IAES -- see Interim Alternative Educational Setting.

iatrophobia --
fear of doctors.

ice mice -- a candy sold at Honeydukes in Hogsmeade (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling). They cause the consumer's teeth to "chatter and squeak."

icicle -- a sliver of tapered, frozen water, usually hanging from something.

iconoclast -- a breaker or destroyer of religious images; a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions as being based on error or superstition; nonconformist; rebel;
dissenter; radical.

iconic mode of presentation -- the stage in Bruner's theory of development in which the child uses mental images of objects or pictures to represent the acquisition of knowledge and to
foster understanding of the world.

ictal -- pertaining to a seizure event.

icterus -- see jaundice.

ichthyophobia -- fear of fish.

id -- the part of the psyche that is primitive and instinctual. According to Freud, the part of  the psyche, residing in the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive
impulses that seek satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle and are modified by the
ego and the superego before they are given overt expression.
The permanently unconscious motivational cauldron of the mind. From the id originate all the drives that impel psychic life. A "residue of countless egos" inherited
from prior generations, the id is the amoral beast within us that seeks only its own gratification through tension discharge. It is powered by the bodily instincts and is
wholly irrational. Analogous to the job of the imperialist and the industrialist, the job of the ego is to dominate it. The term id comes from
Groddeck, who called the
ego "it" and then Freud admittedly derived his "Id" from this

see insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

see Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

idealism --
act of envisioning things in an ideal form; pursuit of one's ideals.

idealization -- a conscious or unconscious defense mechanism in which a person overestimates an admired aspect or attribute of another person.

ideal self -- Rogers: the self that society deems is worthy -- something always out of reach, a standard we can't meet.

IDEIA -- the most recent authorization of IDEA in 2004 (PL 108-446) changed the name to Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act in an attempt to align this law with No
Child Left Behind
(PL 107-110).

identical, or monozygotic twins -- twins that result when a zygote, during the early stages of cell duplication, divides in two. The twins have the same genetic code. They are formed from
fertilization of one egg by one sperm.

identification -- to seek out and classify children with disabilities within special education categories.  Freud: an early, primitive kind of attachment to an object which results in incorporating
some of its aspects into oneself.
Ego and superego make use of identification to attract libido away from objects and toward themselves, thereby building up the personality. Other types
narcissistic, goal-oriented, object loss, and aggressor identification.

identification theory -- Sigmund Freud's explanation of gender acquisition, emphasizing how children's awareness of genital differences between women and men plays a part in their
development as females or males.

identity -- one's sense of who one is, where one has been, and where one is going in life.

identity achieved -- identity status of those adolescents who have experienced a period of exploration, crisis, and commitment.

identity bargaining -- process whereby the realities of the marriage oblige spouses to adjust their idealized expectations of each other.

identity concept -- the essential "sameness" of an object despite physical changes to it.

identity confused -- identity status of those adolescents who have not explored or committed themselves to a specific identity choice.

identity crisis -- a period of uncertainty or confusion in which a person's sense of self becomes insecure.

identity diffusion -- an incomplete sense of self.

identity vs. identity confusion -- the fifth stage of Erikson's model. Adolescents try to achieve identity through self-chosen values and goals OR they feel confusion about future adult

ideophobia -- fear of ideas.

ideophones -- onomatopoeic words in Bantu (African) languages that represent sounds or concepts, such as "yolee yolee yolee" for "quietly quietly quietly" as used by Baba Wague
in The Hatseller and the Monkeys.

idiolect -- an individual's unique linguistic style.

idiom -- an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning, which is different from the literal meaning of the expression, word, or phrase. Examples: catch a cold, see eye to eye,
under the weather, on pins and needles, head in the sand, born yesterday, feel like a million, hold your horses, going bananas.

idiopathic -- arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause.

idyllic -- like an idyll; extremely happy, peaceful, or picturesque.

IEP -- see individualized education plan (or program).

if-then technique --
behavior management technique based on contingencies (e.g., "If you put away your toys, then we can have our snack time.")

IFSP -- see individualized family service plan (or program).

ignominious --
marked by or attended with ignominy; discreditable; humiliating; bearing or deserving ignominy; contemptible; degrading, disgraceful, dishonorable, shameful, despicable,

ignominy -- disgrace, dishonor, public contempt; shameful or dishonorable quality or conduct; disrepute, discredit, shame, obloquy, opprobrium.

ignoramus -- an utterly ignorant person; dunce.

ileostomy -- a surgically placed opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall to divert bowel or bladder contents after an operation.

ileum -- lower portion of the small intestine (------------------------------------------>).

ilioinguinal nerve -- a nerve that arises from the first lumbar nerve, passes through the superficial inguinal ring, and supplies the skin of the
upper medial thigh and of the scrotum or of the labia majora.

ilium -- the uppermost and larges bone of the pelvis. (See picture.)

illecebrous --
adjective: alluring, enticing, attractive.

illiteracy -- the inability to read or write.

illocutionary stage -- a stage of language development in which infants communicate intentionally, but are still using mostly nonverbal signals to
direct adult attention (develops at 8 to 15 months).

illusions -- a distortion of the senses, revealing how the brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. Illusions may occur with more
of the human senses than vision, but visual illusions are the most well known and understood. Illusions are not

illusory -- produced by, based on, or having the nature of an illusion; deceptive.

illustrate -- to clarify or explain with examples or comparisons.

imagery -- the formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of images collectively; pictorial images; rhetorical images; figurative description or illustration.

image schemas -- primitive notions, based on the visual appearance of objects, that lay a foundation for thinking about them.

imaginary audience -- a characteristic of adolescents' self consciousness, involving the feeling that they are  on stage with people watching their every move.

imaginary companions -- about 25% to 45% of preschoolers have these, special fantasized friends endowed with human-like qualities.

imaginative play -- in Piaget's theory of play, imaginative play is one of the purest forms of symbolic thought available to a young child.

imagos -- Jung: see archetype, Freud: see object.

imbibition -- the act or action of imbibing; the taking up of fluid by a colloidal system resulting in swelling.

imbroglio -- extremely confused, complicated, or embarrassing situation.

imbue -- to permeate or influence as if by dyeing; to tinge or dye deeply; endow.

