process and go directly to the liver.

medium chain triglycerides (MCT) -- fatty food source that can bypass normal uptake process and go directly to the liver.

medley -- a diverse assortment or mixture; hodgepodge; a musical composition made up of a series of songs or short pieces.

medulla oblongata -- located in the brain stem, it channels information between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord. It controls
respiration, circulation, wakefulness, breathing, and heart rate.
(See diagram.)

megadose --
an amount of a vitamin or mineral at least ten times that of RDA.

megalophobia -- fear of large objects.

megavitamin therapies -- see orthomolecular therapy; the use of at least 10 times the required amount of vitamins.

megrim (MEE-grim) --
migraine; vertigo; dizziness; fancy; whim; low spirits.

meiosis -- reductive cell division occurring only in eggs and sperm in which the daughter cells receive half (23) the
number of
chromosomes as the parent cells. Makes only 1 viable egg but 4 viable sperms (see diagram----------->).

meitnerium --
atomic number 109, symbol Mt; an artificially produced radioactive transition metallic element; made by
bombarding bismuth with iron ions; other name unnilennium (Une); discovered in 1982 by
Heavy Ion Research
; named for Lise Meitner.

melancholia --
Freud: see depression. For Freud, this shares with mourning a gradual withdrawing of libido from an
object known to be lost or dead -- but it is different in that the unconscious hatred felt toward the object with which the
ego narcissistically identifies is turned against the ego. One then achieves revenge against the lost object by
getting depressed.

melanin -- skin pigment.

melanocyte -- a pigment producing cell in the skin, hair, and eye that determines their color. The pigment is called

MELAS (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes) -- One of the
mitochondrial disorders; migraine headaches,
seizures, stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy (degenerative disease
of the brain), myopathy, progressive
hearing loss, cortical blindness, ataxia, dementia, lactic acidosis, recurrent
hemiparesis. Caused by a mutation in mtDNA encoding transfer RNA which causes reduced mitrochondrial
protein synthesis; maternal through mtDNA.

meld -- merge, blend.

mélilot -- any of several Old World plants of the genus Melilotus in the pea family, having compound leaves with three
leaflets and narrow racemes of small white or yellow flowers. Also called
sweet clover.

melisma -- the stretching of a syllable over a series of notes.

melissophobia -- fear of bees.

mellifluous -- flowing with sweetness or hone; smooth and sweet, often of a sound or voice.

mellisonant -- wonderful-sounding; pleasant sounding.

melody -- a series or pattern of notes.

meme -- an idea, behavior, style, or usage that spreads from person to person within a culture.

memento -- an item of special significance, usually as a token of remembrance.

memorabilia -- plural; things remarkable and worthy of remembrance or record.

memory -- mental capacity to store and later recognize or recall previously experienced events.

memory and thinking disorders -- one of the common characteristics of children with learning disabilities; deficiency in the use of strategies for memorization; haphazardness in
approaches to learning. Poor language skills, which hinder memory; difficulty with short-term auditory and visual memory; and a lack of awareness of skills and strategies needed to
solve problems and perform tasks.

memory strategies -- deliberate mental activities that improve the likelihood of remembering.

menagerie -- collection of animals in cages or enclosures; diverse hodgepodge; gallery; zoo.

menarche -- the onset of the menstrual cycle.

mendacious -- given to or characterized by deception or falsehood or divergence from absolute truth.

mendelevium -- atomic number 101, symbol Md; a synthetic radioactive transuranic rare earth element of the actinide series; produced by bombarding einsteinium with helium isotopes;
discovered by
G.T. Seaborg in 1955; named for Dmitri Ivanovitch Mendeleyev.

Mendelian traits --
dominant and recessive traits inherited according to the genetic principles put forward by Gregor Mendel.

Meniere's disease -- an abnormality of the inner ear that causes vertigo (severe dizziness), tinnitus, fluctuating hearing loss, and the sensation of pressure or pain in the affected ear. It
usually only affects one ear and it is a common cause of
hearing loss.  

meningeal --
related to the meninges, the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.

meninges -- the three membranes covering the brain and the spinal cord-------------------->>.

meningiomas --
tumors of the meninges. They are usually benign. They are more common in women and more common in people between
the ages of 40 and 70. Meningiomas may cause
seizures, headaches, arm or leg weakness, or vision loss. Also there may sometimes be
memory loss, carelessness, and unsteadiness. Meningiomas can be diagnosed by a contrast enhanced
CT scan or MRI.

meningitis -- infection of the meninges; inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which can affect vision, hearing,
and intelligence; can be
viral or bacterial; multifactorial. A cause of deaf-blindness.

meningocele --
Similar to myelomeningocele except that the protrusion contains only the covering of the spinal cord and usually causes little
or no
neurological impairment; contains no nerves or nerve roots. The protective coatings (meninges) come through the open part of the
spine like a sac that is pushed out.
Cerebrospinal fluid is in the sac and there is usually no nerve damage. Individuals may suffer minor
disabilities. New problems can develop later in life.

meningoencephalitis -- inflammation of the brain and meninges.

meningomyelocele -- see myelomeningocele. Protrusion of meninges and malformed spinal cord through a defect in the vertebral column.

Menkes syndrome (kinky hair syndrome) -- An inborn error of copper metabolism presenting at age 1 -- 2 months with "steely" texture of hair and characteristic face with pudgy
cheeks. Associated complications:
seizures, low body temperature, loose skin, arterial rupture, twisted hair, feeding difficulties, severe intellectual disability, recurrent infections, visual
, bony abnormalities with tendency toward easy fracture, thrombosis, early death. Caused by a copper deficiency from decreased absorption and/or missing enzymes caused by
mutations in the adenosine triphosphatase ATP7A gene at Xq13;
X-linked recessive. Patients with Menkes syndrome absorb copper from their diets, but the copper never makes it out of
the cells lining the
gastrointestinal tract.  

menopause --
the cessation of ovulation, menstruation, and fertility in women as a result of aging.

menophobia -- fear of menstruation.

mens sana in corpora sano -- a sound mind in a sound body.

menses -- the menstrual flow in which the endometrial tissue of the uterus is discharged.

menstruation -- the discharge from the uterus through the vagina of blood and the unfertilized ova; occurs about every 28 days in non-pregnant woman between puberty and menopause.

mental age -- a concept used in psychological assessment that arrives at the general mental ability of a child or youth by matching the tasks the child is able to perform to a scale of typical
performance of children of various ages.

mental disorders -- psychiatric illnesses or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process and expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior,
producing either distress or impairment of function.

mental representation -- internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate.

mental retardation (MR) -- see intellectual disability.

mental rotation -- the ability to imagine how objects would appear if their positions were rotated; the aligning of the self (or an
object) to match that of a person or object in a different orientation, all of this mentally.
See illustration --------------->>>.

mental strategies --
in information processing, procedures that operate on and transform information.

mentor -- qualified individual who works with students in areas of interest or ability, guiding the students' development and

mephitic -- poisonous; noxious; lethally dangerous; insidious; toxic; putrid.

mercurial -- fickle; erratic; ingenious; changeable; eloquent.

mercury -- atomic number 80, symbol Hg; a silvery-white, poisonous transition metallic element, liquid at room temperature;
used in thermometers, barometers, fluorescent lamps, batteries; obtained from cinnabar ore; the symbol comes from the Latin
word for mercury which was hydrargium; named after the Roman god
Mercury, who was the swift-footed messenger of the gods; discoverer unknown: known to the ancients.

Mercury -- the innermost of the planets in the Solar System; the smallest; orbits the sun once in about 88 days, completing three rotations for every two orbits. It is a very bright object when
viewed from Earth, but it is not easily seen because of its proximity in the sky to the sun. It has the mass of 0.055 earths. It is made of 70% metallic and 30% silicate material. It is about 46
million miles from the sun and about 48 million miles from earth. Mercury has no satellites. Discovery is unknown -- known by the ancients. Named for the Roman god

mere --
being nothing more nor better than; small; lowly.

meretricious -- drawing attention in a vulgar manner; gaudy; tawdry; superficially attractive.

meridian -- of or at noon; imaginary line that extends from the North to South poles; middle.

merinthophobia -- fear of being bound.

merit -- in distributive justice (beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly), children in middle years believe that extra rewards should go to someone who has worked especially hard or
has performed in an exceptional way.

merit pay -- a system for teachers that gives pay bonuses for excellent teaching.

merpeople -- beings who live underwater in villages at the bottom of lakes and seas. They speak Mermish, a language that sounds like a horrible screeching noise but which is
understandable underwater. They sometimes use lolabugs as weapons. They are also known as sirens, selkies, and
merrows. Merpeople can breathe air for short periods of time. They are intelligent and have their own cultural and social
structures. They have grayish skin and long, wild, dark green hair. Their eyes are yellow, as are their teeth, and they
wear thick ropes of pebbles around their necks. They have powerful silver fish tails that allow them to swim expertly,
while their upper body resembles humans. They are very tall. A group of merpeople is a triton. A baby is a merbaby.
See picture from
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (movie).

MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers) -- one of the mitochondrial disorders; myoclonic epilepsy,
ataxia, spasticity, myopathy, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, peripheral neuropathy, diabetes,
cardiomyopathy, dementia, lipomas (fatty tumors), characteristic ragged red muscle fibers are seen on muscle
biopsy examination. Caused by mutations in mtDNA encoding transfer RNA; maternal through mtDNA.

me-self -- a sense of self as an object of knowledge and evaluation. Consists of all qualities that make the self unique, including physical characteristics, possessions, attitudes, beliefs, and
personality traits.

mesencephalon -- midbrain region.

mesenchymoma -- tumors composed of cells resembling  those of embryonic mesenchyme – unspecialized cells of the embryonic mesoderm – or mesenchyme with its derivatives.

meshuggener (muh-SHUG-uhner) -- a foolish or crazy person.

mesocephalic -- having an intermediate head shape with a width of 76 to 80.0 percent of its length from front to back.

mesoderm -- middle cell layer in the embryo.

mesosystems --
The relationships between the various environments of the microsystems; Bronfenbrenner.

messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) -- RNA involved in the translation of genetic information.

messianic -- of or relating to the Messiah, his awaited deliverance of the Jews, or the new age of peace expected to follow this; of or relating to Jesus Christ or the salvation believed to have
been brought by him; of or relating to any popular leader promising deliverance or an ideal era of peace or prosperity.

mestizo -- a person of mixed racial ancestry.

meta -- transcending ... used with the name of a discipline to designate a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one.

meta-analysis -- a comprehensive statistical procedure, whereby research studies are evaluated in an effort to ascertain global statistical patterns, which yield "effect size," reported as
standard deviations.

metabolic disorders -- The inability to correctly utilize nutrients; disabilities caused by this inability.

metabolic syndrome -- a combination of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

metabolism -- all chemical changes that occur from the time nutrients are absorbed until they are built into body tissue or excreted; the chemical process within living cells by which energy is
manufactured so that body systems can carry out their functions.

metachromatic leukodystrophy (sulfatide lipidosis) --
one of a group of lysosomal storage disorders in which lysosomes, the cell structures that digest toxic materials, are missing a
enzyme; the resulting accumulation of toxins leads to varying degrees of progressive neurological impairment, ranging from unsteady gait to severe rigidity and
. Muscle weakness and ataxia are common. Onset of the infantile form, by age 2 years, usually results in death by age 5. The juvenile form generally begins between 4 and
10 years, is rarer, and progresses more slowly. Two distinct adult onset forms exist, one presenting with neurologica/motor involvement and the other with
behavioral abnormalities.
Associated complications:
seizures, abdominal distension, mental deterioration. Caused by mutations in the arylsulfatase A (ASA) gene on chromosome 22q which cause ASA enzyme
deficiency and result in the accumulation of sphingolipid sulfatide;
autosomal recessive.

metacogniplaying --
coined by Paula Burkhart in 2010, the study of how children think about and engage in play.

metacognition -- thinking about thought; awareness of and understanding one's thinking and cognitive processes.

metacommunication -- communicating about communicating.

metafictional, metafiction -- fiction that discuses, describes, or analyzes a work of fiction or the conventions of fiction.

metalanguage -- any language or symbolic system used to discuss, describe, or analyze another language or symbolic system.

metalinguistic -- the study of the relation between languages and the other cultural systems they refer to.

metalinguistic awareness -- the ability to think about language as a system; knowledge about the structure and  rules of language.

metamessages -- cultural messages about what traits are valued and which differences between people are significant.

metamorphmagus -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a witch or a wizard with the ability to change his or her physical appearance at will, rather than
requiring a potion or spell. They are very rare.
Nymphadora Tonks and her son Teddy Lupin were metamorphmagi. See picture of Tonks and Remus Lupin,
Teddy's parents from
Harry Potter movies.

metaneeds --
Maslow: people who are self-actualizing need: truth rather than dishonesty; goodness rather than evil; beauty not ugliness or vulgarity; unity, wholeness, and
transcendence of opposites, not arbitrariness or forced choices; aliveness not deadness or the mechanization of life; uniqueness not bland uniformity; perfection and necessity, not
sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident; completion rather than incompleteness; justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness; simplicity, not unnecessary complexity; richness, not
environmental impoverishment; effortlessness, not strain; playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery; self-sufficiency, not dependency; and meaningfulness, rather than senselessness.

metapathologies -- Maslow: when the metaneeds are not fulfilled, the self-actualizing person responds with depression, despair, disgust, alienation, and a degree of cynicism.

metaphase -- the stage in cell division in which each chromosome doubles.

metaphor -- comparison of two unalike things using the words "is" or "was". They show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. They are a way to
describe something.

                    All the world's a stage,
    And all the men and women merely players;
   They all have their exits and their entrances.
       William Shakespeare, As You Like It

metaphysical -- of, or relating to metaphysics; based on speculative or abstract reasoning; highly abstract or theoretical; abstruse; of or relating to the poetry of a group of the 17th century
English poets whose verse is characterized by an intellectually challenging style and extended metaphors comparing very dissimilar things.

metapsychological -- Freud: taken together, those aspects of Freud's theorizing that are economical (the hydraulics of unpleasure-avoidance through pleasure), dynamic (libido
movements among id, ego, and superego), and topographic (psyche as structured into conscious, preconscious, and unconscious layers). Metapsychology also takes clinical observations
beyond the consulting room and applies them to everyone, with varying results. Although psychoanalysis began as a treatment method,
Freud's real interest was caught by those theorizings
that applied it to human psychology in general. Referring to two recent books,
Freud wrote this to his friend Oskar Pfister: "I do not know whether you have guessed the hidden link between
my "Lay Analysis" and "illusion." In the former I want to protect analysis from physicians, and in the latter from priests. I want to entrust it to a profession that doesn't yet exist, a profession of
secular ministers of souls, who don't have to be physicians and must not be priests."  

metaphyses -- the ends of the shaft of long bones connected to the epiphyses.

metastasis --
the spread of a disease from one part of the body to another. When cancer cells metastasize and cause secondary tumors, the cells in the metastatic tumor are like those in
the original cancer,

meteorophobia --
fear of meteors and meteorites.

meteor shower -- a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the night sky. They are caused by streams of cosmic debris called meteoroids
entering Earth's atmosphere at extremely high speeds on parallel trajectories. Most are smaller than a grain of sand, so disintegrate and never hit earth (but not all). A meteor shower is the
result of an interaction between earth and streams of debris from a comet. Some meteor showers: Perseids (August), Leonids (November), Quadrantids (January), Lyrids (April), Pi Puppids
(April), Eta Aquariids (May), Arietids (June), Southern Delta Aquariids (July), Alpha Capricornids (July), Kappa Cygnids (August), Aurigids (September), Daconids (Octoer), Orionids
(October), Southern Taurids (November), Northern Taurids (November), Adromedids (November), Alpha Monocerotids (November), Phoenicids (December), Geminids (December), and
Ursids (December).

methacillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) -- a bacterial infection that is highly resistant to some antibiotics. Staph skin infections cause a red, swollen, and painful area on
the skin. Other symptoms are drainage of
pus from the site, fever, skin abscess, warmth around the infected area. More serious staph infection symptoms are chest pain, chills, cough,
fatigue, fever, malaise, headache, muscle aches, rash, and shortness of breath. It is cause by a strain of the
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This bacteria normally lives on the skin and
sometimes the nasal passages of healthy people. This kind of infection is more common in people who are
immuno-compromised, patients in hospitals and long-term care facilities, and
those receiving kidney

methionine --
an amino acid.

