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Jabberwock -- from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll (Through the Looking Glass), a 'manxome foe' -- an enemy, with jaws that bite and claws that catch and eyes of flame ...

jacqueminot -- a type of flower, a crimson rose.

jalousie -- a blind with adjustable horizontal slats for admitting light and air while excluding direct sun and rain; a window made of adjustable glass louvers that control ventilation.

jamais vu -- from the French for "never seen," jamais vu is used to describe any familiar situation that is not recognized by the observer. It involves a sense of eeriness and the observer's
impression of seeing the situation for the first time, despite rationally knowing that the situation has happened before.

jargogle -- verb: to confuse, jumble; "I fear, that the jumbling of those good and plausible Words in your Head ... might a little jargogle your Thoughts" (John Locke, 1692).

jargon -- specialized vocabulary of a group, often associated with particular professions or derived from areas of knowledge like science,
technology, and the arts.

jaundice -- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin. This is often found in liver disease and Rh
incompatibility, also called icterus; perinatal; can cause deaf-blindness. (See picture.)

jaunt --
short excursion for pleasure; brief stay.

jawboning -- the use of public appeals (as by a president) to influence the actions especially of business and labor leaders; the use of spoken
persuasion.

jaw clenching -- a habit that may lead to jaw pain and dental problems. It may develop unconsciously in response to stress, dietary changes,
medications, and many other factors. It often happens during sleep, which makes it hard to control. It is sometimes called
bruxism.

jaw retraction -- the jaw is pulled back, preventing the alignment of the upper and lower teeth during eating.

jaw thrust -- a strong protrusion of the lower jaw.

jealousy -- a usually intolerant or even hostile response to a real or imagined threat to a love relationship.

jejune -- naive, simplistic, and superficial; dry and uninteresting.

jejunostomy tube (J tube) -- a tube placed through the skin of the abdomen and directly into the jejunum to provide nutrition.

jejunum -- second portion of small intestine (---------------------------------------------------------------------->).

jelly slugs -- a treat found at Honeydukes Sweetshop in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). They are gummy candies that look like slugs. They are also sold
on the Hogwarts Express food trolley.

Jenny Haniver -- a carcass of a ray or skate which has been modified and dried, resulting in a grotesque preserved specimen. They are created to look like angels, demons, or dragons.
Other Jenny Hanivers were created from combining two bodies, such as a fish and a monkey to make a mermaid. Jenny Hanivers were very popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. A group of
Jenny Hanivers is a mountebank. A Jenny Haniver baby is a skate.

jerboa -- any of various small nocturnal leaping rodents of the family Dipodidae of Asia and northern Africa, having long hind legs and a long tufted tail.

jeremiad (jair-uh-MYE-ud) -- a prolonged lamentation or complaint; a cautionary or angry harangue.

jibberish -- (spelled gibberish) -- unintelligible or nonsensical talk or writing; highly technical or esoteric language; unnecessarily pretentious or vague language; mumbo jumbo;
ubble-gubble; nonsensical talk, drivel, prattle.

jimjams -- jitters.

Jinn -- plural of jinni or dijinni. In Islamic belief jinn are spirits that can take human or animal form and can be good or evil. Good jinn accept the teachings of Mohammed.

jitney -- a small bus that carries passengers over a regular route on a flexible schedule; an unlicensed taxicab.

jobberknoll -- a tiny blue speckled bird which makes no sound until the moment of its death, when it lets out a long scream consisting of all the sounds it has ever heard.
A jobberknoll's feathers are useful in potions. A group of jobberknolls is a babbling. A jobberknoll baby is a coo.
See picture.

job burnout --
exhaustion and stress from one's job, characterized by wearing down of body and attitude.

job coach -- professional who helps individuals with disabilities to learn behaviors for succeeding in the workplace.

job sharing -- the sharing of one full-time job by two co-workers.

joint attention -- a state in which the child and the caregiver attend to the same object or event and the caregiver offers verbal information. Supports language development.

joint biological-stepfamily -- family in which at least one child is the biological child of both parents, and at least one child is the biological child of one and the step child of the other.

joint custody -- situation in which the children divide their time between the two parents.

joint legal custody -- joint custody arrangement whereby the children live with one parent, but both parents share decisions about their children's upbringing.

joint physical custody -- joint custody arrangement whereby the children live with both parents, dividing their time on a more or less equal basis between the separate households.

joint ranges -- degree of flexibility in the joints.

joints -- where two bones meet. They make the skeleton flexible -- without them, movement would be impossible. They are filled with a flexible rubbery substance called cartilage which
protects the two bones when they rub against each other. There are three kinds of joints:
hinge joint, pivot joint, and ball and socket joint.

jollux -- noun: slang phrase used in the late 18th century to describe a "fat person".

jonquil -- an ornamental plant native chiefly to southern Europe, having long narrow leaves and short-tubed yellow flowers.

Jotunheim -- land of the giants. Jotun are giants (----------------------------------------------------------------->).

Joubert syndrome -- structural cerebellar abnormalities, abnormal eye movements, retinal dysplasia or coloboma, episodic hyperventilation, characteristic
facial appearance (large head, prominent forehead,
ptosis, epicanthal folds, upturned nose, tongue protrusion), hypoplasia of the corpus callosum,
encephalocele (hernia of part of the brain and meninges through a skull defect), kidney cysts, microcephaly, abnormalities of the tongue, hypotonia,
developmental delay, intellectual disability and behavioral problems. Age at diagnosis ranges from the neonatal period through the first decade of life.
Caused by a gene linked to 9q34.3 in some families; additional genes and chromosomal regions yet to be identified;
autosomal recessive.

journal --
a written medium, such as an academic journal, a diary, a literary magazine, a daily newspaper, a scientific journal ... A personal journal (sometimes called a diary) is a record with
discrete entries arranged by date. The journal may detail more personal information and is usually intended to remain private or have a limited circulation.

jovial -- of or relating to Jove; markedly good-humored, especially as evidenced by jollity and conviviality.

J tube -- see jejunostomy tube.

jubjub bird --
a dangerous creature in Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll; found in a narrow, dark, depressing and isolated valley; its voice is a scream, shrill and high like a pencil squeaking
on a slate, and significantly scares those who hear it, including the Beaver who turned pale from end to tip; desperate and lives in perpetual passion; a giant black vulture-like bird with a red
head, long yellow beak, and a purple tongue.

judgement based assessment -- the use of clinical judgments from multiple sources to collect assessment information about children.

judicial hearing -- a hearing before a judge in a courtroom.

judicious -- wise; directed by sound judgment.

judophobia, jaudaeophobia, judeophobia -- fear of Jews.

juggernaut -- chiefly British: a large, heavy truck; a massive inexorable force, campaign, movement, or object that crushes whatever is in its path.

jumping to conclusions -- also known as hasty generalizations, fallacy whereby a conclusion has been reached when not all the facts are available.

jump tales -- suspenseful, scary stories whose sudden endings make listeners jump.

junk DNA -- at this juncture, it is assumed that about 98% of al DNA is junk DNA, because it seemed to have no function. Further studies may find that this is entirely wrong, and scientists
now generally believe that this junk DNA must contain some kind of coded information, yet unknown.

junket -- a dessert of sweetened flavored milk set with rennet; a festive social affair; trip, journey; a trip made by an official at public expense; a promotional trip made at another's expense.

Jupiter -- the fifth planet from the sun, the larges and most massive in the solar system; revolution of 11.86 years, 483 million miles from the sun; a diameter of 88,000 miles and a mass
approximately 318 times the earth; rotation of 9.83 hours (faster than any other planet in the solar system); gas giant made up mostly of hydrogen and helium; the most moons, likely, as
many as 66 (Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Amalthea, Himalia, Elara, Pasiphaë, Sinope, Lysithea, Carme, Ananke, Leda, Themisto, Metis, Adrastea, Thebe, Carpo, S/2003 J 12, Euporie,
S/2003 J 3, S/2003 J 18, S/2011 J 1, S/2010 J 2, Thelxinoe, Euanthe, Helike, Orthosie, Iocaste, S/2003 J 16, Praxidike, Harpalyke, Mneme, Hermippe, Thyone, Herse, Aitne, Kale, Taygete,
S/2003 J 19, Chaldene, S/2003 J 15, S/2003 J 23, Erinome, Aoede, Kallichore, Kalyke, Carme, Callirrhoe, Eurydome, S/2011 J 2, Pasithee, S/2010 J 1, Kore, Cyllene, Eukelade, S/2003 J 4,
Hegemone, Arche, Isonoe, S/2003 J 9, S/2003 J 5, Sponde, Autonoe, Megaclite, S/2003 J 2) and a faint ring; Giant Red Spot -- a persistent anticyclonic storm.

just community schools -- schools in which students participate in a democratic community and decisions are made through consensus rather than by majority rule.

juvenile -- an individual who is not yet an adult in the eyes of the law.

juvenile arthritis -- a chronic and painful muscular condition seen in children.

juvenile diabetes -- metabolic disorder in which the body cannot properly break down sugars and store them. Also called Type I diabetes.

juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis -- see Batten disease.