I-messages -- verbal expression of an individual's emotional response to a specific situation.

imitation -- learning by copying the behavior of another person.

imitation training -- a behavior management technique in which the teacher demonstrates the desired behavior, asks the child to complete the action, and provides positive reinforcement
when the task is complete.

immaculate -- spotless; free of sin; without blemish or impurity.

immarscessible -- cannot possibly drown.

immature love -- passionate or romantic love.

immaturity -- characteristically involves preoccupation, short attention span, passivity, daydreaming, sluggishness, and other behaviors not consistent with developmental expectations.

imminent justice -- the belief that breaking a rule always leads to punishment.

immune cells -- the major cell types in the immune system are lymphocytes (white blood cells) and phagocytic cells. Phagocytes find and eat bacteria, viruses, and dead or injured
body cells. There are three types:
granulocyte, macrophage, and the dendritic cell.) Lymphocytes come in T cells and B cells.

immune response --
the body's reaction to bacteria, viruses, and other substances that seem foreign or harmful. The immune system protects the body from harmful substances by
recognizing and responding to
antigens, molecules found on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, and bacteria. The immune system recognizes and destroys substances that contain these

immune system -- That aspect of body functioning responsible for warding off disease.

immunizations -- injections given to children to help prevent certain types of diseases such as polio and measles.

immunized -- a state of becoming resistant to a specific disease through the introduction of living or dead microorganisms into the body, which then stimulate the production of antibodies.

immunocompromised -- having an immune system that has been impaired by disease (such as AIDS, certain cancers, diabetes, cirrhosis, kidney disease), conditions (such as
pregnancy), and medications or treatments (such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy).

immunodeficiency -- a breakdown of the immune system.

immunoglobulin -- an antibody produced by the body after exposure to a foreign agent, such as a virus.

immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes -- immunoglobulin disorders in which there are a reduced number or lack of antibodies. This causes susceptibility to such diseases as otitis
media, influenza, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, hepatitis B, etc. Immunoglobulin deficiencies are the result of congenital defects affecting the development and function of
B lymphocytes. Immunodeficiency diseases cannot be cured.  

immunological -- of the immune system and the cell-mediated and humoral (antibodies) aspects of immunity and immune responses.

immunosuppression -- marked inhibited ability to respond to antigens.

immure -- to enclose with walls; ensconce.

imp -- similar to a pixie or a fairy. An imp is about 7 inches tall and is dull brown or black. They live in damp or marshy areas. They have a somewhat slapstick sense of humor and they love to
trip people so they fall into a stream. They eat small insects. They are more mischievous than they are threatening, and are very active. A group of imps is a prank. An imp baby is a trix.

impact -- in references to traumatic brain injury, the forcible striking of the head against an object, such as a motor vehicle.

impaired articulation -- difficulty saying specific sounds.

impairment -- damage, defect, or deterioration that may result in a disability.

impedance audiometry -- test to detect the presence of middle ear fluid, commonly seen in otitis media. It also detects conductive hearing loss.

impedimanta -- plural: things that hinder growth or movement.

imperforate -- the lack of a normal opening in a body organ. The most common example in childhood is the absent or closed anus.

imperforate anus -- there are several malformations included under imperforate anus – anal agenesis [rectal pouch ends blindly above the perineum], anal fistula [an abnormal opening
near the anus],
anal stenosis [anal aperture is small], anal membrane atresia [anal membrane covers the aperture, obstructing it].

imperious -- arrogantly domineering or overbearing; urgent, pressing; regal, imperial.

Imperius curse -- one of the three Unforgivable Curses. When the Imperius Curse is cast correctly, the victim is placed completely under the caster's control, though a person with
exceptional strength of will is capable of resisting it. Unforgivable Curses are punishable by a life sentence in Azkaban. (
Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling.)

impetigo -- a common skin infection caused by a streptococcus bacteria. Symptoms are blisters, rash, skin lesions, and swollen lymph nodes. It can be treated with antibiotics or antibacterial

impetuous -- marked by impulsive vehemence or passion; marked by force and violence of movement or action.

impetus -- a drive or compelling force; motivation; a reason to do something.

implantation -- the attachment and embedding of the fertilized egg into the mucus lining of the uterus . (See example below.)

impluvium --
of a Roman house, rectangular pool in an atrium used to gather rain water.

importunate (im-POR-chuh-nut) -- troublesomely urgent; overly persistent in request or demand; troublesome.

impotence -- see erectile dysfunction; inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection sufficiently long to have penetrative sex. Primary
impotence: has never had the ability. Secondary impotence: loss of the ability (more common).

imprimatur -- a sign or mark of approval; insignia of approval.

imprinting -- a behavior pattern observed in diverse animal species in their natural habitat -- the baby animals follow along and stay close to their
mothers upon hatching or birth -- this is a pattern that promotes survival.
(See picture.)

improbable words --
unusual and fascinating words that defy convention: blpb -- the sound of someone struggling not to drown in a vat of fresh cream; blrgh -- the choking sound of
someone foaming at the mouth;
bmmf -- the sleepy mumble of someone with a hangover.

improper ethical guidance -- a kind of child abuse involving grossly inappropriate parental conduct or lifestyles that pose a specific threat to a child's ethical development or behavior.

impudent -- characterized by offensive boldness; insolent or impertinent; shameless.

impugn -- to assail by words or arguments; oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity.

impulse control -- ability to think before acting.

impulsive behavior -- acting without thinking about consequences.

impulsiveness -- behaving in a disruptive manner or unable to delay gratification; impulsivity.

impute -- to lay the responsibility or blame for often falsely or unjustly; to credit to a person or a cause.

inadequacy -- the state of being or feeling insufficient; of not being or having "enough"; if feeling discouraged, children will display their feelings of inadequacy by misbehaving.

inattention -- the inability or lack of desire to pay attention.

inaudible muttering -- partially internalized private speech that consists of either overt, whispered utterances too faint to be understood by a listener or silent movements of the lips in the
form of words.

inborn -- existing from birth; natural to a person or animal; congenital.

inborn error of metabolism -- a heritable disorder of biochemistry. Examples of an inborn error of metabolism are albinism, cystinuria, phenylketonuria, some forms of gout, sun
sensitivity, and thyroid disease. These are only a few of the hundreds.

incalescent -- becoming hotter or growing more ardent; boiling.

incarnadine -- blood red; crimson; flesh-colored; pale pink; to tinge or stain with red; of a pinkish or reddish color similar to that of flesh or blood.