Methode Clinique --
a kind of information-gathering technique, first used extensively by Jean Piaget, that involves observing children and asking questions as the situation unfolds. The
purpose of this technique is to elicit information about how children are thinking as they behave naturally.

methylation -- the attachment of methyl groups to DNA at the cytosine base that turns the gene function off.

methylmalonic acidemia -- see methylmalonic aciduria.

methylmalonic aciduria --  I
n symptomatic cases, this disorder of organic acid metabolism is characterized by repeated episodes of vomiting, lethargy, and coma resulting from acidosis
due to a high intake of protein or minor infection. On newborn screening analyses, some individuals with this metabolic abnormality may remain asymptomatic. Associated complications
, neutropenia (decreased white blood cell count), osteoporosis, infections, feeding abnormalities, intellectual disability, and renal failure. Caused by a deficiency of enzyme
methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (caused by a mutation in the MUT gene at 6p21);
autosomal recessive. See ketotic hyperglycinemia.

methylphenidate (Concerta) -- one brand of stimulant medications used for the treatment of ADHD. These medicines increase activity in the frontal lobe of the brain. They improve the
ability to absorb and integrate information, improving focus and attention.

métier -- forte; niche in which a person excels; occupation; profession.

metonymy -- a figure of speech used in rhetoric in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name but by something intimately associated with that thing or concept. Example: The pen
is mightier than the sword. (pen = written word and sword = military force).

metopic ridging -- a ridge of bones or suture line on the forehead between the two halves of the frontal bone. The ridging is caused when the two halves
close prematurely

metric system --
go to this website. It will tell you everything you want to know about the metric system. Plus, it is pretty fascinating!

metrophobia --
fear of poetry.

mettle -- vigor and strength of spirit or temperament; staying quality; quality of temperament or disposition; aroused to do one's best.

mettlesome -- full of vigor and stamina; spirited.

mewl -- to cry weakly, whimper.

mezzanine -- partial story between two main stories of a building; lowest balcony of a theater.

M-frame relationship -- a relationship in which both parties have high self-esteem and a strong individual identity but still value the connections they have to each other.

miasma -- an atmosphere of disease; fine mist of effluvium or bacteria; noxious emanation.

mica -- thin layers of specific, transparent minerals.

microbes -- germs that are so small that they can only be seen through a microscope.

microcephaly -- a condition characterized by an abnormally small skull with resulting brain damage and intellectual disability; head circumference more
than 2 standard deviations below the average size; multifactorial. A cause of
deaf-blindness. (See illustration.)  

microcosm --
a little world; especially: the human race or human nature seen as an epitome of the world or the universe; a community or other unity that is an epitome of a larger unity.  

microculture --
subculture within a larger society that demonstrates some cultural characteristics that differ from the larger society.  microcytic anemia -- a failure in the oxygen transport
system characterized by abnormally small
red blood cells.

microdeletion -- a microscopic deletion in a chromosome associated with a contiguous gene syndrome.

microdeletion syndromes -- genetic disorders caused by mutations in a small number of contiguous genes,  an example being velocardiofacial syndrome.

microgenesis --
the development of competence at a single task or activity by a child or adult.

microgenetic design -- a research design in which researchers present children with a novel task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions.

micrognathia -- underdevelopment of the mandible or lower jaw--------------------------------------------->>.

microgram --
a metric unit of measurement; one-millionth of a gram.

micro-inequities -- subtle forms of discrimination that single out, ignore, or discount women and their contributions simply on the basis of gender.

microorganisms -- an animal or plant of microscopic size, especially a bacterium.

micropenis --
an unusually small penis.

microphobia -- fear of small objects.

microphthalmia -- an abnormally small eyeball.

micropremature infant -- an infant born at less than 600 grams (1 pound 5 ounces) or less than 25 weeks gestation; also called micropreemie.

microswitch -- a switch, usually used to control a computer, environmental control system, or power wheelchair, that has been adapted so that less pressure than normal is required to
activate it.

microsystems -- As proposed by Bronfenbrenner, the immediate environments in which a person develops such as a youngster's home and neighborhood.

microtia --  small ears (anotia -- no ears).

microtubules -- one of the components of the cytoskeleton. They serve as structural components within cells and are involved in many cellular processes
including mitosis,
cytokinesis, and vesicular transport.

mid-brain -- refers to the geological area behind the frontal lobes, above the brain stem and below the parietal lobes. Structures within it include the
thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.

middle age --
generally speaking, the years between the ages of 35 and 65; from the standpoint of the family development conceptual framework, the middle
years of the family life cycle are the launching period for young-adult children and the period before the parents' retirement.

middle childhood stage -- time from about age 6 years to 10 years.

middle ear -- a small membrane-lined cavity, separated from the outer ear by the eardrum, that transmits sound waves from the eardrum to
the partition between the middle ear and the
inner ear through a chain of tiny bones. (See illustration over there --->>.)

middle ear infection --
see otitis media.

midfacial hypoplasia --
the upper jaw, cheekbones, and eye sockets have not grown as much as the rest of the face, making the eyes look
buggy and an underbite to develop. Also it can be severe enough to cause
sleep apnea and snoring.

midline -- the imaginary line that divides the body into left and right.

midline defects -- disorders that are directly related to the lack of closure of the neural tube; the most common of central nervous system malformations. They are also called
dysrhaphic states
, and are probably related to both genetic and environmental causes. Examples are anencephaly, spina bifida and all its types, encephalocele, and congenital
dermal sinus.  

midline position --
in the middle or center of the body.

midlife crisis -- a period of questioning one's worth, values, and contributions in life, usually beginning in a person's 40s or early 50s.

midrange families -- families who are extreme on one dimension of the Couple and Family Map but balanced on the other dimension. There are eight mid-range family types. For example,
a family might be structurally enmeshed: extreme on cohesion (enmeshed) but balanced on flexibility (structured).

midst -- in the middle of; among.

midwife -- a non-physician who attends and facilitates a birth.

mien -- air or bearing especially as expressive of attitude or personality; demeanor; aura.

mignonette -- any of several Mediterranean plants of the genus Reseda, widely cultivated for its terminal, dense, spikelike clusters of very fragrant but inconspicuous greenish flowers; a
type of fine pillow lace; dainty, pretty.

migraine -- a common type of headache that may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light.

milia -- tiny white bumps or small cysts on the skin. Sometimes milia is found on newborns.

mild hearing loss -- severity of hearing loss: 15 to 25 dB; difficulty hearing unvoiced consonants (s, p, t, k, th, f, sh); hearing aids are useful.

mild intellectual disability -- Generally considered to be within an IQ range of 50 to 70; approximately 85% of people who are diagnosed with intellectual disability fall into this IQ range.
Remember we like the term "intellectual disability" better than "mental retardation", right?

milestones -- significant developmental events (for example, first word).

milieu -- surroundings or environment, especially of a social or cultural area.

milieu strategies -- strategies to facilitate language skills (especially social interaction context) that take advantage of the natural environment (people, materials, activities) to support
learning. Milieu strategies include a variety of  specific procedures (i.e., time delay, mind-model, incidental teaching).

milieu (incidental) teaching -- A strategy in which adults arrange the environment with interesting materials to
encourage a child's language  development.

milksop -- an ineffective, indecisive person.

Milky Way -- the galaxy we live in. It is a disk about 120,000 light years across
with a central bulge that has a diameter of 12,000 light years. It has over 200
billion stars, but if you look into the night sky the most you can see is about
2,500. It is filled with gas and dust. There is a black hole of the center of our
galaxy called Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) (pronounced "A-star"), which has a mass
of 40,000 suns and is 14 million miles across. The most current estimate for
the age of the universe is 13.7 billion years and the Milky Way has been
around for 13.6 billion years, give or take 800 million. It is part of the Virgo
Supercluster, a group of galaxies which also includes the Large and Small
Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy, along with about 30 other
galaxies that makes up what is called the Local Group. The Virgo Supercluster
is 150 million light years in diameter. It moves with great speed around the
Local Group.
See an artist's rendering of the Milky Way and the view of
the Milky Way from earth (actual picture).

millennium --
one thousand years; period of one thousand years.