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) --
Type of arthritis diagnosed in children; symptoms include redness, swelling, soreness in one joint or several joints that lasts for more than six weeks.

juxtaposition -- color pigments placed side by side in small repeated strokes are altered by our vision to appear to combine, thus forming a different hue.
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K -- atomic number 19, symbol for potassium.

Kabuki syndrome -- microcephaly, trapezoid philtrum, prominent posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular pit (small hole/indention on the ear), long palpebral fissures, thick eyelashes,
ptosis, sparse broad arched eyebrows, congenital heart defect, hirsutism (excessive hair), cafe au lait spots, cryptorchidism, small penis, hypotonia, joint hyperextensibility, cleft
palate, recurrent ear infections, hearing loss, aspiration pneumonia, feeding difficulties, malabsorption, anal stenosis, imperforate anus, scoliosis, congenital hip dislocation,
increased susceptibility to infections,
seizures, intellectual disability, premature thearche (breast development), hemolytic anemia, congenital hypothyroidism. Unknown cause, new
mutation with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed on from an affected individual.

Kafkaesque -- of, relating to, or suggestive of Franz Kafka or his writings; especially having nightmarishly complex, bizarre, or illogical quality.

kainophobia, kaintotophobia -- fear of novelty.

kakorrhaphiophobia, kakorraphiaphobia -- fear of failure.

kaleidoscope -- an optical item that utilizes mirrors to create interior symmetrical visions.

Kalidah -- a fictitious species of animal created by L. Frank Baum for his novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It is characterized as a ferocious monster having the head of a tiger and the
body of a bear.

Kallmann syndrome -- (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) absent or decreased function of the male testes or the female ovaries. It is considered a form of secondary hypogonadism,
which means the condition is due to a problem with the
pituitary or hypothalamus gland. Symptoms are absence of secondary sexual characteristics such as pubic, facial, and underarm
hair; inability to smell; lack of
puberty or delay; undeveloped testicles; short stature. It is caused by the lack of the gonadal stimulating pituitary hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
and luteinizing hormone (LH). Mutations in the KAL1 (X chromosome), FGFR1 (chromosome 8), PROKR2 (chromosome 20), and PROK2 (chromosome 3) genes cause Kallman syndrome.
Type 1 of Kallman syndrome (KAL1) is
X-linked recessive. Other forms are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern; although sometimes it has shown an autosomal recessive
inheritance pattern.

Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) -- an innovative educational program for academically at-risk elementary school children based on Vygotsky's theory that has as its
overarching theme "assisted performance." Assumes that just as children require scaffolded support, teachers teach best when their performance is assisted by members of the educational
system.

kappas -- "creepy water-dwellers that looked like scaly monkeys, with webbed hands itching to strangle unwitting waders in their ponds." (Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, J. K.
Rowling
) Otherwise, they are a type of water sprite. A kappa has a saucer-shaped depression in its scalp, which must at all times be filled with water so that the kappa can maintain its
strength and powers. Kappas enjoy eating cucumbers more than they enjoy human children (to eat).

karma -- in Hinduism and Buddhism, the total effect of an individual's actions (good and bad) over multiple reincarnations. Happy and unhappy lives and
rebirth as lower or higher animals (in Hinduism this includes changes in casts) are manifestations individual Karma.
(See poster.)

karyotype --
a photograph of chromosomes, used by geneticists to align each chromosome with the other member of its pair. (See karyotype illustration.)

karyotyping --
photographing the chromosomal makeup of a cell. In a human, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes
in a normal karyotype.

katagelophobia -- fear of ridicule.

kathisophobia -- fear of sitting.

Kayser-Fleischer ring -- a ring of golden-brown or brownish-green pigment behind the limbic border of the cornea,
due to a deposition of copper. See
Wilson's Disease.

Kearns-Sayre syndrome -- one of the mitochondrial disorders; short stature, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, cardiomyopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, visual impairment,
hearing loss, myopathy, ataxia, endocrine abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, dementia; caused by rearrangements in mtDNA; inheritance is maternal, through mtDNA.

kegler -- a person who bowls; a bowler.

keloid formation -- a skin outgrowth that sometimes forms a scar. Most develop after defective healing of a burn. Keloid also refers to a progressively enlarging scar, irregularly shaped, due
to excessive formation of
collagen in the skin during connective tissue repair.

kelpie -- a supernatural water horse from Celtic folklore that haunts the rivers and lakes of Scotland and Ireland. It's hide is black. A kelpie will appear to be a lost
pony, but can be identified from its mane, which is always dripping water. Its skin is as cold as death. They are strong, powerful, and breathtaking. They can
transform into handsome men to lure women into their traps. They especially love to lure children into the lake or river, where they will drown and eat them. A
group of kelpies is a gallop. A kelpie baby is a nuggle.
See picture.

ken --
the range of vision; sight, view; the range of perception, understanding, or knowledge.

kench -- to laugh loudly.

Kennedy's disease -- an inherited motor neuron disease that affects males -- one of the spinal muscular atrophy disorders. Onset of the disease is usually between the ages of 20 to
40. Early symptoms include tremor of the outstretched hands, muscle cramps with exertion, and
fasciculations (fleeting muscle twitches visible under the skin).

kenophobia -- fear of void or open spaces.

keraunophobia -- fear of thunder and lightning.

kerfuffle -- a commotion or a fuss.

kernicterus -- intellectual disability, choreoathetoid cerebral palsy, staining of secondary teeth, upward gaze paralysis, high-frequency hearing loss; also can be spastic
quadriplegia, deafness, cerebral palsy, hearing impairment. Caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in infant's blood that pass to the central nervous system; underlying problem is
usually
Rh incompatibility. Measurement of the bilirubin in amniotic fluid is used to diagnose prenatally. Incidence: since the initiation of RhoGAM therapy and medical management of
hyperbilirubinemia, extremely low; recurrence risk depends on cause and management.

ketoacidosis -- a serious condition that can lead to diabetic coma or death. When cells in the body don't get the glucose needed for energy, the body burns fat for energy, which produces
ketones. Ketones are acids that build up in the blood and appear in the urine when the body doesn't have enough
insulin.  Early warning signs are thirst or a very dry mouth, frequent
urination, high blood glucose levels, high levels of ketones in the urine. Other symptoms (later) are fatigue, dry or flushed skin, nausea, difficulty breathing, fruity odor in breath, and
confusion.

ketogenic diet -- special diet high in fat used to promote the use of ketones as an energy source.

ketones -- the end-product of rapid or excessive fatty-acid breakdown.

ketosis -- the buildup of acid in the body, most often associated with starvation, inborn errors of metabolism, and diabetes.

Ketotic hyperglycinemia --
see Methylmalonic aciduria, propionic acidemia.

key concepts -- specialized terms that contribute to a theory's unique vocabulary.

keyword strategies -- strategies that teach students to link a keyword to a new word or concept to help them remember the new concepts.

khasegarien -- an Iranian business meeting in which a potential marriage is discussed.

kibbutz -- a collective farm or settlement in modern Israel, owned and administered communally by its members and on which children are reared collectively.

kibosh -- something that serves as a check or stop.

kidney -- 2 bean shaped organs, one on each side of the spine. They represent about 0.5% of the total weight of the body, but receive 20% -- 25% of the total arterial blood pumped by the
heart. Each contains from 1 million to 2 million
nephrons. Kidneys remove wastes, and normal components of blood that may be present in greater than normal concentrations. The kidney is
an
endocrine gland that secretes two hormones: erythropoietin (EPO) and calcitrol (the active form of Vitamin D) as well as the enzyme renin. Erythropoietin acts on the bone marrow to
increase production of
red blood cells. Calcitrol acts on the cells of the intestines to promote absorption of calcium from food and then acts on the bones to mobilize calcium from the bone
to the blood. Renin helps the kidney monitor blood pressure and take corrective action if it drops.

kidney failure -- loss of the kidneys' ability to perform their main function of eliminating excess fluid and salts (electrolytes) as well as waste material from the blood. Symptoms of acute
kidney failure may include: decreased urine output, fluid retention, drowsiness, shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, nausea,
seizures or coma,
chest pain or pressure.

kin -- a person's relatives by blood, marriage, remarriage, or adoption, varying from grandparents to nieces to brothers-in-law, etc (--------------->).

kinderdults -- term for children who are treated simultaneously as both children and adults.

kindergarten -- a school or class for children 4 to 6 years old; in the US kindergarten is either the first year of formal, public school, or the year of
schooling before first grade.

kindergarteners -- modern term to describe the children who are attending kindergarten programs; a term used in 19th century America to
describe early childhood practitioners who worked in kindergartens patterned after
Froebelian models.

kinesics -- the study of body movements.

kinesophobia, kinetophobia -- fear of motion.

kinesthetic -- related to the sensation of body position,  presence, or movement, resulting chiefly from stimulation of sensory nerve endings in the muscles, joints, and tendons.

kinesthetic sense -- any of the physical processes by which stimuli are received, transduced, and conducted as impulses to be interpreted to the brain.

king -- the husband of the queen; a kind of salmon, which is also called chinook.

kinky hair syndrome -- see Menkes syndrome.

kinship  care --
child care, housing, and so on, provided by members of the immediate or extended family other than the parents.

kinship studies --
studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the importance of heredity in complex human characteristics.