incarnate -- embodied in flesh; given a human form; personified or typified, as a quality or idea; flesh-colored or crimson; to put into or represent in a concrete for; to be the embodiment or
type of.

incense -- to induce rage; infuriate; aromatic element designed to induce relaxation.

incentive monies -- federal money offered to states that provide special education services to children birth to age 5; though services are mandated by law, states have the choice to follow
the mandate and receive the money, or to not, and to not. States that choose not to also lose all Preschool Grant Funds, all
PL 94-142 dollars generated by 3 -- 5 year olds, and all grants
and contracts related to preschool special education funded under
EHA discretionary programs.

inception -- the beginning, as of a project or undertaking.

incest -- sexual relations between people who are related.

inchoate (in-KOH-ut) -- not yet completed or fully developed; rudimentary; just begun; incipient; not organized; lacking order.

incidence -- the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disorder in a population.

incidence rate -- the rate at which new events occur in the population expressed as a function of time.

incidental social learning -- appropriate interactions promoted by a well-arranged early childhood program.

incidental learning -- gaining skill as a result of experiences not specifically designed to teach that skill.

incidental teaching -- teaching in which the environment and teacher responses are arranged to prompt and encourage a  child's response.

incipient -- in an initial stage; beginning to happen or develop; developing into a specified type or role.

incisive -- penetrating; clear, and sharp, as in operation or expression.

incisors -- front teeth used for cutting (see???? ------------------------------------------->).

inclusion -- Children with disabilities attend preschool, child-care, and recreational programs with typically developing peers; belief system
shared by every member of a school as a learning community; often based on a mission statement or vision, emphasizing the commitment to
educate ALL students so that they can reach their full potential; including children with disabilities or developmental delays in the educational
setting where they would have been if they did not have a disability or delay.

inclusion classroom -- a setting with children who have special needs and those who do not.

inclusionary standard -- embedding certain criteria within a definition so as to clearly state the conditions that the definition covers. For example, in the IDEA definition of learning
, perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia are included conditions.

inclusive curriculum -- a curriculum that reflects awareness of an sensitivity to a person's culture, language, religion, gender, and abilities.

inclusiveness -- a theory's ability to address a wide variety of phenomena; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured.

incognito -- with one's identity concealed.

income -- the amount of money a household receives from various sources during a given period of time.

income support -- a government-sponsored program whereby the individual receives cash payments to support living needs.

incommunicado -- without means of communicating; in a situation or state not allowing communication.

incomplete institution -- a term often used to describe remarriage, due to the fact that social norms and roles are less clear for individuals in a remarriage than in an intact first marriage.

incomplete proteins -- proteins that lack required amounts of  one or more essential amino acids.

incontinence -- inability to retain feces or urine.

incontinentia pigmenti -- swirling patterns of hyperpigmented skin lesions; tooth abnormalities; microcephaly; ocular abnormalities; thin, wiry hair; hairless lesions; intellectual
in approximately 1/3 of cases. Associated complications are spasticity, seizures, vertebral or rib abnormalities, strabismus, hydrocephalus, history of male miscarriages.
Caused by mutations in NEMO gene on chromosome Xq28, skewed X-inactivation; X-linked dominant
, with lethality in males.

incorporeal -- having no material body or form; of, relating to, or constituting a right that is based on property which has no intrinsic value.

incremental -- A series of small steps that lead to the eventual learning of an entire task.

incubation period -- the development of an infection from the time of entry into an organism up to the time of the first appearance of symptoms.

incunabula; incunabulum (in-kyuh-NAB-yuh-lum) -- book printed before 1501; a work of art or of an industry of an early period.

incus -- one of the three small bones in the middle ear that help amplify sound. (See picture.)

indecorous --
not keeping with good taste and propriety; improper.

indefatigable (hard G) -- tireless; untiring; unwearied; energetic.

indehiscence -- remaining closed at maturity.

independent -- not controlled or influenced by others; thinking for one's self and autonomous.

independent adoptions -- see private adoptions.

independent practice -- practice that does not require direct teacher supervision or guidance; may occur in the classroom or as homework.

independent reading level -- the reading level at which the student has at least 95% word recognition and at least 95% comprehension.

jndependent study -- study of curriculum topics in greater depth or exploration of a topic that is not part of the general education curriculum.

independent variables -- in an experiment, factors or behaviors that can be controlled or manipulated by the experimenter.

indeterminate infection status -- Classification of infants born to mothers who are HIV infected; the child shows no symptoms of HIV infection.

indicator -- evidence that documents children's attainment of a specific level of a benchmark or a standard.

indirect contact -- transfer of infectious organisms from an infected individual to a susceptible host via an intermediate source such as contaminated water, milk, toys, utensils, or soiled

indirect family policy -- government actions that affect families even though their immediate intent may not have been to do so.

indirect feedback -- Covert or second-hand communication, such as one parent criticizing a teacher's methods, not to the teacher but to another parent within earshot of the teacher.

indirect instruction -- Involves a service coordinator locating and acquiring the services needed for a family.

indirect vs. direct service -- intervention offered to students by special services providers vs. intervention arranged among special service providers and general educators, but
implemented by general educators or other school staff. Consultation is an example of indirect service.

indite -- make up, compose; to give literary or formal expression to; to put down in writing.

indium -- atomic number 49, symbol In; a soft, malleable, silvery-white metallic element found primarily in ores of zinc and tin; used for coating high-speed bearings and as a plating over
silver in making mirrors; discovered in 1863 by
Ferdinand Reich.

individual appropriateness -- A component of the developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) guidelines, which calls for the learning environment and curriculum to be responsive to
the individual differences and needs of each child.

individual differences -- abilities, traits, and qualities that distinguish one person from another.

individualism -- post-industrialization family economic philosophy: when decisions are made, individual concerns take priority over family collective concerns.

individualistic societies -- societies in which people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs.

individuality -- qualities that distinguish one person from another.

individualization -- a student-centered approach to instructional decision making.

individualized care -- improving the outcomes for children and adolescents with emotional disorders through coordinated, flexible approaches to integrated, family-centered care.
Services are delivered to children and adolescents, their parents, and families where needed, frequently in their homes.

individualized curriculum -- a course of study developed and tailored to meet the needs and interests of an individual, rather than those of a group without regard for the individual child.

individualized education -- education tailored to address the strengths and weaknesses of each student.