Miller-Dieker syndrome -- see lissencephaly syndromes.

milligram -- one-thousandth of a gram.  

milliliter -- one thousandth of a liter; equal to about 15 drops.

Mills vs. Board of Education (1972) -- federal court case based on a class-action lawsuit establishing that all children with disabilities in Washington, D.C., are entitled to public education.

milquetoast -- a timid, meek, or unassertive person.

mimesis -- imitation or representation of the world, mostly in literature and art; mimicry.

mimosa -- a type of plant; a cocktail drink.

mimsy -- flimsy and miserable; someone who excels at what they do; from Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky (his words about the meaning of the first verse of the poem): "There were probably
dundials on the top of the hill, and the borogroves were afraid that their nests would be undermined. The hill was probably full of the nests of raths, which ran out, squeaking with fear, on
hearing the toves scratching outside. This is an obscure, but yet deeply-affecting, relic of ancient Poetry."

mindfulness -- term coined by Ellen J. Langer; state of mind characterized by three features: creation of new categories; openness to new information; and awareness of more than one

minding -- a multidimensional concept that describes the need to give ongoing attention to oneself, one's relational partner, and the relationship itself.

mindlessness -- term coined by Ellen J. Langer; state of mind characterized by three features: entrapment in old categories; automatic behavior; and acting from a single perspective.

minerals -- inorganic chemical elements that are required in the diet to support growth and repair tissue and to regulate body functions.

minilaparotomy -- type of laparotomy that leaves a smaller scar.

minimal brain dysfunction -- a once popular term used to describe the learning disability of children with no actual evidence of brain damage.

minimal distance principle (MDP) -- the assumption that the noun most closely preceding the verb is the subject of the sentence.

miniscule -- written in or in the size or style of lowercase letters; very small.

minion -- a servile follower or subordinate of a person in power; a favored or highly regarded person; a minor official; dainty; elegant; trim; pretty. See minion from
Despicable Me.

minority group --
a social group that differs from the rest of the population in some ways and that often experiences discrimination and prejudices.

minotaur -- a monster, the offspring of Pasiphae and the Cretan bull, that has the head of a bull on the body of a man. Housed in the Cretan Labyrinth, it was fed on human flesh until
Theseus, helped by Ariadne, killed it. By then, of course, it had mated so that the species lives on, much to the terror of people everywhere. Dante also talks of a minotaur, chief among those
damned for their violent natures, men of blood. The minotaur rises, enraged and distracted. Minotaurs are friends with centaurs. A group of minotaurs is a meanness. A minotaur baby is a

minutae -- plural, tiny, precise details; vestiges; trifles.

mirror -- surface able of reflecting enough undiffused light to form an image of an object.

mirror writing -- writing backwards from right to left, making letters that look like ordinary writing seen in a mirror.

misanthropist -- a generalized dislike, distrust, disgust, contempt, and hatred of the human species, human nature, or society.

misarticulation -- improper pronunciation of words and word sounds.

misbehavior -- improper behavior or conduct.

miscarriage -- the termination of a pregnancy from natural causes before the fetus is viable outside the mother (during the first or second trimester of pregnancy); also called spontaneous

miscellany -- collection of various items, parts, or ingredients.  

misconstrue --
to understand or explain wrongly; misinterpret.

miseducation -- David Elkind's term describing the end result of contemporary parents rushing their children into formal education too early.

misogynist -- hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women.

misophobia, mysophobia, molysmophobia, molysomophobia -- fear of contamination.

missel thrush -- a large European thrush (bird) that feeds on mistletoe berries, having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast.

missense mutation -- a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. This can render the resulting protein
nonfunctional. Missense mutations result in such disorders as
sickle cell anemia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Marfan syndrome.

mist -- mass of fine droplets of liquid.

mithril -- a fictional, very light, and silvery steel.

mitochondria -- a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. They generate most of the cell's energy.

mitochondrial disorders (mitochondrial encephalopathies and myopathies) -- This diverse group of disorders is linked by a common etiology: abnormal function of the mitochondria
(energy-producing intracellular structures) or mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondrial disorders can affect every organ system. Common features include
ptosis, external
ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of the external eye muscles), myopathy, cardiomyopathy, short stature, and hypoparathyroidism. Associated complications: seizures, sensorineural
hearing loss, optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa (pigmentary changes in the retina causing loss of peripheral vision and clumping of pigment), cataracts, diabetes, migraine,
intestinal pseudo-obstruction
, reflux, renal problems, exercise intolerance. Cause: genes encoding nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are known to cause mitochondrial
disorders. Mutations in different genes may cause the same symptoms. Inheritance is
autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, new mutation, or may be inherited through the mother
through mtDNA. Mitochondrial disorders include
Kearns-Sayre syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (Leber's congenital amaurosis, LHON), Leigh Syndrome (subacute
necrotizing encephalomyopathy), MELAS, MERRF,
NARP. Can cause deaf-blindness. Abnormalities of mitochondrial DNA can produce either an isolated hearing loss, or a hearing loss
associated with other features of mitochondrial disorders or
sensorineural hearing loss.

mitochondrial myopathy -- congenital muscle disorder caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA.

mitosis -- cell division in which two daughter cells of identical chromosomal composition to the parent cell are formed; each contains 46 chromosomes. (See diagram above, beside

mitral valve --
valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; permits the left ventricle to contract and pump blood out of the
aorta without regurgitation of blood back into the left atrium; a mitral valve prolapse occurs when this valve does not close properly.
Symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are
palpitations, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, cough, and shortness of breath-->.

mitral valve prolapse --
a heart problem in which the valve that separates the left upper and lower chambers of the heart does not
close properly. See above for symptoms.

mittelschmerz -- abdominal pain in the region of an ovary, during ovulation, which usually occurs midway through the menstrual cycle.

mixed ability grouping structure -- arrangement of students into groups whose members are performing at various levels on the
skills targeted for instruction.

mixed age groups -- also known as heterogeneous, multi-age, vertical, ungraded, non-graded, and family grouping; groups of
children not separated by chronological age.

mixed cerebral palsy -- type of cerebral palsy that includes characteristics of spastic, athetoid, dyskinetic, ataxic cerebral

mixed hearing loss --
a hearing loss resulting from an abnormal sense organ (inner ear) and/or a damaged auditory nerve (sensorineural hearing loss) as well as a conductive
hearing loss (damage or blockage in the
outer ear or middle ear).

mixed message -- a message in which there is a discrepancy between the verbal and nonverbal components. The receiver hears one thing but simultaneously feels something else.

mixed methods research -- this is a type of study in which family researchers use both qualitative and quantitative research techniques, thus benefiting from the strengths of both
approaches to research.

mizzenmast -- third mast or the mast aft the mainmast on a ship having three or more masts.

mizzle -- fine rainfall; drizzle; mist.

MLU -- see mean length of utterances.

MMR vaccination --
a vaccine that protects against measles, mumps, and rubella, all of which are potentially serious diseases of childhood. The first MMR vaccine should be given when
the child is between 12 and 15 months old. A second MMR vaccine is recommended before starting school, about 4 to 6 years. Adults who are 18 and older and were born after 1956 should
receive a vaccine if they only had one MMR prior to school entry. Those who were born during or before 1956 are believed to be immune.

mnemonics -- making up a rhyme, melody, or saying to aid in learning information, making it easier to recall (i.e., colors of the rainbow -- ROY G. BIV). See letter strategies.

mobiles -- An art form made up of balanced lengths of wire or string to which bits of various materials are attached so that air current move them about when they are hung up.  

mobility --
The ability to move safely and efficiently from one point to another; the process of using one's senses to determine their position in relation to other objects in the environment.    

mobility devices --
objects, such as a long white cane or adapted cane devices, which serve as an "extension" of the user's arms, hands, and fingers, and provide protection from obstacles
while allowing access to needed information about the environment.

modalities of knowledge acquisition --
these are divided into four basic groups: visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic.    

mode -- the most common score in a distribution.  

modeling --
An instructional technique by which one person demonstrates how to do a task or solve a problem; (three-dimensional) manipulating and shaping flexible materials.  

modeling behavior --
a characteristic of dramatic play in which children imitate what they have observed.

model program -- a program that implements and evaluates new procedures or techniques to serve as a basis for the development of other programs.

mode of representation -- in Bruner's theory, one of three ways in which knowledge can be represented.