Kirk, Samuel -- this educator introduced the term "learning disability" in 1963. His concept  was defined by delays, deviations, and performance discrepancies in basic academic subjects
(e.g., arithmetic, reading, writing, spelling) and
speech and language problems not attributable to intellectual disability.

kishka -- various types of sausages or stuffed intestine with a filling made from a combination of meat and meal, often a grain. It is popular across Eastern Europe. The name is Slavic and
means "gut" or "intestine." Also a type of prison cell in Soviet political prisons.

kismet -- fate.

kite -- a light framework covered with cloth, plastic, or paper, designed to be flown in the wind at the end of a long string; any of the light sails of a ship
that are used only in a light wind; any of various predatory birds of the hawk family Accipitridae, having a long, often forked tail and long pointed wings.

klaxonlike -- like this: A klaxon is a type of electric horn which emits a particularly loud and penetrating sound.

kleptophobia -- fear of thieves.

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY syndrome) -- Occurring only in males, tall, slim stature; long limbs; relatively small penis and testes; gynecomastia
(breast enlargement) in 40%; intention tremor (involuntary trembling arising when attempting a voluntary coordinated movement) in 20% to 50%; low
to average intelligence; infertility; behavioral disorders;
scoliosis; osteoporosis and reduced muscle strength; vascular problems; 8% have diabetes
mellitus as adults; risk of extragonadal mid-line germ cell tumors. Patients may appear to have no physical changes prior to puberty with the exception
of long legs. Caused by a chromosomal
nondisjunction, resulting in 47,XXY constitution; new mutation. (See picture.)

Klippel-Feil syndrome --
cervical vertebral fusion, hemivertebrae (incomplete development of one or more vertebrae), congenital scoliosis,
torticollis (wry neck), low hair line, sacral agenesis (absence of tailbone), hearing loss, occasional congenital heart defect, extra fused or missing
ribs, middle-ear abnormalities,
genitourinary abnormalities, pain. Cause: (subgroup) linked to the SGM1 gene on chromosome 8q22.2; autosomal
dominant. Can cause deaf-blindness.

Klippel-Trenauny-Weber syndrome -- asymmetric hypertrophy of limb, face (lips, cheeks, tongue, teeth), or other body parts; hemangiomas
(benign congenital tumors made up of newly formed blood vessels) (hypertrophy and hemangiomas arise independently and are not always on the same
side of the body); depending on the area of the hypertrophy, complications may affect any organ/body part including the spinal cord (which can result in
weakness or paralysis), kidneys (
renal obstruction), brain (intracranial hypertension). Cause is linked to the VG5Q gene at 5q13.3; believed
to be
autosomal dominant; can cause deaf-blindness.

knarl -- a creature from the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling) that greatly resembles a hedgehog. They are highly suspicious creatures that believe that any food
left out for them is a lure for a trap. During the O.W.L. exams, students had to locate a knarl among a group of hedgehogs, by offering milk.

kneazle -- a magical creature from the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling) that is similar to a cat in appearance. They have spotted, speckled, or flecked fur, large
ears, and a plumed tail. They are intelligent, independent, and occasionally aggressive, and have an uncanny ability to detect suspicious and distrustful people.
Kneazles can interbreed with normal cats and generally have up to 8 kittens in every litter. Hermione's cat, Crookshanks, is a kneazle. Kneazles make excellent pets,
and are independent and sometimes aggressive. They can also safely guide their family home. A group of kneazles is a curiosity. A kneazle baby is a kitten.
See picture.

knell --
to ring slowly and solemnly; funeral bell-ring.

Kniest dysplasia -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

knock-kneed -- knees touch together as the child stands or walks, with feet in a wide stance and sometimes turned inward. (see??)

knowledge construction --
process by which a particular framework is used to develop, evaluate, and disseminate new information.

koanic -- a paradox to be meditated upon that is used to train Zen Buddhist monks to abandon ultimate dependence on reason and to
force them on to gaining sudden intuitive enlightenment.

kolpophobia -- fear of female genitals.

koniophobia -- fear of dust.

kopophobia -- fear of fatigue.

Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy) -- in the classic form of this progressive neurological disorder, symptoms begin at 4 -- 6 months of age with irritability, progressive
stiffness,
optic atrophy, cognitive degeneration, and early death. Approximately 10% to 15% of cases have onset of symptoms between 15 months and 17 years of age, and have slower
disease progression.
Hypertonicity, opisthotonos (back aching), visual and hearing impairment, episodic unexplained fevers, seizures, peripheral neuropathy. Caused
by an accumulation of psychosine galactosylceramide which is caused by a galactocerebrosidase enzyme deficiency resulting from a mutation in the GALC gene on chromosome 14q24.3 --
q32.1;
autosomal recessive.

krypton --
atomic number 36, symbol Kr; a colorless, odorless, tasteless, noble gas; used for lighting; found in trace amounts in the atmosphere; obtained from the production of liquid air;
discovered in 1898 by
Sir William Ramsay.

kudos -- fame and renown resulting from an act or achievement; prestige; praise given for an achievement.

kwashiorkor -- a disease that is caused by a diet low in protein and that usually appears after weaning, between 1 and 3 years of age.
Symptoms include a swollen belly, swollen feet, hair loss, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior.
(See picture.)

kynophobia --
fear of dogs or rabies.

kyphoscoliosis -- spinal deformity including both curvature and humping of the spine.

kyphosis -- humping deformity of the spine, "hunchback".
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labeling-- Assigning an individual to a group (e.g., Latino) or marking names on objects (e.g., toy car); the assigning of a disability label such as deaf or mentally retarded. Once a label has
been affixed to an individual, the two often become inseparable.

labia -- folds of skin forming the outer and inner edges, or lips, of the vagina.

labial -- pertaining to, of, or utilizing the lips.

labile -- readily open to change; prone to err; readily or continually undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change or break down.

labor -- the stages of delivering a baby, consisting of contractions of the uterine muscles and dilation of the cervix, the birth itself, and the expulsion of the placenta.

laboratory observation -- researchers making observations in a laboratory setting. A setting that is highly controlled but may be too artificial.

laboratory schools -- educational settings whose purposes include experimental study; schools for testing and analysis of educational and/or psychological theory and practice, with an
opportunity for experimentation, observation, and practice.

labor force -- wage earners who hire out their labor to someone else.

labyrinth -- the inner ear, made up of the vestibular apparatus and the cochlea. Also a maze; puzzling complex or circuitous plan.

lacerate -- to cut or tear irregularly; to distress; mangle.

lachanophobia -- fear of vegetables.

lachrymatory -- a small vessel found in ancient tombs, formerly thought to hold the tears of mourners; also called tear bottle, tear catcher, tear vial, unguentaria, or unguentarium.

lachrymose -- given to tears or weeping; tearful; tending to cause tears; mournful.

laconic -- using very few words; using or involving the use of a minimum of words: concise to the point of seeming rude or mysterious.

lacquer -- varnish that dries via evaporation.

lacrimal -- pertaining to tears; lacrimal duct is a tear duct.

lacrimal bone -- a small bone located in the anterior wall of the orbit (eye socket), articulating with the frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and inferior nasal
concha. (See picture.)

lactase --
enzyme necessary to digest the milk sugar lactose.

lactating -- producing and secreting milk.

lactic acid -- chemical produced in muscles as a result of anaerobic glucose metabolism.

lactic acidosis -- when lactic acid builds up in the bloodstream faster than it can be removed. Lactic acid is produced when oxygen levels in the body drop. Symptoms of lactic acidosis are
nausea and weakness. The most common cause of lactic acidosis is intense exercise. It can also be caused by diseases such as
sepsis, respiratory failure, AIDS, cancer, diabetes,
glycogen storage disease, and kidney failure. Some medications can cause lactic acidosis, such as metformin, phenformin, etc.

lactose -- milk sugar composed of glucose and galactose.

lacuna -- one of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone, supposed to contain nucleate cells. Also omission or empty space; gap in chronology.

lagniappe -- a small gift presented by a store owner to a customer with the customer's purchase; an extra or unexpected gift or benefit.

lag of mineralization of bone -- see spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia.

lagniappe --
gift for extended patronage; gift or compensation for valued customers.

laissez faire -- see pal parenting style.

laliophobia, lalophobia --
fear of talking.

lambent -- glowing, gleaming, or flickering with a soft radiance; of wit or humor: lightly brilliant; playing lightly on or over a surface; marked by
lightness or brilliance especially of expression.

lamboid sutures – the connection of the occipital bone and parietal bone of the skull (--->).

laminate --
to beat or compress into a thin plate or sheet; to divide into thin layers.