Individualized Education Plan (or Program) (IEP) -- Document prepared by a multidisciplinary team or annual review team that specifies a student's level of functioning and needs; the
instructional goals and objectives for the student and how they will be evaluated; the nature and extent of special education, related services, and supplementary aids and services the
student will receive; and the  initiation date and duration of the service. Each student's IEP is updated annually; mandated by
PL 94-142.

Individualized Family Service Plan (or Program) (IFSP) -- A written plan that provides early intervention services for an eligible infant or toddler, which is family centered. The IFSP can
be substituted for an IEP for preschoolers (ages 3--5) with state permission; mandated by
PL 99-457. This plan includes: anticipated length, duration, and frequency of services; specific early
intervention services; family resources, priorities, and concerns; measurable results or outcomes; present levels of the child's development (physical, cognitive, communication,
social/emotional, adaptive) based on objective criteria; natural environments statement; projected date of initiation; service coordinator identification; steps to be taken for transition to
IDEA 2004 describes these plans: Shall be in writing and contain (previously mentioned items listed above). It should be reviewed at 6-month intervals or more often if necessary;
and evaluated once a year at a minimum. The IFSP is generally used for children under age 3.

Individualized Health Care Plan (IHCP) -- the IEP component for students with special health care needs; specifies health care procedures and services administered by school personnel
and a plan for emergencies.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) -- The current name of PL 94-142. In 2004, the name was changed to Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act
(PL 108-446).

Individual Transition Plan (ITP) --
An individualized plan as provided by IDEA for the movement of a student from one educational setting to another. Generally refers to the transition
from educational services to life, at age 21.

indivisible -- incapable of undergoing division.

indolence -- laziness; extreme ease or comfort.

indomethacin -- drug used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory drug.

induced abortion -- also called elective abortion, purposeful termination of a pregnancy.

induced incompetence -- A term used to describe the effects of poorly functioning equipment on children with developmental disabilities.

induced labor -- a labor started artificially by breaking the amnion and giving the mother a hormone that stimulates contractions.

induction -- a type of discipline in which the effects of the child's misbehavior on others are communicated to the child.

inductive argument -- type of valid argument whereby if the premises are true, the conclusions are probably true, but the truth is not guaranteed.

inductive guidance -- a guidance process in which children are held accountable for their actions and are called on to think about the impact of their behavior on others. Reasoning and
problem solving skills are stressed.

inductive reasoning -- disciplinary techniques in which parents use reasoning and verbal communication for the purpose of changing children's behavior.

industry -- according to Kohlberg, pleasure derived from being productive and successful.

industry versus inferiority -- in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of middle childhood, which is resolved positively when experiences lead children to develop a sense of
competence at useful skills and tasks.

ineffable -- too great or extreme to be expressed or described in words; too sacred to be uttered.

ineluctable -- unable to be resisted or avoided; inescapable.

inenarrable (in-ih-NAIR-uh-bul) -- incapable of being narrated; indescribable.

inertial -- pertaining to inertia, the tendency to keep moving in the same direction as the force that produced that movement.

inexorable -- impossible to stop or prevent.

infancy -- from birth to one year of age

infant or toddler with a disability -- 2004 IDEA definition: an individual under 3 years of age who needs early intervention services because the individual is experiencing
developmental delays, as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development,
communication development
, and adaptive development; or has a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay.

infanticide -- the murder of a baby.

infantile amnesia -- inability to recall events that occurred very early in life.

infantile autism and speech impairments -- children with autism sometimes fail to produce speech (i.e., babbling, first words) or respond to language. If language is present, it may be
atypical or restricted. Up to 40% of children with autism remain without speech, or with utterances that are meaningless, repetitions of commercials or others' speech (
echolalia). Or, speech
may be totally inappropriate. Since children with autism can be hypersensitive, it may be too much stimulation to both attend to or look at someone while talking or listening.

infantile Refsum disease -- see Refsum disease, infantile.

infantile spasms --
a seizure type in infancy marked by brief flexor spasms, usually lasting 1 -- 3 seconds.

infant mortality -- the number of deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births.

infant stimulation -- early intervention procedures that provide an infant with an array of visual, auditory, and physical stimuli to promote development.

infection -- a condition that results when a pathogen invades and establishes itself within a susceptible host. A cause of hearing loss; both intrauterine and acquired after birth, infections
can cause
sensorineural hearing loss. Examples of infectious diseases are rubella, toxoplasmosis, herpes, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, bacterial meningitis, strep; all of which can
cause severe
sensorineural hearing loss.

infectious diseases -- diseases caused by biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Congenital infections are passed from the mother to the fetus, and are present at
birth. Acquired infections are acquired after birth. Infectious diseases are such things as
HIV, AIDS, respiratory infections, meningitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. They can all
limit strength, vitality, and alertness; can cause

infectious mononucleosis -- an illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is spread through saliva. Symptoms are fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and sometimes a swollen

infecundity -- a precise term for the inability of a man or woman to conceive a child.

inference -- conclusion, judgment, explanation.

inferential comprehension -- a type of reading comprehension that focuses on what is not directly stated
in text.

inferential thinking skills -- reasoning skills.

inferior -- in anatomy, below.

inferiority -- according to Kohlberg, a sense of failure that causes performance anxiety.

inferiority complex -- Maslow: the result of lacking esteem needs, the fourth of Maslow's five levels.

inferior nasal concha -- a thin, bony plate forming the lower part of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, and
mucous membrane covering the plate. (See picture.)

inferior vena cava --
the large vein that returns deoxygenated blood to the heart from parts of the body
below the
diaphragm. (See picture.)

inferius --
a dead body reanimated by a dark wizard in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). They have
no free will and cannot think; their purpose is to serve as puppets for the dark wizard. They dislike light and
heat, so fire can hold them at bay. However, they are impervious to most other spells, as they feel no pain and cannot be killed,
since they are already dead. A group of inferi is a rigor mortis. An inferius baby is a corpse.

infertility -- the failure to conceive after 1 year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception, or the inability to carry a
pregnancy to term.

infidelity -- also called extramarital sex, adultery, affair, or cheating, marital unfaithfulness -- usually considered sexual
contact outside the marriage or the primary relationship.

inflammation -- redness, swelling, heat, and pain in tissue caused by injury or infection.

inflammatory bowel disease -- refers to two chronic diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines: ulcerative colitis and
Crohn's disease.