moderate hearing loss -- severity of hearing loss: 30 to 50 dB; can usually hear conversational level speech as a whisper or just detect some sound when people speak. Hearing aids are
essential if the loss is permanent.

moderate intellectual disability -- generally believed to be an IQ range between 35 to 50. Of the people who are diagnosed with intellectual disability, only 10% fall into this category.
Gross and fine motor coordination is usually delayed. However, the individual is often ambulatory and capable of independent mobility. Perceptual motor skills exist (e.g., body awareness,
sense of touch, eye-hand coordination) but are often delayed in comparison to the norm. Most individuals who are moderately intellectually disabled have delays or deviations in speech and
language skills, but many develop language abilities that make possible some level of communication with others. ("Intellectual disability" instead of "mental retardation" is more respectful.)

moderator (variable) -- a variable that influences (moderates) the relation between 2 other variables and thus produces an interaction effect.

modern family -- see nuclear family.

modicum -- a small amount, bit.

modification -- a change in assessment procedures that DOES alter what the assessment measures and the comparability of results; adjustments to assignments or tests that reduce the

modifier genes -- genes that can enhance or dilute the effects of other genes.

modulation of dependency -- the state of a parent-child relationship in late adolescence or early adulthood in which a child's increasing independence (autonomy) balances his or her
continuing emotional attachment to his or her parents.

Moebius sequence (congenital facial diplegia) -- expressionless face and facial weakness (bilateral in 92% of cases and unilateral in 8%) due to palsies of the 6th, 7th, and occasionally
the 12th cranial nerves; occasional abnormalities of fingers and legs; micrognathia, eye abnormalities including
esotropia (crossed eyes) and vision problems including myopia,
, and amblyopia; craniofacial malformations; feeding difficulties, oral motor dysfunction, articulation disorder, occasional tracheal or laryngeal anomalies, gross and fine
motor delay and dysfunction.
Intellectual disability in 10% to 50%. Cause: linked to chromosome 13q12 - q13 and 1p34; mostly sporadic, possibly due to a new mutation; rare reports of
autosomal dominant
, autosomal recessive, and X-linked cases. A cause of deaf-blindness.

moiety --
one of two equal parts, half; one of two approximately equal parts; one of the portions into which something is divided; component; part; one of two basic complementary tribal

moil -- to work hard; drudge; to be in continuous agitation; churn; swirl.

moither -- to bother or bewilder; to talk in a rambling or confused manner.

moksha -- in Hinduism a state of perfection in which the soul resides after liberation from the cycle of rebirths. The more familiar term is the Buddhist Nirvana.

mold -- a fuzzy growth produced by fungi.

molding -- the pressing together, or even overlapping of the bones of the baby's skull, to accommodate passage of the baby through the birth

molecule --
the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or
atoms; a group of like or different atoms held together by chemical forces.

mollycoddling -- to be overprotective and indulgent towards.

molybdenum -- atomic number 42, symbol Mo; a hard, ductile, silvery white transition metal element that resists corrosion and retains its strength
at high temperatures; obtained from molybdenite and wulfenite; used in aircrafts and missiles, to toughen alloy steels and soften tungsten alloy,
fertilizers, dyes, enamels, and reagents; discovered in 1778 by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

mome --
from Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky: "(hence 'solemome' 'solemone' and 'solemn') grave"; "and the grave turtles squeaked out; the hill was probably full of the nests of raths, which
ran out, squeaking with fear, on hearing the toves scratching outside."

Monday -- a day of the week named for the moon and associated with the Greek goddess Selene and the Roman goddess Luna. These were goddesses of the nighttime. Monday relates to
the color blue, the brain in the body, and the metal silver (argentum), with the chemical symbol

money -- a medium that can be exchanged for goods and services and is used as a measure of their values on the market; the official currency, coins, and negotiable paper notes issued by
a government.

monilial -- pertaining to, or caused by a fungus of the genus Candida (Monilia). Monilia is a yeastlike imperfect fungi that is normally present on the skin, and in the mucous membranes of
the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina. It may become pathogenic, especially C. albicans, the causative agent of

monocytes --
a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune system function. They make up between 1% and 3% of the total white cells in the body. They are made in the
bone marrow

monogamy --
a relationship in which a man or woman has only one mate.

monologue -- when children speak out loud to themselves; see collective monologue.

monomaniacal -- enthusiastic, zealous, fanatical.

mononucleosis -- a viral illness whose symptoms include fever, malaise, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and an enlarged spleen.

monophobia -- fear of solitude.

monoplegia -- type of paralysis that only involves one limb.

monosomy -- chromosome disorder in which one chromosome is absent. The most common example is Turner syndrome, XO.

monosomy X -- see Turner syndrome.

monotheistic -- the doctrine or belief that there is but one God.

monotremes --
any of an order of egg laying mammals comprising the platypuses and echidnas.

monotropy -- an ethological term introduced by Bowlby to denote the exclusive attachment of a child to its principal care-giver, usually the mother. He was impressed by Lorenz's studies
of geese and their young which suggested that the goslings became imprinted onto a moving object at a sensitive period in the first day or two of life.
Bowlby thought that a similar process
occurred in humans. In fact,
imprinting seems not to be a feature of primate development, where attachments develop gradually and over a wide range from the early months to
adolescence. Also, attachment in humans is not so much monotropic as hierarchical, with a list of preferred care-givers, with parents at the top, but closely followed by grandparents, siblings,
aunts, and so on.

monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) -- a fatty acid that has only one bond in its structure, and that is not fully saturated with hydrogen.

monozygotic twins (identical twins) -- twins who share the same genetic code because they both
developed from only one fertilized egg, which divided into two separate individuals

montane --
pertaining to, growing in, or inhabiting mountainous regions; the lower vegetation belt on

mood disorders -- prolonged or severe depression or mania (elation) or swings between these

mood stabilizers -- a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and
sustained mood shifts. The most common is
bipolar disorder, where mood stabilizers suppress swings
between mania and
depression. These drugs are also used in borderline personality disorder.
Most mood stabilizers are anticonvulsants, with the exception of lithium.

moony -- of or suggestive of the moon or moonlight; moonlit; dreamy in mood or nature; absent-minded.

moot -- a hypothetical case argued by law students as an exercise; an ancient English meeting; to bring
up a subject for discussion or debate; subject to debate; arguable; of no significance or relevance; think
about carefully; weigh; of no legal significance.

moral character -- According to Darcia Navarez, the fourth moral component of moral education. Having the strength of one's own convictions; controlling impulses and steadfastly
behaving in accordance with one's own moral values.

moral development -- a theory put forth by Lawrence Kohlberg.

moral domain --
issues that concern universal principles reflecting concepts of harm, welfare, and fairness.

moralistic period of childrearing -- the dominant cultural view of childhood from the sixteenth through the eighteenth century, childhood was viewed as a period during which children must
be disciplined and prepared for adulthood.

morality -- characteristic of making choices based on a set of standards set by a social group. The capacity to distinguish right from wrong, and to accommodate the needs of others. In
young children, morality is externally controlled by adults; eventually it will become internally controlled.

moral judgment -- According to Darcia Navarez, the second moral component of moral education. Reasoning about right and wrong, evaluating possible courses of action to determine
which is just and fair.

moral motivation -- According to Darcia Navarez, the third moral component of moral education. Granting moral values a high priority, evaluating moral values above personal values.

moral realism -- the belief that morality is based on conforming to established rules set by powerful adults.

moral sensitivity -- According to Daria Navarez, the first moral component of moral education. Moral sensitivity means interpreting the situation, using cause and effect reasoning and
perspective taking to predict how one's actions are likely to affect others.

moratorium -- identity status of those adolescents who are actively exploring identity issues but have not yet made any firm commitment.

morbidity -- medical complication of an illness, procedure, or operation.

morceau -- a small literary or musical composition.

mordant -- biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style; incisive; burning; pungent.

moreta -- salad with garlic in it.

mormorando -- musical direction, murmuring or with a murmuring sound.

morning sickness -- nausea experienced by many women during the first trimester of pregnancy, often but not exclusively in the morning.

moro reflex -- primitive reflex present in the newborn in which the infant throws the arms out in an 'embrace' attitude. This reflex disappears
by age 6 months.
(See illustration.)

morose --
sullenly melancholy; gloomy.

morphemes -- smallest unit of language.

morphogenic system -- a system that is open to growth and change; also called an open system.

morphological development -- evolution of word structure and word parts.  

morphological inflections -- bound morphemes or small word units that change the meaning of words (e.g., 's, -ed, pre-, etc.).  

morphology --
the meaning units in words.  

morphostatic system -
- a system that has the capacity to maintain the status quo, thus avoiding a change; also called closed system.  