Lammas (LAM-us) -- August 1 originally celebrated in England as a harvest festival; also called Lammas Day.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) (also called Acquired Epileptic Aphasia [AEA]-- a rare, childhood neurological disorder characterized by the sudden or gradual development of
aphasia (the inability to understand or express language), and an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG). LKS affects the parts of the brain that control comprehension and speech
(
Broca's area and Wernicke's area). This disorder usually occurs in children between the ages of 3 and 7 years old. The child develops normally but then loses language skills for no
apparent reason. Some children with the disorder have
seizures. LKS is difficult to diagnose and may be misdiagnosed as autism, pervasive developmental disorder, hearing
impairment
, learning disability, auditory/verbal processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, intellectual disability, childhood schizophrenia or emotional/behavioral
problems
.

landmark legislation-- A turning point or an entirely new approach to public policy.

language -- the meaning of words and gestures that are communicated; a socially shared, rule-governed code used for communication. It is not limited to oral expression, however -- it
occurs in written form, through the use of gestures, alternative methods of communication for those who are low verbal or nonverbal, and within one's own thoughts.

language acquisition device (LAD) -- in Chomsky's biological theory, a part of the brain that allows children to understand the properties of all human languages.

language, content of -- a child's knowledge of word meanings, and the interrelationship between words.

language delay (disability) -- classification for children who do not develop language skills as quickly as their peers; see developmental language disorder.

language deprivation -- being denied exposure to language-oriented experiences such as conversation, radio, or television.

language development -- on average, children say their first word by 12 months, with a range of 8 to 18 months. Once words appear, language develops rapidly. Sometime between 1 1/2
to 2 years, toddlers combine 2 words. By age 6, children have a vocabulary of about 10,000 words, speak in elaborate sentences, and are skilled conversationalists.

language difference -- variations from standard speech that are considered normal; dialects are an example of a language difference.

language different -- students who are just beginning to learn a second language or are using nonstandard English.

language disorder -- difficulty or inability to master language systems, their rules, or applications, which interferes with communication. Also referred to as language delay or language
disability.
Can refer to aphasia or dysphasia.

language, form of --
the structure of language phonology, syntax, and morphemes.

language group -- group therapy for language and speech problems.

language immersion programs -- school settings in which children are taught entirely in another language different from their native tongue.

language use -- the way in which children communicate in social contexts.

languid -- drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion; weak; sluggish in character or disposition; listless; lacking force or quickness of
movement; slow.

lanthanum -- atomic number 57, symbol La; a soft, silvery-white, malleable, ductile, metallic rare earth element; obtained from monazite,
bastnasite; used for camera lenses and for movie and television studio lighting; discovered in 1839 by
Carl Mosander.

lanugo -- a white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus, helping the vernix stick to the skin. (See illustration.)

laodicean --
indifferent or lukewarm in politics and religion.

laparoscopy -- female sterilization procedure whereby a tube-like instrument called a laparoscope is inserted through a half-inch incision in
the area of the navel. This is the most common means of female sterilization.

laparotomy -- female sterilization procedure whereby a surgeon makes a 2-inch-long incision in the woman's abdomen and cuts the fallopian tubes.

lapidary -- a cutter, polisher, or engraver of precious stones usually other than diamonds; the art of cutting gems.

lapis lazuli -- a gemstone of intense blue.

large for gestational age (LGA) -- weighing more than 4 kilograms, about 9 or more pounds at birth, which makes vaginal delivery mechanically difficult through the pelvic birth canal. This
typically occurs in infants of mothers with
diabetes.

large group activities-- Interactions that occur in groups larger than 4 or 5 children.

large intestine -- the main function of the large intestine is to transport waste out of the body and to absorb water from the waste
before it leaves. It connects to the
small intestine above and the anus below. The parts of the large intestine are the cecum,
appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal, and anus.

Large Magellanic Cloud -- a nearby galaxy and satellite of the Milky Way galaxy. It is the third closest galaxy to the Milky Way with the
Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal and Canis Major Dwarf Galaxies being nearer. It has a mass equivalent to approximately 10 billion times
the mass of our sun, and 1/100 as massive as the Milky Way. It is visible as a faint cloud in the night sky of the southern hemisphere.
See picture.

large muscle (gross motor) --
muscles used in moving the body from one place to another.

largesse -- the generous giving of gifts; a generous or courteous gift; charitable donation.

larkspur -- any of the various ranunculaceous plants of the genus Delphinium, with spikes of blue, pink, or white irregular spurred flowers.

Larry P. vs Riles (1972) -- Federal court case that established that, because of their bias, IQ tests could not be used to identify African American
students as having
intellectual disability.

laryngomalacia -- a morbid softness or sponginess of the larynx.

larynx ("laryngeal" -- of the larynx) -- the portion of the breathing or respiratory tract containing the vocal cords which produce vocal sound. It
is located between the
pharynx and the trachea. It is sometimes called the voice box. It is 2 inches long and tube-shaped. (See picture.)

lascivious --
lewd, lustful, prurient.

laser cane -- a mobility device for people who are blind. It  converts infrared light into sound as light beams strike objects.

lassitude -- weariness; lack of energy or motivation.

latchkey children -- children who are left unsupervised during the day or return home to an empty house after school.

latency -- the time that elapses between the opportunity to respond and the beginning of the response.

latency stage -- the fourth stage in Freud's psychosexual theory of development, during which sexual instincts die down, and the superego develops even further. (ages 6 -- 11).

latent consequences -- the unintended effects of social policies.

latent content -- Freud: the true thoughts below the manifest imagery of the dream. Psychoanalysis seeks to translate the "disguised" manifest content into true latent, and therefore
repressed, wishes of the dreamer.

latent  functions -- according to the structural-functional perspective, functions that are unconscious or unintended; they have hidden purposes.

lateral -- to the side; away from mid-line.

laterality -- of or relating to the side, as in children having an awareness of what is situated on, directed toward, or coming from either side of themselves.

lateralization -- specialization of functions in the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.

lateral ventricles -- cavities in the interior of the cerebral hemispheres containing cerebrospinal fluid. The are enlarged with
hydrocephalus or with brain atrophy. (See picture.)

later basic forms stage --
in the later basic forms stage the rectangle and square forms are made when the child can purposefully
draw separate lines of any  length desired.

later pictorial (first drawings) stage -- a later point in the pictorial stage when the child draws symbols more easily and exactly.

late visual bloomers -- those children who, like children with motor, language, and social developmental delays, experience
maturational delays in visual ability, appearing to be blind at birth and during their first months of life, but usually developing normal
visual ability by 18 months to 3 years of age.

lathe -- machine for shaping a piece of material by rotating it rapidly along its axis.

lattice -- open framework of material, typically in a crisscross pattern.

launching stage -- the period of family life when the younger generation prepares to make the transition to adulthood by leaving the parental home.

lavadero -- a laundry room; a place designated for washing gold.

lavation -- the act or an instance of washing or cleansing.

lavender -- a type of light purple; a type of flower; an oft perfumed scent.

lavish -- expended, bestowed, or occurring in large amounts; using or giving in great amounts.

law and order stage -- see conventional stage.

law of frequency -- a law that states that as the frequency of an S-R connection occurs, the stronger it will become.

law of recency -- a law that states that the more recently a particular stimulus has been associated with a particular response, the more likely it is the association will occur again.

lawrencium -- atomic number 103, symbol Lr; a short-lived, radioactive synthetic transuranic element made from bombarding californium with boron ions; no uses known; discovered in 1961
by
Albert Ghiorso; named for Ernest Lawrence.

Lawrence-Moon-Biedl syndrome -- retinitis pigmentosa, hypogenitalism, obesity, and extra fingers and toes. Caused by an inherited failure of normal embryonic development.
Associated complications are
ataxic gait, intellectual disability, night blindness, and spastic paraplegia. Incidence: rare; recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25%.

layer -- single thickness of a material covering a surface.

layman -- a person who is not a member of the clergy; a person who does not belong to a particular profession or who is not expert in some field.

LBW -- see low birth weight.

lead --
atomic number 82, symbol Pb; a soft, malleable, ductile, toxic, bluish-white dense metallic element; very durable and resistant to corrosion and is a poor conductor of electricity; used
as a solder, shielding against radiation, and batteries; obtained from galena; known to the ancients: date of discovery unknown. The name came from the Greek word protos and the symbol
came from the Latin word plumbum (lead).

lead agency -- the agency appointed by the governor of each stage to be the head agency for Part C (children from birth to age 3 who have disabilities). The lead agency coordinates
activities with the other agencies in the state serving this age group.

lead poisoning -- acute or chronic poisoning by lead or any of its salts that may result in severe stomach
problems,
anemia, constipation, partial paralysis, intellectual disability, seizures, unconsciousness, coma,
and death. It can injure the brain, kidneys, nervous system, and
red blood cells.

leap frog -- a children's game in which players vault over each other's stooped backs. Look at this amazing
picture taken in the 1880s (picture from Wikipedia)!!!

learned helplessness--
Condition in which an individual who experiences repeated failure expects more failure
and loses motivation; a condition of hopelessness resulting from inconsistent or negative feedback; excessive
dependency often induced by well-meaning parents or caregivers because they cannot bear to see the child struggle (or feel they do not have the time to let the child work at learning a
particular, self-help skill.

learning -- changes that occur as the result of observation, experience, instruction, or practice.

learning centers -- similar to interest areas and activity areas; hubs or areas in a classroom designed to promote learning; the classroom is arranged in discrete areas for activity, and
children move from one area to another rather than stay at an assigned desk or chair.

learning channel -- a description of the modes in which a learner receives and sends information in performing a given learning task. Orally reading sight words, for example, uses the
"see/say" learning channel; the "hear/write" learning channel is involved in taking a spelling test.