inflection -- changes in pitch or loudness of the voice to indicate mood or emphasis.

influenza -- an acute illness caused by a virus; attacks respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; often seen in epidemics.

informal assessment -- the opposite of formal assessment (standardized and other published instruments).

informal conversation -- spontaneous conversations between adult and child that yield information.

informal instruction -- the use of assessment data to guide instructional efforts.

informal observation -- see informal assessment.

informal reading inventories (IRI) --
unique reading tests that consist of graded word lists and graded passages and for which test scores are reported in terms of grade equivalents.

informal separation -- type of separation in which the spouses settle financial, child custody, child-support, and visitation arrangements informally; no legal papers are drawn up.

informal support system -- includes nuclear and extended family, neighbors, friends, and work colleagues.

informational power -- type of power that is persuasive, whereby a person is persuaded by his or her partner that what the partner wants is in the person's best interest.

information processing theory -- explanations for development that are based on a model in which people have limited capacities for learning but can flexibly apply strategies to find ways
around those limitations; a model used to study the way people acquire, remember, and manipulate information.

informed consent -- ethical practice of obtaining permission before using a person as the subject of a study, or in photos, audio, or video recordings; the permission of parents or guardians
to formally assess their child or to provide interventions for that child.

infotainment -- television programming that presents information (such as news) in a way that is meant to be entertaining.

infusion -- the integration of multicultural awareness into the current learning environment. It allows for the integration of many diverse perspectives while maintaining the existing curriculum.

ingénue -- a naive, innocent girl or young woman.

ingenuous -- innocent and unsuspecting.

ingested -- the process of taking food or other substances into the body through the mouth.

inglenook -- a nook or corner beside an open fireplace; chimney corner.

ingravescent -- gradually becoming more severe; worsening, usually of a medical condition.

ingress -- the act of going in or entering; the right to enter; a means or place of entering; entryway; immersion.

ingrowth -- Vygotsky's fourth stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language.

inguinal – of or pertaining to the groin.

inguinal canal -- a small passage that leads through the lower abdominal wall. It carries the spermatic cord in males, and the round ligament of the uterus in females. Blood vessels,
lymph vessels, and the ilioinguinal nerve also pass through this area.

inguinal hernia -- a hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal, sometimes filling, in a male, the entire scrotal sac

inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) -- a new therapeutic gas for treating persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN). It
is mixed with the baby's oxygen supply in minuscule amounts and directly stimulates
pulmonary function.

inheritance -- the process of genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring; a characteristic so inherited; the sum
of characteristics genetically transmitted from parents to offspring.

inhibited -- prevented from activating when not needed.

inhibited female orgasm -- previously called frigidity, inability to reach orgasm.

inhibited, or shy child -- a child whose temperament is characterized by negative reaction to and withdrawal from novel stimuli. Resembles slow-to-warm-up child.

inhibited sexual desire (ISD) -- lack of interest in sex, or an inability to feel sexual.

inhibition -- a feeling that makes one self-conscious and unable to act in a relaxed and natural way; a voluntary or involuntary restraint on the direct expression of an instinct; something that
restrains, blocks, or suppresses; conscious or unconscious restraint of a behavioral process, a desire, or an impulse; the process of stopping or retarding a chemical reaction.

initiative -- an introductory step; in early childhood terms, the energy, capacity, and will to begin taking action.

initiative versus guilt -- in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and
through the development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden.

innate fears -- fears that are inborn and reflexive.

innate releasing mechanism -- an internal mechanism that precipitates a host of complex behaviors.

inner ear -- internal part of the ear consisting of the vestibular system and the cochlea; essential organ of hearing and equilibrium
in the temporal lobe, which connects to the auditory nerve (------->).

inner self -- Jung, Freud: "It is a cauldron of seething desires, a bottomless pit of perverse and incestuous cravings, a burial ground for
frightening experiences which nevertheless come back to haunt us."

inner speech -- the final stage in the development of speech that occurs about age seven, and includes silent self-talk, which guides

innocent -- not guilty; lack of knowledge.

inoccuity -- the quality or state of being harmless, trifling, or insipid.

inoculate -- introduce an idea or view into the mind of; to inculcate; to inject a serum or vaccine.

input adaptations -- how students access test stimuli and questions.

inquiry based approach -- an approach to teaching mathematics wherein students interact with their teachers and peers to develop multiple solution strategies for problems.

insanity -- the condition of being insane; a derangement of the mind.

insecure avoidant attachment -- doesn’t cry at separation; actively avoids and ignores parent on reunion. No distress, no anger. Unemotional response to parent; avid interest in toys or

insecure resistant attachment -- Wary or distressed even prior to separation; little exploration; angry or passive; focuses on parent and cries; fails to settle.

inservice training -- any educational program designed to provide professionals or parents with additional knowledge and skills.

insidious -- proceeding in a gradual, subtle way, but with harmful effects; treacherous; crafty.

insipid -- lacking flavor; lacking vigor or interest.

insolent -- showing a rude or arrogant lack of respect.

insomnia -- prolonged inability to sleep.

insouciance -- lighthearted concern; nonchalance.

inspissate -- to undergo thickening or cause to thicken, as by boiling or evaporation; condense.

instinct -- an unlearned psychological drive. Freud: see drive. Freud discussed instincts, which are relatively unchangeable, primarily in connection with animal life, not human life.

instinctoid needs -- Maslow: the first level of the "hierarchy of needs," the instinctoid needs are also called the deficit needs. These needs only become important and noticed if they
are not being met, such as breathing or eating.

institutions -- establishments or facilities governed by a collection of fundamental rules.

instructional goals -- a plan for learning that includes a statement of results to be achieved after specific instruction.

instructional objectives -- statements about learning that relate to an overall goal, which includes a description of the student's behavior, the conditions under which the behavior occurs,
and criteria for acceptable performance.

instructional reading level -- the reading level at which the reader has either 90% to 94% word recognition and 90% to 100% comprehension OR 95% word recognition and 90% to 94%

instructional training -- a behavior management technique in which the teacher describes the desired behavior, asks the child to perform it, and provides positive reinforcement upon
completion of the task.

instructional utility -- teaching the skills that would be useful to the child in a given environment.

instructional validity -- A type of validity that refers to the extent to which the information gained from an assessment instrument would be useful in planning intervention programs.

instrumental aggression -- a type of aggression common in early childhood: the child wants an object, privilege, or space; and in trying to get it, pushes, shouts at, or otherwise attacks the
person in the way.

instrumental role -- according to the structural-functional perspective, the male role of being the breadwinner and being hard-working, tough, and competitive.

insufflation -- in this context, the "snorting" of cocaine into the nose.

insular -- of, pertaining to, dwelling on, or forming an island; detached; standing alone; isolated; narrow-minded or illiberal; provincial; remote; aloof; separated.

insulin -- a substance secreted by the pancreas that functions to process carbohydrates, enabling glucose to enter the body's cells.