Morquio syndrome (MPS IV) --
see mucupolysaccharidoses (MPS); a cause of deaf-blindness.

mortality --
the death rate; the ratio of total number of deaths to the total number in the population.

morula -- the group of cells formed by the first divisions of a fertilized egg.

Mosaic Down syndrome -- Down syndrome that occurs as the result of mosaicism. Some cells in the body (for a child with Down Syndrome) have 3 (instead of the normal 2)
chromosome 21, the usual chromosomal definition of Down syndrome or Trisomy 21. With mosaicism, some cells in the child's body have the extra 21st and some don't. So far, Down
syndrome and mosaic Down syndrome seem to have the same characteristics. Sporadic or new mutation.

mosaicism -- the presence of two genetically distinct types of cells in one individual -- for example, a child with Down syndrome who has some cells containing 46
chromosomes and some cells containing 47 chromosomes.

Moses -- Freud: based on work by Sellin, Frazier, and others, Freud speculated two Moses: an Egyptian nobleman who lived near the time of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaton, the
founder of the first monotheism, and gave the Hebrews a modified version of that religion and was killed by them as a result; and a Midianite who resurrected this religion, modified it still
further, and coupled it with the Egyptian rite of circumcision, thereby setting the Hebrews apart as a chosen people.

MOSF -- see multi-organ system failure.

mosque --
a building used for public worship by Muslims.

mother archetype -- Jung: symbolized by the primordial mother or "earth mother" of mythology, by Eve and Mary in western traditions, and by less personal
symbols such as the church, the nation, a forest, or the ocean. According to
Jung, someone whose mother failed to satisfy the demands of the archetype may
well be one that spends his or her life seeking comfort in the church, or in identification with "the motherland," or in meditating upon the figure of Mary, or a life at

motherese (fatherese) --
unique infant-directed speech patterns that adults use with babies; also called child directed speech.

motif --
in literature, a simple story element out of which an entire narrative may be woven, such as a princess being abducted by a dragon or sorcerer. In
folklore, a motif is a recurrent story element such as an incident, character, or theme. Folkloric motifs recur in diverse stories from many different cultures (e.g.,
identifying the true hero or heroine by a specific sign or test such as
Cinderella's slipper test).

motif index -- developed by the American folklorist Stith Thompson, this multi-volume index leads readers to stories  in collections where specific motifs can be found.

motility -- the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process.

motility disorder -- abnormal intestinal contractions, such as spasms and intestinal paralysis, that can result in the inability to eat, severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, maldigestion,
weight loss, diarrhea, constipation, and incontinence. Some motility disorders are
gastroparesis, achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction,
irritable bowel syndrome, and others.

motor aphasia -- see expressive aphasia or Broca's aphasia.

motor cortex -- the region of the cerebral cortex in the brain which influences movements of the face, neck, trunk, arm, and leg.

motor delays -- areas of disabilities that involve skeletal and muscle movement.

motor development -- The development of the ability to move freely, including coordination, balance, and small motor motions.

motor neuron diseases -- a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy cells that control essential muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing.
Normally messages from nerve cells in the brain are transmitted to nerve cells in the
brain stem and spinal cord and then to particular muscles. If there are disruptions in these signals, the
result can be gradual muscle weakening, wasting away, and uncontrollable twitching (
fasciculations). Eventually the ability to control voluntary movement can be lost. Some motor neuron
diseases are
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and post-polio

motor neuropathy --
see peripheral neuropathy.

motorphobia -- fear of automobiles.

motor planning difficulties -- lack of ability to plan and carry out movements, frequently resulting in awkward or uncoordinated movements.

motor point block -- the injection of a denaturing agent into the nerve supply of a spastic muscle.

motor rigidity/ spasticity -- increased resistance to stretch; associated with weakness, increased deep reflexes, and diminished superficial reflexes; marked by gross movements that
are uncoordinated or impossible.

mottling -- marked with spots of dense white or brown coloring.

moue -- pouting face or grimace; upset facial expression.

mountebank -- a person who sells quack medicines from a platform; a boastful unscrupulous pretender; charlatan.

mouth twitching -- a common tic, when it is purposeless or obsessive. Others examples are shoulder shrugging or throat clearing.

mouthwatering -- appealing to the sense of taste; appetizing; whetting the appetite, as from smell, appearance, or description.

movement and music area -- An activity area in which there is room for dancing, running, climbing, jumping, skipping . . . and singing, listening to music, or making music.

movement disorder -- a group of diseases that affect the ability to produce and control body movement. Some movement disorders are ataxia, cerebral palsy, Huntington's disease,
Parkinson's disease, Tourette syndrome, and Wilson's disease.

movement education --
a success-oriented, child-centered form of physical education emphasizing fundamental movements and the discovery of their variations, which can later be used in
games, sports, dance, gymnastics, and life itself.

movement therapy -- exercise therapy under the direct care of a physical therapist.

Mowat sensor --
a hand-held travel aid, approximately the size of a flashlight, used by people who are blind. It serves as an alternate to a cane for finding obstacles in the person's pathway.

MPS 1 (Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome) -- due to the wide spectrum of clinical variability seen in patients with MPS1, patients with the mild form were
originally thought to have a distinct disorder separate from those with severe symptoms. The mild condition was called
Scheie syndrome (also called MPS V), and the severe form of the
disorder was previously called
Hurler syndrome. Determination of a common enzyme deficiency in both conditions represented the variable presentation of a single disease. They are now
noted as IH and IS. Patients with the severe form of the disease have short stature, gradual coarsening of facial features in early childhood, including
hypertrichosis (excessive hair), large
organomegaly, prominent lips, corneal clouding, dysostosis (malformed bones), stiffening of joints. There is progressive intellectual deterioration and spasticity. The milder
form is characterized by typical stature, typical intelligence, and survival into adulthood. Associated complications: chronic ear infections,
hearing loss, occasional hernia and cardiac
valve changes, visual impairments, brain cysts, airway obstruction. Caused by a deficiency of enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase caused by mutations in the iduronidase gene on chromosome
autosomal recessive.

MPS II (Hunter syndrome) -- Type IIA is severe; type IIB is mild. Features include short stature, enlarged liver and spleen, coarsening of facial features with hypertrichosis beginning in
early childhood, presence of pebbly ivory colored skin lesion on the back, upper arms, and thighs. Mild to absent
intellectual disability in type IIB; this subtype is compatible with survival to
adulthood. Type IIA is highlighted by
progressive intellectual deterioration first noted between 2 and 3 years of age; death occurs before age 15 in most cases and is similar to MPS IH,
but with clear
corneas. Associated complications are sensorineural hearing loss; retinitis pigmentosa with visual loss; macrocephaly; stiffening of joints, particularly those in the
cardiac valve disease in 90%; hernia; respiratory insufficiency; chronic diarrhea in 65%; seizures in 66%. Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate 2-sulfatase caused by
mutations in this gene on chromosome Xq28;
X-linked recessive.

MPS III (Sanfilipo syndrome) --
Four distinct types representing four different enzyme defects with similar clinical features; clinical features present between 2 and 6 years in children who
otherwise appear normal. There is mild coarsening of facial features, coarse hair and
hirsutism, absence of corneal clouding, mild enlargement of the liver, joint stiffness, sleep disorders,
progressive mental deterioration. Deterioration is most rapid in type IIIA; death occurs by 10 -- 20 years in most cases. Associated complications: severe behavioral disturbances
by age 4 to 6 years,
dysostosis, diarrhea in 50%, progressive spasticity and ataxia, precocious puberty, central breathing problems with advancing disease. Cause: Type IIIA:
Deficiency of enzyme heparane sulfatase caused by mutations in sulfamidase gene on 17q25.3. Type IIIB: deficiency of enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase caused by mutations in the
NAGLU gene on 17q21. Type IIIC: deficiency of enzyme acetyl-CoA: alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase caused by mutations in a gene linked to chromosome 14. Type IIID: deficiency of
enzyme N-acetyl-alpha-glucosaminine-6-sulfatase caused by mutations in the G6S gene linked to chromosome 12q14;
autosomal recessive.