learning disability (LD)-- Condition in which a student has a dysfunction in processing information typically found in language-based activities, resulting in interference with learning.
Students with LD have average or above average intelligence but experience significant problems in learning how to read, write, and/or compute. Some common characteristics of children
with learning disabilities are: specific academic skills deficits; perceptual motor impairments; memory and thinking disorders;
speech and language disorders; attention disorders;
hyperactivity; impulsiveness; emotional liability; general coordination deficits; and neurological soft signs. Learning disabilities may be caused by neurological factors, maturational delay,
genetic factors, and environmental factors. Common learning disabilities are
dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, central auditory processing disorder,  nonverbal learning
disabilities, dyspraxia, visual perceptual deficits, vision motor deficits, language disorders (aphasia or dysphasia).

learning media assessment -- evaluation process that gathers a variety of information to determine the primary and secondary learning media and literacy needs for students with visual
impairments; often addresses a student's use of sensory channels and needs for general learning media.

learning medium -- formats of reading and literacy materials available to individuals with visual impairments; includes Braille, print, large print, audiotapes, access technology, etc.

learning strategies -- help students with learning disabilities to learn independently and to generalize, or transfer, their skills and behaviors to new situations.

learning theory -- emphasizes the dominant role of environment and reinforcing experiences in learning; approaches to understanding human development that focus on how people learn
to behave the way they do.

least restrictive environment (LRE)-- Setting most like the one in which other students are educated and in which a student with a disability can succeed. The presumption in current law is
that the LRE for most students is general education.
IDEA 2004 defines this as: to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public and private institutions
or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational
environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved
satisfactorily.

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (Leber's congenital amaurosis, LHON) -- One of the mitochondrial disorders; bilateral central vision loss, occasionally seen with multiple
sclerosis, dystonia, or movement disorder. Primarily associated with point mutations in mtDNA; maternal inheritance, through mtDNA. Males are more commonly affected.

lecithin -- any of a group of phospholipids found in egg yolks and the plasma membrane of plant and animal cells. Lecithin is important in cell structure and metabolism. Lecithin is a
compound consisting of two fatty acid chains, a phosphate group, and a base (
choline). It usually contains a high proportion of linoleic acid.

Lee's Six Styles of Love -- Sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, which suggests there are six basic styles of loving: 1) love of beauty and the physical, or eros; 2)
obsessive love, or
mania; 3) playful love, or ludus; 4) companionate love, or storge; 5) altruistic love, or agape; and 6) practical love, or pragma.

left atrium --
the top left chamber of the heart that receives blood from the lungs through four pulmonary veins -- two from the right lung and two from the left lung. Blood passes from the
left atrium into the left ventricle through the atrioventricular opening which is guarded by a valve. The valve has two leaflets or cusps called the
bicuspid valve. It prevent blood from flowing
back into the left atrium from the ventricle.

left-brained -- using the left hemisphere of the brain as the major learning method.

left ventricle -- the lower left chamber of the heart that propels blood out of the heart to the organs of the body. When the left atrium of the heart contracts, the mitral valve between the
left atrium and the left ventricle opens, allowing blood to flow into the left ventricle. When the left ventricle contracts, the
aortic valve opens, and blood is propelled into the aorta, and then
throughout the body.

legal blindness -- visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the best eye with correction, as measured on the Snellen test, or a visual field of 20% or less.

legal divorce -- the second of Bohannon's six stations of marriage: the court-ordered termination of a marriage.

legends -- stories of a semi-historical nature that are told as true, though they may include fictitious elements.

legerity (luh-JAIR-uh-tee) -- alert facile quickness of mind or body.

legibility -- the extent to which what is written can be deciphered and understood.

legitimate authority -- the right and responsibility to exercise control over others.

legitimate power -- type of power based on a person's partner having the right to ask you to do something and you having the duty to comply.

Leigh's disease -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

Leigh syndrome (subacute necrotizing encephalomyopathy) -- a mitochondrial disorder; encephalopathy, ophthalmoplegia, optic atrophy, myopathy, developmental delay
and regression,
ataxia, spasticity, early death. Caused by a deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) or another enzyme involved in energy metabolism; maternal, autosomal recessive,
or
X-linked recessive.

leisure --
time not taken up by work in which to engage in freely chosen satisfying activities.

leitmotif -- a motif or theme associated throughout a music drama with a particular person, situation, or idea; leading motive.

lemniscate -- the infinity symbol; any figure-eight symbol.

lemonade -- beverage typically consisting of lemon juice, sugar, and water.

lenient -- exerting a soothing or easing influence; relieving pain or stress; of mild and tolerant disposition; especially indulgent.

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome -- a severe form of epilepsy with seizures that usually begin before age 4. Type of seizures are
variable per patient. There are usually: some
intellectual disability, developmental delays, behavior disturbances. This disorder
can be caused by brain malformation,
perinatal asphyxia, severe head injury, central nervous system infection, or an inherited
degenerative or metabolic condition.

lens -- the biconvex, translucent body that rests in front of the vitreous humor and refracts light rays so that they hit the retina
directly. (See picture.)

Leo --
a constellation lying between Cancer and Virgo. Its name is Latin for lion and is one of the 48 constellations described by
the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. It has many bright stars such as Regulus, Denebola, and Algieba. Thirteen of the stars in Leo have planetary
systems.
See picture.

leonine --
of, relating to, suggestive of, or resembling a lion.

leprechaun -- a tiny, vegetarian creature resembling a little (maximum height 6 inches) green human. Although they have the ability to speak human
language, they prefer to remain classified as beasts rather than humans. They are able to produce a gold-like substance that vanishes after an hour
or two. A leprechaun looks like an old man, and is usually clad in a red or green jacket, pants that buckle at the knee, gray or black socks, and pointy
shoes. The leprechaun enjoys partaking in mischief. A group of leprechauns is a blarney. A leprechaun baby is a clover.

leprosy -- a chronic disease caused by a bacillus, mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the
upper respiratory tract, and also the eyes.  The bacteria that causes leprosy multiplies very slowly and the incubation period of the disease is about
5 years. Symptoms can take as long as 20 years to appear. It is not highly infectious. It is transmitted via droplets, from the nose and mouth, during
close and frequent contacts with others. Untreated, leprosy can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes.
Leprosy is curable and treatment in the early stages averts disability.

leptin -- a hormone that has a central role in fat metabolism. It was originally thought to be a signal to lose weight, but it may, instead, be a signal
to the brain that there is fat on the body. People who are hugely obese and unable to lose weight have a genetic inability to produce leptin. Injections
of leptin have had dramatic weight loss effects. Doesn't it make you wonder why I have not signed up for leptin injections???

lesbian -- female sexually attracted to other women, exclusively.

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (Lesch-Nyhan disease) -- an inborn error of purine metabolism associated with elevated levels of uric acid in blood
and urine. Affected males appear symptom free at birth, but
dyskinetic (incomplete or fragmented) movements and spasticity develop, accompanied by severe involuntary self-injurious
behavior, including biting of fingers, arms, and lips. Associated complications are cognitive impairment,
seizures in 50%, hematuria (blood in urine), kidney stones, and ultimate kidney
failure. Caused by a defect in enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase caused by a mutation in the HPRT gene on Xq26--q27.2;
X-linked recessive.

lesions --
a wound, injury, rash, boil, sore, or pathologic change in body tissue.

l'esprit de l'escalier -- staircase wit; the usage of a witty retort after the moment has passed.

lethargy -- a state of sluggishness, inactivity, apathy; indifferent.

lethe -- the condition of forgetfulness; oblivion.

lethifold -- a dangerous beast resembling a half-inch thick black cloak that moves along the ground at night, hunting its prey. Lethifolds attack sleeping humans, smother them, then digest
them, all in their bed, leaving no trace at all. A lethifold is a very rare creature, only found in the tropics. A group of lethifolds is a shroud. A baby lethifold is a hankie.

letter combinations -- two or more consecutive letters that represent a single sound, such as sh (see digraphs); or multiple sounds such as bl. (see blends).

letter-sound correspondence -- association of a common sound with specific letters or letter combinations in a word.

letter strategies -- acronyms or a string of letters used to aid memory of a list of words or concepts; mnemonics.

leukemia --
a cancer seen in childhood (not exclusively in children); this kind of cancer begins in the blood cells. The different kinds of leukemia are groups according to the type of white
blood cell affected. It can occur in lymphoid cells or myeloid cells. The leukemias are the most common childhood cancers, accounting for 33% of all childhood cancers. The most common
kind of leukemia in childhood is
acute lymphocytic leukemia. Other types are acute myelogenous leukemia, and chronic leukemia.

leukocoria -- an eye disorder which literally means "white pupil." It can be a symptom of corneal scarring, Norrie disease, Coats disease, congenital cataracts, ocular toxocariasis,
melanoma of the ciliary body, retinoblastoma, and others.

leukocytes -- see white blood cells.

leveling -- being specific, authentic, and transparent about how one feels, especially about matters in one's relationship that create conflict or hurt.

level of concern -- amount of student interest in the instruction.

levels of support -- AAMR (now referred to as AAIDD or American Association for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities) system for classifying individuals with intellectual
disability
based on whether they need intermittent, limited, extensive, or pervasive support. The system deemphasizes reliance on IQ scores and stresses assisting individuals to reach their
potential.

leveret -- baby rabbit; a young rabbit.

leviathan -- a sea monster; the primal unconquerable creature of the sea (the behemoth of the land, and the ziz of the sky). According to legend, God created a male and a female leviathan,
but then killed and salted the female "for the righteous, for if the Leviathans procreate, the world could not stand before them." The body of a leviathan, particularly its eyes, have a great
illuminating power. A group of leviathans is a pod. A baby leviathan is a cowrie.

levitation -- the act of floating; supernatural floating.

levophobia -- fear of left, or things to the left.

lexicographer -- an author or editor of a dictionary.

lexiphanes -- a pretentious word user; bombastic or magniloquent person.