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) -- a disorder in which blood sugar is high enough to require treatment with insulin.

insulin reaction -- a diabetic condition caused by low blood sugar that often results in dizziness, fatigue, and drowsiness.

insult -- an attack on a body organ causing damage to it. This may be physical, metabolic, immunological, or infectious.

intaglio -- an engraving or incised figure in stone or other hard material.

integrated classes -- regular education classes in which students with special needs learn alongside students without disabilities.

integrated curriculum -- Lessons that include, in a single activity, content from more than one domain.

integrated day -- a school schedule with no prescribed time periods for subject matter, but rather an environment organized around various interest centers among which children choose in
organizing their own learning experience.

integrated development -- growth that occurs in a continuous, interrelated manner; a child's progress as a whole, rather than in separate areas.

integrated intervention model -- typical children and children with disabilities are served in the same settings.

integrated related service delivery -- practice of specialists in various disciplines (e.g., occupational therapists, physical therapists, adaptive physical educators) bringing their
knowledge, skills, and expertise into students' typical learning environment to assist in the learning process versus removing students to special environments.

integrated special education -- including a few typically developing children in classes where the majority of children have special needs; also called reverse mainstreaming.

integration --
Another term sometimes used to describe inclusion.

integrity vs. despair -- final stage of Erikson's model -- individuals reflect on the kind of person they have been and then feel integrity if they are happy OR despair if they are dissatisfied.
Old age.

integumentary system -- organ system including skin, nails, hair, glands, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and fat tissue.

intellectual abilities -- reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, and learning from experience.

intellectual disability -- a disability category of IDEA. Significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning that occur during
the developmental period (that is, prior to age 18) that has an adverse effect on education; previously called
mental retardation. Sometimes, syndromes involving intellectual disability also
hearing loss or other developmental or medical problems. For example, children with Down Syndrome are particularly prone to conductive hearing loss.

intellectual functioning -- the actual performance of tasks believed to represent intelligence, such as observing, problem-solving, and communication; one of the two areas of delay for a
child to be diagnosed with intellectual disability. The other is
adaptive behavior.

intellectualization -- an unconscious means of protecting oneself from the emotional stress and anxiety associated with confronting painful personal fears or problems by excessive
reasoning; a
defense mechanism by which unacceptable emotions are transformed by explanations, which provide excuses for the undesirable behavior.

intelligence -- the cluster of capabilities that involves thinking.

intelligence quotient (IQ) -- The numerical figure, with the score of 100 being average, obtained from standardized tests and used to express mental developmental ability. The score
was originally derived from this formula:
                                   100 x (child's mental age/child's chronological age)
This method was replaced by a projection of the measured rank on the Bell Curve using an average IQ of 100 as the center value and a standard deviation of 15. Thus, the modern IQ is
a mathematical transformation of a raw score on an IQ test, based on the rank of that score in a normalization sample.

intelligence tests -- standardized measures of intellectual functioning that are often referred to as IQ tests.

intelligibility -- the capacity of speech to be understood.

intensity -- strength; intensity of sound is based on the listener and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds (cords).

intensity of supports -- the level of assistance needed for individuals to function as independently as possible; often described as intermittent, limited, extensive, or pervasive.

intensive care specialists -- health care professionals (such as physicians and nurses) trained specifically to provide medical care to newborns who are seriously ill, disabled, or at risk of
serious medical problems; also referred to as
neonatal specialists.

intensive instruction -- an instructional approach that involves actively engaging students in their learning by requiring high rates of appropriate response; carefully matching instruction to
student ability and skill level; providing instructional cues and prompts to support learning and then fading them when appropriate; and providing detailed feedback directly focused on the
task the student is expected to complete.

intensive mothering -- a prominent cultural view of the mother role that requires women to give top priority to addressing her children's needs.

intentional communication -- Gestures, vocalizations, and other communicative behavior that is directed toward a specific communicative partner and that have a specific function.

intentional, or goal-directed behavior -- a sequence of actions in which schemes are deliberately combined to solve a problem.

intention tremor -- also known as kinetic tremor, action tremor, and cerebellar tremor; a condition where goal-directed movements produce shaking in the moving body parts -- most notably
in the hands.

interaction -- acting on one another, as in the interplay or reciprocal effect of one child upon another.

interactional behaviors -- ways in which people interact with one another across cultures.

interactional model -- a theoretical model in which heredity and environment are considered to interact 100% of the time; that is, as influences on the developing human, the two cannot be

interactional synchrony -- a sensitively tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to the infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion and both partners match
emotional states, especially the positive ones.

interactionists -- individuals who believe that environmental and genetic factors both contribute to development, and in fact, interact together.

interaction processes -- set of steps professionals use in order to collaborate; interpersonal problem solving is the most often used interaction process.

interagency collaboration -- Cooperation among members of several service agencies involved in the case management of a child and family with special needs.

Interagency Coordinating Council (ICC) -- agencies at the federal, state, and local levels that provide administration and service delivery for infants and toddlers with special needs.

intercalate -- to insert (as a day) in a calendar; to insert between or among existing elements or layers.

intercourse -- see sexual intercourse.

intercurrent -- an illness occurring in the midst of a chronic disease process, often modifying the outcome.

interdependence -- dependence on one another, as in the relationship between teachers' experience in the areas of discipline and their competence at knowing and using appropriate
language for discipline.

interdependent group contingency -- arrangement in which individuals earn reinforcement when they achieve a goal established for the group.

interdisciplinary -- Administrators, teachers, aides, volunteers, and other professionals working together on a common problem. On an IEP team, the professionals assess jointly.
Specialists share information with each other in order to integrate services for the student more fully. However, they deliver services separately.

interdisciplinary approach -- a method of teaching/learning that draws from sources in more than one field of study; e.g., a course in education that uses background from the fields of
medicine, psychology, and social work as well as education itself.

interdisciplinary assessment -- type of assessment in which specialists from several disciplines work together with school personnel and parents outside the classroom to integrate their
separate findings, reports, and perspectives.

interdisciplinary team -- group of professionals from different disciplines (e.g., education, psychology, speech and language, and medicine) who work together to formulate and implement
an educational plan (i.e., an
IEP or IFSP) of a child with a developmental disability.

interest areas -- similar to learning centers and activity areas, one way to design physical space in a classroom or yard, dividing the space into separate centers among which children move
about, rather than assigning them desks.

interest inventories -- an activity wherein teachers ask specific questions to determine student interests, likes, and dislikes.

interictal -- in an individual with a seizure disorder, pertaining to the periods when seizures are not occurring.