MRI --
see magnetic resonance imaging.

mRNA --
see messenger ribonucleic acid.

MRS --
see magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

see maple syrup urine disease.

mtDNA -- mitochondrial DNA --
structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that the cells can used. Mitochondrial DNA have a small amount of their own DNA
(different than the DNA packaged in
chromosomes in the cell nucleus.) This DNA is known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all essential for normal
mitochondrial function. Thirteen provide instructions for making enzymes to use oxygen and simple sugars to make adenosine triphosphate (the cell's main energy source). The remaining
provide instructions for making molecules called
transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) which are chemical cousins of DNA. tRNA and rRNA help assemble amino acids into
functioning proteins. Whew!

mucilaginous -- sticky, viscid; of, relating to, full of, or secreting mucilage.

mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) -- a group of lysosomal storage disorders (for description see metachromatic leukodystrophy) in which glycosaminoglycans accumulate within the
s; there are seven distinguishable forms of the disorder, each with two or more subgroups. Features shared by most include coarse facial features, thick skin, hirsutism, corneal
clouding, organomegaly (enlargement of the spleen and liver), growth deficiency, intellectual disability, cardiomyopathy, and skeletal dysplasia are also seen. All are autosomal
recessive except for MPSII, Hunter syndrome. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) disorders include MPS I (Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome), MPS II (Hunter
syndrome), MPS III (Sanfilioppo syndrome).

mucosal -- pertaining to the mucus membrane lining organs, such as the mouth, stomach, and vagina.

mucous membranes -- a membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that
secrete mucus. Also called

mucus --
a slippery secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

mudbug -- crayfish.

muggles -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), non-magical humans who were not born into the magical world. See picture of Dudley Dursley, Harry's muggle
cousin, from the movie,
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.

Müllerian inhibiting factor --
the müllerian duct is one of a pair of embryonic ducts that become the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina in females and atrophies in males. The inhibiting
factor is encoded by the AMH gene and inhibits the development of the müllerian ducts in the male embryo.

multicultural education -- education that promotes learning about multiple cultures and their values.

multicultural factors in transition -- concerns that must be addressed in transition planning when the family making the transition is from a culture other than the dominant one in the

multidimensional -- The relationship among the many factors that comprise a learning sequence.

multidimensional model of intelligence -- considers multiple domains of intelligence as contrasted to concentrating only on intellectual ability or academic achievement.

multidisciplinary -- A team approach in which the professionals provide isolated assessment and intervention services that are often fragmented and confusing to families; professional team
in which assessment,
IEP development and design, and implementations of instruction, therapy, and evaluation are completed individually by each professional.

multidisciplinary assessment -- type of assessment in which specialists from several disciplines assess and evaluate a child independently and submit separate reports.

multidisciplinary team -- a team in which professionals act as consultants but do not provide hands-on treatment.

multifactored evaluation (MFE) -- an assessment of a student's abilities that combines several sources of data.

multifactorial -- describing an inheritance pattern in which environment and heredity interact.

multigenerational household -- a household that consists of the householder and his or her children and grandchildren.  Or a householder and his or her parents and children. Or a
householder and his or her parents and grandchildren. Or any way that it can be made to consist of more than 2 generations.

multilevel instruction -- differing levels of instruction that provide students with many different ways to access and learn content within the general education curriculum.

multilingual -- degrees of fluency or literacy in several languages (in an individual or a community).

multimedia artwork -- an art form and contemporary art movement which emphasizes the integration of all art forms.

multimodal treatments -- involves multiple interventions or treatments across modes or types of therapies.

Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) -- large-scale, federally funded research project that explored the effectiveness of various interventions for children with ADHD.

multi-organ system failure (MOSF) -- results from the diving reflex during severe hypoxic encephalopathy (HIE).

multiparous women --
women who have previously given birth (and who are pregnant for a 2nd or more time).

multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency -- see glutaric acidemia, type II.

multiple carboxylase deficiency, infantile or early form (holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency) -- disorder of organic acid metabolism characterized by seizures, hypotonia,
lethargy, coma, skin rash, alopecia (loss of hair from skin areas where it is normally present), and acidosis. Often, the presenting feature is feeding difficulty or respiratory distress.
Associated complications:
intellectual disability, hearing impairment, optic atrophy with visual impairment, recurrent infections, vomiting. Caused by mutation causing enzyme
deficiencies of holocarboxylase synthetase, or 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase;
autosomal recessive.

multiple carboxylase deficiency, late onset, juvenile form (biotinidase deficiency) -- a disorder characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures
(often infantile spasms),
alopecia, skin rash, delayed myelination and lactic acidosis; the onset of symptoms usually occur between 2 weeks and 2 years of age. Associated complications:
hearing and visual impairment; respiratory difficulties and
apnea, recurrent infections. Caused by defects in various enzymes for biotin transport or metabolism; genetic mutations have been
identified in the biotinidase gene on chromosome 3p25 and the holocarboxylase synthetase gene on chromosome 21q22.1;
autosomal recessive.

multiple disabilities -- A disability category of IDEA; having more than one disabling condition. Concomitant impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual
disability-orthopedic impairment
, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that the individual cannot be accommodated in special education programs
designed solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include

multiple intelligences -- individual ways of processing information; the theory that people have intelligence across several domains, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial,
musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, and naturalist. This theory was developed by
Howard Gardner.

multiple means of engagement -- involving students in activities by using a variety of modes of representation and expression to address their interests.

multiple means of expression -- encouraging students to respond in different ways, in accordance with their strengths.  

multiple means of representation -- presenting information in various formats to reduce or avoid sensory and cognitive barriers to learning.

multiple sclerosis -- a nervous system disease that affects the brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects nerve cells. Symptoms of
multiple sclerosis are
visual disturbances, muscle weakness, trouble with coordination and balance, sensations such as numbness or prickling (pins and needles), and memory problems.
Cause is unknown. It affects more women than men.

multiple system levels -- general systems theory holds that systems are embedded within one's other systems, layer upon layer.

multiply disabled -- An IDEA term for having more than one disabling condition; a category in IDEA.

multiracial relationship --
relationships in which people from different racial backgrounds are romantically involved.

multisyllable word recognition -- recognition of words that have two or more syllables.

mumblety-peg -- a game in which the players try to flip a knife from various positions so that the blade will stick into the ground.

mummy -- the preserved remains of an animal or human body, from which fluids have been removed. In ancient Egypt, humans and cats were mummified as a necessary step in preparing
the deceased for the afterlife. A mummy is sometimes animated by a dark wizard (similar to the inferius). If reanimated, a mummy is a frightening creature, bandaged, bloody, and sightless. A
group of mummies is a pyramid. A mummy baby is an infant.

mumps -- a contagious disease that leads to painful swelling of the salivary glands, which produce saliva. Saliva moistens food and helps with chewing and swallowing. Symptoms are face
pain, fever, headache, sore throat, swelling of the glands between the ear and the jaw, swelling of the temples or jaw. Mumps are caused by a virus. The MMR vaccine against measles,
mumps, and
rubella protects against mumps.