LGA -- see large for gestational age.

liability --
legal responsibility or obligation for one's actions owed to another individual.

liaison -- illicit sexual relationship; case of contact between two parties, usually a person.

libeccio -- southwest wind occurring in Italy.

liberal feminism -- also called equal rights feminism; movement principally concerned with achieving equal opportunities for women through legal and social reforms.

liberal perspective (on family) -- a political and intellectual position which holds that changes in contemporary families are not leading to deterioration but are, in fact, increasing their
strength and resistance.

liberation teaching -- theory that the teacher does not give up on any child by seeking to meet the child's needs.

libido -- the source of action and sexual desire. Freud: the psychosexual energy originating in the id. Libido is the electric current of the mechanism
of personality. It powers all psychological operations, invests desires, and undergoes ready displacement. It is the basic fuel of the self. Because it is
of a relatively fixed quantity, like gasoline in a tank, it obeys laws of physical "economy" in that a surplus in one system means a loss somewhere else.
It can be either free or bound (
Bruer's term).

Libra -- a constellation of the zodiac named for weighing scales, and lies between Virgo and Scorpius. It has at least 3 stars with planetary systems.
See picture.

licensed practical nurse (LPN) --
a person who has undergone training and obtained a license conferring authorization to provide care for the sick.

license requirements -- required standards, usually set by the individual states.

licensing -- the process of fulfilling legal requirements, standards, and regulations for operating child care facilities.

licentious -- lacking moral discipline or ignoring legal restraint, especially in sexual conduct; having no regard for accepted rules or standards.

life expectancy -- the average number of years a person can expect to live from birth to death.

life skills curriculum -- a curriculum or learning system that stresses concepts and skills that students with intellectual disability or other disabilities need to function
independently.

life space analysis -- a process in which teachers collect two kinds of data: first, baseline data of a student's current functioning abilities; and second, information about the student's current
environments and perspective environments for community-based instruction.

lifestyle -- a pattern by which a person organizes his or her living arrangements in relation to others.

ligament -- a sheet or band of tough, fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilage at a joint.

ligamentous laxity -- loose ligaments, which may result from injury, accidents, or genetic causes. Symptoms are frequent sprained ankles, shoulder dislocation, knee effusions, back
problems, pain, bone dislocation, referred pain, inability to bend elbows or knees past a position of neutrality. Other symptoms are the ability to touch the hands flat to the floor while bending
forward from the waist, and the ability to touch the thumb to the forearm.

lightening -- when the fetus drops into the pelvic cavity, decreasing pressure on the mother's diaphragm.

light sensitivity -- see photophobia.

light year (ly) -- the distance that light travels in one year. The speed of light is 186,287.5 miles per second. There are 31,557,600 seconds a year. So a light year is (apx.)
5,878,786,100,100 miles, or almost 6 trillion miles. Our sun is 93 million miles away. The next nearest star is 4.3 light years, and the distance to the Andromeda galaxy is 2 million light years.  

ligyrophobia -- fear of noise.

liking -- a type of love relationship characterized by intimacy but lacking passion and commitment.

lilapsophobia -- fear of tornadoes or hurricanes.

Lilliputian -- very small, tiny; pertaining to Lilliput.

lilt -- cadence of voice; rhythm of language or sentences; good vocal or musical structure.

limb-body wall complex (LBWC) -- diagnosed by the presence of an abdominal wall defect, short umbilical cord, spinal scoliosis, limb deformity, and craniofacial defects. The lack of
blood flow leads to
anoxia and death.

limb deficiency -- missing or nonfunctional arms or legs resulting in mobility problems.

limbic system -- an older term coined by Paul MacLean in 1952. It describes a group of connected structures in the mid-brain area, which includes the hypothalamus, amygdala,
thalamus, fornix, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus.

limb reduction defects -- defects of the arms and legs, such as absence, partial formation, etc.

limerence -- extended infatuation or crush, contrast love.

limerick -- a poem with five lines. Line 1, 2, and 5 have 3 strong downbeats and rhyme. Lines 2 and 4 have 2 strong downbeats and rhyme (AABBA):

     A flea and a fly in a flue                                                There was an old man with a beard,
     Were imprisoned, so what could they do?                    Who said, "It is just as I feared!
     Said the fly, "Let us flee."                                              Two owls and a hen,
     "Let us fly," said the flea.                                               Four larks and a wren,
     So they flew through a flaw in the flue.                          Have all built their nests in my beard!"
     (
Ogden Nash)

liminal -- of or relating to a sensory threshold; barely perceptible; of, relating to, or being an intermediate state, phase, or condition; in-between, transitional.

limited English proficient -- PL 108-446 -- An individual, age 3 -- 21, enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary or secondary school, 1. (a) who wasn't born in the US or whose native
language isn't English; (b) who is a Native American or Alaska Native, or native resident of the outlying areas and comes from an environment where a language other than English has
significantly impacted level of English language proficiency; or (c) who is migratory, with a native language other than English, from an environment where a language other than English is
dominant; and 2. whose difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding English may be sufficient to deny the child (a) ability to meet proficient level of achievement on State
assessments; (b) ability to successfully achieve in class where instruction is in English; or (c) opportunity to participate fully in society.

limits -- the boundaries of acceptable behavior beyond which actions are considered misbehavior and unacceptable conduct; the absolute controls an adult puts on a child's behavior.

limited understanding -- children with learning disabilities as well as those with mild or moderate intellectual disability. Generally, children with limited understanding have a shorter
attention span and tend to become easily discouraged.

limn -- to delineate via depictions or suffuse things with light.

limnophobia -- fear of lakes.

limousine -- slender car used for formal occasions; notably expensive.

limpid -- free of anything that darkens; unclouded, completely clear.

linchpin -- something that serves to hold together the elements of the situation; a locking pin inserted crosswise (as through the end of an axle or shaft); one that serves to hold together
parts or elements that exist or function as a unit.

line -- an element of art that is part of every artwork. Every line in a piece of art has length, a beginning, an end, and direction.

lineage -- line of descent, influenced by cultural norms. Lineage determines membership in a kinship group, patterns of inheritance, and kinship obligations or responsibilities.

lineaments -- pl. the distinguishing or characteristic features of something immaterial.

linear causality model -- an interpersonal communication model that assumes a direct, or linear, relationship between cause and effect.

linear fracture -- break in a long bone; occurs in a straight line.

lingual frenulum -- a small fold of mucous membrane extending from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the underside of the tongue.
(See picture.)

linguistics --
the scientific study of natural language.

linguistic and cultural diversity -- see cultural and linguistic diversity.

linguistic determinism -- the claim that an individual's thinking and world view is molded by the language of their specific speech community.

linguistic intelligence (verbal-linguistic intelligence) -- sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, and meaning of words and the function of language. One of the nine intelligences proposed by
Howard
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.

linguistic readiness (for reading) -- a prerequisite to reading which involves skill at using oral language.

linoleic acid -- a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which is essential (must be provided in food) for humans.

linolenic acid -- one of the two polyunsaturated fatty acids that are recognized as essential for humans.

linoleum -- a type of floor covering.

linonophobia -- fear of string.

Linus blanket -- a type of cohabiting relationship in which one of the partners is so dependent or insecure that he or she prefers a relationship with anyone to being alone.

lipid -- an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is usually insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform; examples: fat, phospholipids,
steroids, prostaglandins.

lipoma -- a benign, fatty tissue tumor.

lipoprotein -- protein linked with fat to aid in the transport of various types of fat in the blood.

lip retraction (purse string) -- extension of the lips into a tight horizontal line.

liquid -- a state of matter, compare gas and solid (also plasma); readiness to flow; a type of sound.