Interim Alternative Educational Setting (IAES) -- According to IDEA 2004, if a child with a disability has behavior violations involving weapons, drugs, or infliction of serious bodily injury,
he/she may be removed to the IAES for not more than 45 days, without regard to whether or not the behavior is a manifestation of the disability. Previously, the law stated that if the behavior
is a manifestation of the disability, then the child may only be removed to an
IAES for 10 days, or a maximum of 45 days for if the behavior involved drugs, weapons, or infliction of serious
bodily injury. If the behavior was NOT a manifestation of the disability, the child could be disciplined just like any other kid.

intermarriage -- marriage between people of different racial, ethnic, or religious groups.

intermediate filaments -- one of three types of cytoskeletal elements; the others are thin filaments (actin) and microtubules. Intermediate filaments are stable, durable, and range in
diameter from 8 to 10
nanometers. They are prominent in cells that withstand mechanical stress and are the most insoluble part of the cell.

interminable -- having or seeming to have no end; especially wearisomely protracted.

intermittent reinforcement -- the reinforcement of a behavior based on a random schedule of responses.

intermodal perception -- perception that combines stimulation from more than one sensory system at a time.

internal stressors -- stressful situations that begin inside the family.

internalization -- obedience based on internal controls and standards that children have incorporated into their own expectations of themselves.

internalization of speech -- an executive function that includes talking to oneself in order to plan what to do and say and recognizing when it is appropriate to speak these thoughts.

internalizing behaviors -- behavior excesses displayed by students with emotional and behavior disorders in which actions are directed inward (e.g., extreme shyness,

internalizing problems -- psychological difficulties, such as anxiety or depression, that involve a focus on or within the self.

internal working model -- a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences concerning the availability of attachment figures, their likelihood of providing support during
times of stress, and the self's interaction with those figures. Becomes a model, or a guide, for all future close relationships.  On the basis of cognitive psychology,
Bowlby sees higher animals
as needing a map or model of the world in the brain, if they are successfully to predict, control, and manipulate their environment. In
Bowlby's environmental model, telling us about the world,
and an organismal model, telling us about ourselves in relation to the world. We carry a map of self, and others, and the relationship between the two. Although primarily 'cognitive' in
conception, the idea of internal working models is applicable to affective life. The map is built up from experiences and is influenced by the need to defend against painful feelings. Thus an
anxiously attached child may have a model of others in which they are potentially dangerous, and therefore must be approached with caution, while their self-representation may be of
someone who is demanding and needy and unworthy to be offered security. The relationship with a person's primary caregivers is generalized in internal working models, which leads to a
distorted and incoherent picture of the world, and one that is not subject to updating and revision in the light of later experience. This, in
Bowlby's eyes, is the basis for transference, and the
task of therapy is help the patient develop more realistic and less rigid internal working models.

Internet -- a global network of computers.

interneurons -- a nerve cell found entirely within the central nervous system that acts as a link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.

internship -- opportunities for students to work as apprentices in professional settings to gain information about careers and learn from role models in fields of interest.

interpersonal -- relating to, or involving relationships with other people; those parts of the environment that have to do with the people in a school setting; one of Gardner's 9 intelligences:
people smart. The ability to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others.

interpersonal power -- one person's ability to get another person to do what he/she wants that person to do.

interpersonal problem solving -- interaction process in which a group of professionals identifies the problem, generates alternative solutions, implements the agreed-on intervention, and
evaluates its outcomes.

interphase -- the period in the cell life cycle when the cell is not dividing.

interpol -- International Criminal Police Organization, an association of over 100 national police forces, devoted chiefly to fighting international crime.

interpreters -- Individual who helps people who are deaf or hard of hearing communicate by translating what a hearing person says into signs, spoken words with cues, or some other way
of communicating. The interpreter also translates what the deaf person signs or cues into spoken words.

interrater reliability -- two or more raters use the same instrument on the same child to control bias.

intersex -- person born with chromosomal or external genital configuration that do not fit neatly into either of the two sexual classifications which society expects. Examples are an unusually
clitoris, micropenis, ambiguous genitals; chromosome abnormalities like Klinefelter's, and hormonal causes such as adrenal hyperplasia, androgen insensitivity, testicular
feminization. (Traditionally if a boy had a penis of less than 2.5 cm long, he was made into a girl; if a girl had a clitoris of greater than 0.9 cm, it would be reduced, independent of the cause.
Gender surgery was always done in the first two years, but current thinking is to delay and make a more measured decision.) Sometimes referred to as

interstitial -- in between; interstitial inflammation means that it affects chiefly the stroma (the supportive tissue surrounding the organ's structure) of an organ.

interstitial tissue -- tissue between the cells.

intersubjectivity -- the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding.

interval -- A specified period of the day that is broken into segments to record the occurrences, frequency, or duration of a behavior.

interval recording -- a system designed to measure the number of intervals of time in which continuous, highly frequent behavior occurs during the observation period.

interval schedule of reinforcement -- a schedule of support in which reinforcements are delivered based on the passage of time between responses.

intervention -- entering into a situation between two or more persons or between a person and an object; to interpose one's self into another's affairs, such as when teachers enter into
children's interactions when their behavior calls for some action on the part of the adult.

intervention assistance team -- team of teachers, specialists, and administrators that works with a general education teacher to problem solve regarding a student experiencing academic
or behavior difficulty and to decide whether referral for possible special education should occur.

intervention (in family violence) -- societal responses to family violence after it occurs, including counseling, arrest, and medical attention.