Munchausen by proxy -- a constellation of behaviors whereby an adult uses her child as the vehicle for fabricated illness.

munificent -- opposite of parsimonious; generous.

mural -- a story-telling picture or panel intended for a large wall space.

murmur -- low, indistinct, and continuous sound; to utter such a sound.

murmuration -- a group of starlings. Also the dance of the starlings as they fly together in startling rhythm and beauty.

muscles -- masses of tough, elastic tissue that pull our bones when we move. Together, bones, muscles, and joints -- along with tendons, ligaments, and cartilage -- form the
musculoskeletal system. The human body has more than 650 muscles, which make up half of a person's weight. They are connected to bones by tough, cord-like tissues called tendons,
which allow muscles to pull on bones. There are three different kinds of muscles:
skeletal (or voluntary), smooth (or involuntary), and cardiac.

muscle spindles --
muscle fibers that are part of the reflex arc that controls muscular contraction.

muscle tone -- either a tense or relaxed state that affects the ability to flex or extend a muscle smoothly.

muscular dystrophy -- a group of inherited, chronic disorders that are characterized by gradual wasting and weakening of the voluntary skeletal muscles.

muscular dystrophy, Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) types -- progressive proximal muscular degeneration, muscle wasting, hypertrophy (enlargement) of calves,
, onset of symptoms in DMD occurs before 3 years. Loss of ability to walk independently occurs by adolescence in DMD. The onset in BMD is later, and the progression
slower. Associated complications:
congestive heart failure, scoliosis, flexion contractures, respiratory compromise, and intestinal motility dysfunction (causing constipation);
approximately 1/3 of boys with DMD have
learning disabilities or intellectual disability. Cause: mutations in the gene that encodes dystrophin localized in Xp21.1; X-linked recessive,
with 1/3 of cases due to a new mutation.  

musculoskeletal -- referring to the muscle and bone support systems of the body.

musculoskeletal disorders -- physical disabilities that are the result of problems related to the skeleton or muscles.

muse -- any of the nine daughters of Mnemosyne and Zeus, each of whom presided over a different art or science; a guiding spirit; a source of inspiration; a poet; to be absorbed in one's
thoughts; engage in meditation; to consider or say thoughtfully. The nine daughters are
Calliope (epic poetry), Clio (history), Erato (love poetry), Euterpe (flutes and lyric poetry),
Melpomene (tragedy), Polyhymnia (sacred poetry), Terpsichore (dance), Thalia (comedy and pastoral poetry), and Urania (astronomy).

musical/rhythmic learner -- in Gardner's theory, this learner is oriented toward music, rhythmic sounds, and environmental sounds. Often called the "music lover." Musical intelligence is
the ability to appreciate and produce pitch, rhythm, and aesthetic quality to the forms of musical expression.

music center -- a place for listening to records, tapes, singing, creating dance, and playing musical instruments (in an early childhood setting).

musicophobia, melophobia -- fear of music.

music therapist -- Individual trained in an approved music therapy program who uses music to enhance development.

musophobia, muriphobia -- fear of mice.

musth -- must -- a state of frenzy in animals, especially in the male elephant usually associated with sexual heat.

mutates mutandis -- with the necessary changes having been made; with the respective differences having been considered.

mutation -- a change in a gene that occurs by chance, serendipitously, if you will.

mutism -- the inability to speak.

mutt -- a stupid or insignificant person; fool; a mongrel dog; cur.

mutual dependency -- the sharing of pleasures, ideas, jokes, and sexual desires.

mutual exclusivity bias -- in the early phase of vocabulary growth, children's assumption that words refer to entirely separate (non-overlapping) categories.

mutual gaze -- The steady looking at one another's face that goes on between healthy newborns and their parent or primary caregiver.

mutual goal -- shared goal that is the basis for collaboration; should clearly be stated to achieve collaboration.

mutual mothering -- a mother-daughter relationship characterized by a mutual propensity for mothers and daughters to supervise each other's lives.

myasthenia gravis -- the most common symptoms are fatigability after repetitive movements and fluctuation of the symptoms throughout the day. Caused by an impairment in formation,
binding, or use of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Although in rare cases, genetic in origin, it is most often acquired as an autoimmune disorder.

mycobacteria -- bacteria that cause tuberculosis (a chronic gramulomatous disease) and leprosy.

myctophobia -- fear of darkness.

myelin -- tissue that covers the nerves to enhance conductivity of nerve impulses.

myelination -- the forming of the myelin sheath, the material in the membrane of certain cells in the brain; the development of the myelination of the brain seems to parallel Piagetian stages
of cognitive development. The myelin sheath improves the efficiency of message transfer between the brain cells.

myelin sheath -- the insulating envelope of myelin that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses.

myeloid cells -- any of the white blood cell (leukocyte) types that do not fall into the lymphocyte category.

myelomeningocele -- Type of spina bifida that occurs when the spinal cord and its covering protrude from the opening in the spine. The meninges and spinal nerves come through the
open part of the spine. This is the most serious type of
spina bifida, which causes nerve damage and more severe disabilities. Effects may include muscle weakness or paralysis below the
area of the spine where the incomplete closure (or cleft) occurs, loss of sensation below the cleft, and loss of bowel and bladder control. In addition, fluid may build up and cause an
accumulation of fluid in the brain (
hydrocephalus). A large number of children born with myelomeningocele also have hydrocephalus; see meningomyelocele.

myeloschisis -- a developmental defect characterized by a cleft spinal cord that results from failure of the neural plate to fuse and form a complete neural tube.

myelosuppression --
the inhibition of the process of production of blood cells and platelets in the bone marrow.

myocardial infarction -- see heart attack.

myocardial necrosis and fibrosis -- heart tissue damaged, becoming fibrous, and portions dying.

myoclonic seizure (epilepsy) -- Seizures characterized by brief, shock-like muscle contractions, such as jerking or twitching of a muscle. A myoclonic seizure causes abnormal movements
on both sides of the body at once.

myoclonus -- irregular, involuntary contraction of a muscle.

myofibril -- one of the slender threads of a cardiac or skeletal muscle fiber, composed of numerous myofilaments. Also called sarcostyle.

myoglobin -- a protein in heart and skeletal muscles. During exercise, the muscles use up any available oxygen. Myoglobin has oxygen attached to it, which provides extra oxygen for the
muscle to maintain a high level of activity for a longer period of time. When muscle is damaged, myoglobin is released into the bloodstream.

myopathies --
diseases of muscle, usually degenerative.

myopia -- nearsightedness; inability to see distant objects clearly; a refractive problem wherein the eyeball is excessively long,
focusing light in front of the retina.
(See Mount Rushmore, first normal vision, second, with myopia.)

myopic degeneration --
an uncommon condition characterized by progressive stretching of the eye that damages the retina, the
layer of light-sensitive cells that lines the back of the eye. It commonly occurs during young adulthood with a gradual decrease in
central vision. Although central vision may be lost, peripheral vision usually remains unaffected.

myosin -- protein necessary for muscle contraction.

myotonia -- abnormal rigidity of muscles when voluntary movement is attempted.

myotonic dystrophy (Steinart's disease) -- the most prominent feature is myotonia, a form of dystonia involving increased muscular contractibility combined with decreased power to
release (e.g., a strong handshake with the inability to release it). Other features include myopathy,
dysarthria, ptosis, and frontal balding. The age of onset varies from childhood to
adulthood. The congenital form is severe, with neonatal
hypotonia, motor delay, intellectual disability, and facial muscle palsy. In the congenital form, feeding difficulties and severe
respiratory problems are common. Classic myotonia does not begin until around 10 years of age. Associated complications:
cataracts, cardiac conduction abnormalities, diabetes,
hypogonadism. Cause: Cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) expansion of mutations in the muscle protein kinase gene on chromosome 19q13. Severity varies with the number of CTG repeats.
Unaffected people have 5 -- 30 repeat copies. Those with the classical adult form have more than 80 copies, and individuals with the childhood onset form usually have more than 500 copies.
The correlation between the number of repeats, severity, and age of onset, however, is not always consistent;
autosomal dominant.

myriad -- multitude; litany; an amount of, usually large; collection in large numbers.

myringotomy -- the surgical incision of the eardrum. It is usually accompanied by the placement of pressure equalizing tubes to drain fluid from the middle ear.

myrmecophobia -- fear of ants.

myrmidon -- henchman.

myrrh -- fragrant resin gum from a type of tree, used chiefly for perfume.

mystique -- the special, esoteric skill or mysterious faculty essential in a calling or activity.

myth -- a sacred story told as part of a world view or religious belief system and used to make concrete abstract concepts about cosmic and societal origins.

mythological images -- Jung: see archetype.

mythology -- a complex network of myths that, taken together, constitute the stories that explain the belief system of a people.

mythopoeic -- pertaining to the making of myths.

mythos -- mythology; a pattern of beliefs expressing often symbolically the characteristic or prevalent attitudes in a group or culture.

myxedema -- thickening and coarsening of the skin caused by hypothyroidism.

myxophobia -- fear of slime.
A    B    C   D    E   F   G   H    I    JKL  NO  PQ   R   
Sa--So   Sp--Sz   T     U--Z   
It's never to late to
be what you might
have been. --
George Eliot