Lisch nodules -- the most common type of ocular involvement in neurofibromatosis-1. They are usually clear yellow to brown in color and appear as well-
defined dome-shaped elevations projecting from the surface of the
iris. They are not thought to cause any ophthalmologic complication. (See picture.)

lissencephaly --
an abnormality of the brain in which few gyri are formed. This is associated with some forms of intellectual
disability
. Also called double cortex syndrome (DCX) (-->).

lissencephaly syndromes (Miller-Dieker syndrome) -- a group of disorders characterized by lissencephaly (smooth brain)
in which Miller-Dieker is the prototype. Lissencephaly syndromes can be divided into subgroups based on features. Classical
lissencephaly (formerly lissencephaly type 1), the most common form, is defined by the presence of a very thick
cortex and
subcortical band heterotopia, whereas other types present with other brain malformations, including agenesis of the
corpus callosum and severe cerebellar hypoplasia. Features include agyria or pachygyria (absent or decreased
cerebral convolutions, respectively); progressive
spasticity; microcephaly; characteristic facial appearance (short nose,
broad nasal bridge, upturned nose,
hypertelorism, prominent upper lip, malformed or malpositioned ears); intellectual disability; infantile spasms; late tooth eruption; failure to thrive;
dysphagia
(swallowing difficulty); congenital heart defect; intestinal atresia (congenital closure). Cause: five genes have been defined to date that cause lissencephaly: LIS1 (on
chromosome 17p13.3), 14-3-3 epsilon on chromosome 17p13.3), DCX (on chromosome Xq22.3), RELN (on chromosome 7q22), and ARX (on chromosome Xp22.13); a deletion of one copy
(haploinsufficiency) of any of the above genes is sufficient to cause one of the lissencephaly syndromes; new mutation with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed from an affected
individual.

lissome -- thin, supple, and graceful.

listening -- a stage in the development of listening skills when the child reacts through comments or questions.

listlessness -- a state characterized by a lack of energy and/or interest in one's affairs.

litany -- large amount, plethora, long and tedious address or recital.

literacy -- a mastery of language -- speaking, listening, writing, and reading.

literacy activities -- activities that promote development of oral communication skills and understanding of print communication.

literal comprehension -- a type of reading comprehension that deals specifically with recalling the material expressly stated on the printed page.

literal language -- the opposite of figurative language -- something written in a literary work that means exactly what it says. Words or phrases do not deviate from their true meaning.

literati -- intelligentsia; the educated class; clerisy; a group of littérateurs.

literature -- any written text, but more often used about fictional texts.

lithe -- readily bent; supple; flexible; marked by effortless grace.

lithium -- atomic number 3, symbol Li; a soft, silvery, highly reactive alkali metal; the lightest known metal and highly reactive; used for batteries, ceramics, lubricants, thermonuclear
weapons, glass, etc.; discovered in 1817 by
Johann Arfvedson.

lithosphere -- outermost shell of a planet; the crust and uppermost mantle.

litote -- a figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. (not bad = good) They are a form of understatement, always
deliberate and with the intention of emphasis. (not unlike = like, etc.)

litterateur -- literary-minded person; one devoted to the study or writing of literature.

liver -- a reddish brown organ with four lobes of unequal size and shape. It normally weighs between 3 -- 3 1/2 pounds and is triangular shaped. It is the largest intestinal organ and the
largest
gland in the body. It is in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, just below the diaphragm. It lies to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder. It is connected to two
large blood vessels which carry blood from the
aorta. The liver has many functions, including producing substances that break down fats, convert glucose to glycogen, produce urea,
make certain
amino acids (the building blocks of proteins), filter harmful substances from the blood (such as alcohol), storage of vitamins and minerals (vitamins A, D, K, and B12),
manufacture proteins and blood clotting factors,
metabolize fats, metabolize and store carbohydrates, form and secrete bile, eliminate bilirubin, detoxify, and maintain a proper level of
glucose in the blood. It also produces
cholesterol.

liver cancer -- also called hepatoma; a rare cancer. When the cancer or tumor is just in the liver, and can be surgically removed, it is highly curable. The two types of liver cancer are
hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular cancer. Children infected with hepatitis B or C are at risk for developing liver cancer.

livermorium -- atomic number 116, symbol Lv; previously known as ununhexium (Uuh); a synthetic superheavy element; first detected in 2000 and only about 30 atoms have been
produced, either directly or as a decay product of ununoctium; on July 19, 2000 scientist at Dubna (JINR) detected a single decay from an atom of ununhexium following the irradiation of a
curium target with calcium ions, The result was livermorium, which decayed almost immediately to flerovium (also called ununquadium). Livermorium is named after
Ernest O. Lawrence (and
also lawrencium, 103,
Lr, was named for him).

lixiviation -- the act of separating soluble from insoluble substances via water or a solvent.

Llullaillaco -- a volcano, 6,730 meters (22,080 feet) high, in the Andes of northern Chile, near the Argentine border; a mummy found at the summit of Argenitna's Mount Llullaillaco in 1999.
She had been fattened up for death; one of many children found. She is also known as La Doncella.

loath -- unwilling to do something contrary to one's way of thinking; reluctant.

lobscouse (LAHB-skouss) -- a sailor's dish of stewed or baked meat with vegetables and hardtack.

local education agency (LEA) (also called lead agency or lead educational agency) -- the agency appointed by the governor of each state to be the head agency for Part C (children
from birth to age 3 who have disabilities) of
IDEA. The lead agency coordinates activities with other agencies in the state serving this age group.

localization - identification of the orientation of a sound source.

location adaptations -- in assessment, changes in the setting in which a test is administered or in the conditions of the test setting.

lochetic -- lying in wait for prey, used especially of insects.

Loch Ness monster -- the largest known and most famous kelpie on earth; its favorite form is that of a sea serpent. The Loch Ness monster lives in
Loch Ness in Scotland. It loves to show off for humans. It is speculated to be a left-over descendant of plesiosaurs. There have only been sightings
of one Loch Ness monster, nevertheless, a group of Loch Ness monsters is a kelpie. A Loch Ness monster baby is a nessie which suggests at least
two Loch Ness monsters, or a kelpie of them.
See amazing picture from http://extraordinaryintelligence.com.

locomotor skills -- transport the body as a whole from one point to another. Although it is commonly believed that children acquire and develop
locomotor skills automatically, in fact, children are unable to reach a mature stage of development without practice, encouragement, and instruction.

locus -- focus or location.

locus ceruleus -- an area of the brain involved in attention.

locutionary stage -- a stage of language development in which infants communicate both conventionally (words and sentences) and intentionally.

logical consequence -- a consequence determined by an adult that is related to the child's original inappropriate behavior.

logical mathematical intelligence -- one of Gardner's proposed nine intelligences in his theory of multiple intelligences; understanding principles of the nature of matter by reasoning
and the use of numbers and/or logic. People high in this kind of intelligence understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system, the way a scientist or logician does; or can
manipulate numbers, quantities, and operations, the way a mathematician does.

log/journal -- a form of observation technique that involves making a page of notes about children's behavior in a cumulative journal.

logophobia -- fear of words.

long bones -- A long bone is a bone that has a shaft and 2 ends and is longer than it is wide. Long bones have a thick outside layer of compact
bone and an inner medullary cavity containing bone marrow. The ends of a long bone contain spongy bone and an
epiphyseal line. The
epiphyseal line is a remnant of an area that contained
hyaline cartilage that grew during childhood to lengthen the bone. All of the bones in the
arms and legs, except the
patella, and bones of the wrist, and ankle, are long bones ----------->>.

long cane --
see Hoover cane or white cane.

longevous marriage --
a long-term marriage that lasts 50 years or more.

longitudinal design -- participants are studied repeatedly at different ages, and changes noted as participants mature. A long time span is needed for this kind of study.

longitudinal-sequential design -- a research design with both longitudinal and cross-sectional components in which groups of participants born in different years are followed over time.

longitudinal study -- method in which the same group of individuals is tested at different points in time.

long term memory -- the part of the information processing system that has an unlimited capacity for storing information over long periods of time.

looking-glass self -- the idea that you learn about yourself based on the feedback you receive from others.

loom -- the art of weaving; to come into view as a massive, distorted, or indistinct image.

looping -- the practice of keeping a teacher and a group of children in a class together for two or more years.

loop systems -- closed-circuit wiring that sends FM signals from an audio system directly to an electronic coil in a student's hearing aid. The receiver picks up the signals, much as a
remote-control device sends infrared signals to a television.

lophobia -- fear of rust.

loss -- a general feeling of sadness due to having someone or something that one values taken away.

loose connective tissue -- a type of connective tissue that holds organs and epithelia in place and has a number of proteinaceous fibers including collagen and elastin. It also
surrounds the
blood vessels and nerves. The cells of this tissue are loosely separated in the rich extracellular matrix.

loquacious -- talkative; given to excessive or fluent talk; garrulous; full of excessive talk; wordy.

lorgnette -- a pair of eyeglasses or opera glasses with a handle.

lorry -- a motor truck.

loudness -- one of the two aspects of voice, referring to the intensity of sound produced while speaking.

Lou Gehrig's Disease -- see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

love -- intimacy with, caring for, and commitment to another person.

love and belonging needs -- Maslow: the third level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs model. This level includes the need for friends, a sweetheart, children, affection, community,
marriage, church group, other clubs or groups, etc. It a person lacks love and belonging needs, he/she may become increasingly susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties.

love at first sight -- Jung: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings
of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the
collective unconscious. Grander examples are the creative experiences
shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and
literature. A nice example that has been greatly discussed recently is the near-death experience. It seems that many people, of many different cultural backgrounds, find that they have very
similar recollections when they are brought back from a close encounter with death. They speak of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being
pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light, of seeing deceased relatives or religious figures waiting for them, and of their disappointment at having to leave this happy scene to return
to their bodies. Perhaps we are all "built" to experience death in this fashion.

love styles -- a typology of love attitude constellations that includes six major types: Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-playing love), Storge (friendship love), Pragma (practical love),
Mania (possessive, dependent love), and Agape (altruistic love).

love withdrawal -- disciplinary techniques in which parents ignore, withhold affection from, or express lack of love for the child.

low birthweight (LBW) -- term describing infants born after 37 weeks gestation but weighing less than 5.5 pounds (2,500 grams).

low-density lipoproteins (LDL) -- a lipoprotein with a low protein to fat ratio that contains a high level of cholesterol; high blood levels of LDL may signal increased risk for heart disease.

lower level esteem -- Maslow: In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the fourth level, which includes both lower level esteem needs and higher level esteem needs. In the lower level, one
needs esteem from others: the need for respect, status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, dignity, appreciation, dominance.

Lowe syndrome (Oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome) -- bilateral cataracts at birth, hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, kidney dysfunction, dysmorphic facies, failure to thrive,
vitamin D-resistant
rickets, seizures, visual impairment, glaucoma, intellectual disability in 75%, behavioral problems, intention tremor, craniosynostosis, peripheral neuropathy
(damage to nerves). Caused by an abnormal inositol phosphate metabolism caused by mutations in the OCRL1 gene on chromosome Xq26.1;
X-linked recessive, with 1/3 of cases being
new mutation.

lower brain -- this is the lower portion of the brain composed of the upper spinal cord, medulla, pons, and some say the reticular formation. It sorts sensory information and regulates
survival functions like breathing and heart rate.

lower esophageal sphincter -- the muscular valve connecting the esophagus and stomach and normally preventing reflux.

low incidence disabilities -- special education categories with relatively few students.

low muscle tone -- loose or weak muscles  (----------------------------------------------------------->).

low vision-- Visual impairment
that exists after correction, but one in which the potential exists for the use of vision, with or without low-vision
devices, to accomplish daily tasks, mild to moderate vision impairment with visual
acuity between 20/70 and 20/200.

low vision devices -- optical and non-optical devices and strategies that allow an individual with low vision to accomplish near and distant tasks.

loyalty response -- a passive, constructive response to a deteriorating relationship; choosing to stay with one's partner despite any problems but making no attempt to try to resolve them,
hoping they will smooth out over time.

LPN -- see licensed practical nurse.

LRE --
see least restrictive environment.

lubricious --
slippery with oil or lubricant; offensively lewd or intending to be lewd.

LUCA -- Last Universal Common Ancestorl cenancestor; the most recent organism from which all organisms living now on Earth descend. Thus
it is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all current life on earth. It is estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago.  
(See picture that is not of a LUCA, by the way.)

lucent --
shining; gleaming brilliantly.

lucid -- suffused with light; luminous; translucent; having full use of one's faculties; sane; clear to the understanding; intelligible.

luciferin -- any of various organic substances in luminescent organisms (as fireflies) that upon oxidation produce a virtually heatless light.

lucrative -- producing wealth; profitable.

ludibrious -- adjective: apt to be a subject of jest or mockery.

ludic -- of, relating to, or characterized by play; playful.

ludus -- according to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of the six basic styles of loving: playful love, love as pleasure and fun and games. This love style focuses
on sex as recreation, the enjoyment of many sexual partners rather than concentrating on one serious relationship.

luge -- a small one- or two-person sled on which one lies supine and feet first. Steering is done by flexing the sled's runners with the calf of each leg or exerting opposite shoulder pressure to
the seat.

lugubrious -- looking or sounding sad and dismal.

lullaby -- song or tune devised to lull something to sleep.

lumbar -- pertaining to the lower back.

lumbar puncture -- the tapping of the subarachnoid space to obtain cerebrospinal fluid from the lower back region. This procedure is used
to diagnose meningitis and to measure chemicals in the spinal fluid. It is also called a
spinal tap (------------------------------------------------------->).

lumbar vertebrae --
there are five lumbar vertebrae, located in the lower back. These vertebrae receive the most stress and are the weght-
bearing portion of the back. They allow movements  such as flexion and extension, and some lateral flexion.
See picture.

luminal -- of or pertaining to the lumen (the measure of light perceived by the human eye).

luminary -- one who is an inspiration to others; one who attained success in a chosen field.

lunacy -- insanity; insanity with brief moment of clarity.

lunar calendar -- a calendar based on the cycles of the moon. Festivals are tied to specific lunar months and phases of the moon, for instance
the Chinese New Year begins at the second new moon after the winter solstice. The Islamic and Jewish calendars are also lunar based.

lungs -- paired organs in the chest that perform respiration. Each human has 2 lungs. Each lung is between 10 to 12
inches long. They are separated by a structure called the
mediastinum which contains the heart, trachea, esophagus,
and blood vessels. Lungs are covered by a protective membrane called the pulmonary pleura.  Each day, a person
takes about 23,000 breaths, which bring almost 10,000 quarts of air into the lungs. This air contains oxygen, which the
cells of the body need to function.
See picture.

lunula --
white crescent at the base of the fingernail

lupus -- a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs when the body attacks its own tissues and organs. Inflammation caused by lupus can affect many different body systems, including joints,
skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs. It occurs more often in women. There are four kinds of lupus --
systemic lupus erythematosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-
induced lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common and the most serious.

luscious -- delicious; sexy; cloying; alluring.

lustrous -- having noticeable or vivid luster and sheen.

lutetium -- atomic number 71, symbol Lu; a silvery-white rare earth element that is exceptionally difficult to separate from the other rare earth element; used in nuclear technology; obtained
from gadolinite, monazite, yttrium, and xenotime; discovered in 1907 by
Georges Urbain. Its radioactive isotope is used in determining the age of meteorites.

lycan -- a creature that has the appearance and characteristics of an animal. Lycans are similar to werewolves. However, lycans are thought to undergo their change (human to wolf that
drinks human blood, eats human flesh, and then returns to human form) by means of witchcraft or magic. In the Middle Ages, the church condemned lycans and punished supposed
offenders. The term is also used to describe a form of insanity in which a person believes himself to be an animal and then behaves accordingly. A group of lycans is a lunarcrescent. A lycan
baby is a cub (when in wolf form, otherwise, an infant.)

lycanthrope -- a werewolf; a person affected with lycanthropy.

lygophobia -- fear of darkness.

Lyme disease -- bacterial illness caused by the bite of infected deer ticks found in grassy or wooded areas. The result is a red ring around the bite, flu-like symptoms, followed by numbness,
pain, weakness,
Bell's palsy, visual disturbances, and meningitis symptoms. Other problems, which may not occur until weeks, months, or years later, are decreased concentration,
irritability, memory and sleep disorders, and nerve damage in the arms and legs.

lymph -- a clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances.

lymphadenopathy -- an enlargement of lymph nodes.

lymphatic connective tissue -- a tissue primarily involved in immune responses that consists of lymphocytes and other white blood cells enmeshed in connective tissue through which
the lymph passes.

lymphatic system -- an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. It is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels that
carry lymph throughout the body.

lymph glands (lymph nodes) -- specialized groupings of lymphatic tissue that produce and store white blood cells for protection against infection
and illness.
(See picture.)

lymphoblast --
an immature cell that gives rise to a lymphocyte.

lymphocyte -- blood cells which originate from fetal stem cells and develop in the bone marrow. They comprise 25% of the total white blood cell
count, but they increase in number in response to infection or antigens.

lymphoid cells -- any of the cells that mediate the production of immunity, including lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells.

lymphoid interstitial pneumonia -- a relatively rare form of lung disease characterized by the buildup of lymphocytes in the air spaces (alveoli) of the lungs. It is frequently associated with
HIV, rheumatoid arthritis, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Symptoms are finger clubbing (in children), enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, enlarged parotid gland, cough, chest pain,
coughing up blood, breathing difficulty, enlarged lymph nodes, and
failure to thrive (in children).

lymphomas -- cancerous growths of the lymphoid tissue. They are one of the complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

lymph vessel (lymphatic vessel) -- a vessel that carries fluid away from the tissues. The smallest lymphatic vessels are lymph capillaries, which are found in all regions of the body except
the
bone marrow, central nervous system, and tissues that lack blood vessels.

lyonization -- the genetic principle discovered by Mary Lyon that there is X-chromosome inactivation in females.

lysosomal storage disorder -- disorder caused by a lack of enzymes that normally eliminate unwanted substances in the cells of the body. The enzymes are found in sac-like structures in
cells called lysosomes
. They act as the "recycling center" of each cell, breaking down unwanted material into simple products for the cell to use to build new material. The lack of certain
enzymes causes a buildup of the substances normally eliminated, and deposits of those substances accumulate in many cells of the body. There are more than 40 known lysosomal storage
disorders, including
Gaucher disease, Neimann-Pick B disease, Hurler syndrome, and Tay Sachs disease.  

lysosome -- minute organelle in a cell that contains enzymes used to digest potentially toxic material.

lyssophobia -- fear of insanity.
(JKL)
A   B   C    D    E    F    G    H    I  M    NO  PQ  R  
Sa--So   Sp--Sz  T    U--Z
"What does a
woman want?"
--
Sigmund Freud