intervertebral discs -- pillow-like cushions that lies between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. Intervertebral discs make up 1/4th of the spinal column's length.

interviewer bias -- a drawback of interviews: interviewers allow their own preconceptions to influence how they ask questions.

interviews -- a form of assessment used to gather information from families or other caregivers about a child's abilities; the family's concerns, priorities, and resources; or other relevant

intestinal -- pertaining to the intestinal tract or bowel.

intestinal infection -- infections caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and other pathogens, which often leads to gastroenteritis. Intestinal infections can be spread many ways:
eating contaminated shellfish, raw or undercooked meat, unpasteurized dairy products; swimming in or drinking contaminated water; touching a contaminated surface or bowel movement;

intestinal lymphangiectasia -- a rare condition in which the lymph vessels which connect to the small intestine become enlarged, which hinders their ability to transport fluids. This
inhibits the body's ability to process fats and absorb protein, and it can lead to serious medical complications.

intestinal malrotation -- twisting of the intestines so that they can become obstructed.

intestinal motility dysfunction -- intestinal walls consist of layers of muscles which relax and contract in a coordinated fashion that propels food from the esophagus to the stomach and
through the intestines to the
anus. A motility disorder occurs when the intestines don't contract and relax in a coordinated fashion. Symptoms may be difficulty swallowing, heartburn, gas,
bloating, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. These disorders may be associated with irritable bowel syndrome,
diabetes, gastroparesis (paralysis of the stomach), esophageal
spasms, Hirschsprung's disease, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, scleroderma, and achalasia.

intestinal obstruction -- a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of the intestinal contents to pass through. Symptoms are abdominal distension, gaseousness,
abdominal pain and cramping, breath odor, constipation, diarrhea, and vomiting.

intestinal pseudo-obstruction -- a rare condition with symptoms like those caused by a bowel obstruction or blockage. But no blockage is found. Instead the symptoms are due to nerve
or muscle problems that affect the movement of food, fluid, and air through the intestines. This disorder can occur at any age, but occurs more often in young children and older adults. A
congenital and chronic form is called chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP). Usually the cause is unknown, but sometimes it is caused by abdominal or pelvic surgery, lupus
erythematosus, scleroderma, Parkinson's disease, infections, and certain medications. Symptoms are cramps, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and constipation.

intestines -- a segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus. It consists of two segments, the large and the small. The small intestine is divided into the
duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The large intestine consists of the cecum and the colon. The small intestine is grayish purple and about 1.5 inches in diameter; 20 -- 23 feet
long in an average adult man. The large intestine is a dark reddish color, and is roughly 5 feet long, on average. The intestines are covered with
goblet cells which secrete mucus which
lubricates the passage of food along and protects the intestines from digestive enzymes. The small intestine secretes a hormone called
secretin, which stimulates the pancreas to produce
digestive enzymes. Most food products are absorbed in the small intestine. The large intestine is responsible for absorption of water and excretion of solid waste.

in-the-ear hearing aid -- aid that fits inside the ear, most commonly worn by adults (----------------------->).

intimacy -- the intense affection for, commitment to, and sharing of intellectual, physical, and emotional connections with another person.

intimacy reduction affairs -- extramarital affairs that entail involvements by a spouse who feels uncomfortable with too much closeness in his or her marriage.

intimacy vs. isolation -- sixth stage of Erikson's model: young adults seek intimate ties to others OR because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot
form close relationships and remain isolated.

intimate partner violence -- physical and/or emotional abuse of one partner by another -- male or female, married or unmarried, straight or gay, current or former.

intoxication -- 1) an abnormal state that is essentially a poisoning; 2) the condition of being drunk; 3) a strong excitement or elation.

intra-achievement discrepancy -- a discrepancy between different areas of academic achievement.

intracellular -- existing, occurring, or functioning within a cell.

intracerebral hemorrhage -- bleeding in the brain.

intracognitive discrepancy -- discrepancies between different abilities such as performance and verbal scores.

intracranial -- within the skull. (Picture illustrates intracranial pressure.)

intracranial hemorrhage --
neurological complication in extremely premature infants in which the immature blood vessels bleed into the

intracranial hypertension -- the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid within the skull is too high.

intrafallopian transfer -- see GIFT and ZIFT.

intrafamilial abuse --
sexual child abuse by related individuals, including step-relatives.

intraindividual differences -- in assessment, the strengths and weaknesses a person exhibits across test scores.

intraocular -- inside the eyeball.

intrapersonal learner -- in Gardner's theory, this learner is self-reflective, introverted, solitary, and prefers learning alone. Often called the "individual." The ability to discriminate complex
inner feelings and to use them to guide one's own behavior; knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.

intrapleural -- within the pleura (the serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the inner aspect of the lungs) or pleural cavity.

intrathecal -- the infusion of medication into the spinal space.

intrauterine -- growth that occurs within the uterus.

intrauterine  device (IUD) (Progestasert and Copper-T) -- Birth control device for females; small, often T-shaped plastic device
that is inserted by a physician inside the uterus. It is designed to interfere with fertilization or, if it does take place, with implantation,
because it changes the lining of the uterus

intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) --
restricted growth in the fetus, producing a small for gestational age at-birth baby, often
resulting from abnormal placental development; intrauterine growth retardation.

intrauterine system (IUS) (Mirena) -- small T-shaped birth control device (similar to the IUD) that is placed inside the uterus by a physician. It releases a small amount of hormone each day
to prevent pregnancy.

intravenous -- entering by way of a vein.

intraventricular hemmorhage (IVH) -- bleeding in the brain. (See picture above IUD picture.)

intrepid --
resolutely fearless; dauntless; brave; courageous; bold; daring.

intrinsic -- belonging to the essential nature of  or originating from within a person or body, such as intrinsic motivation, whereby one needs no external rewards in order to do something.

intrinsic asthma -- triggered by boggy membranes, congested tissues, and other native causes such as adrenalin stress or exertion. It generally develops later in life and virtually nothing is
known of its causes. It carries a worse prognosis than
extrinsic asthma and tends to be less responsive to treatment.

intrinsic marriages -- marriages that are inherently rewarding.

intrinsic motivation -- self-feedback (independent of adult feedback) that a child feels because of having done something well; often referred to as "joy of learning."

intrinsic reinforcement -- feelings of pleasure and personal satisfaction derived from working on or accomplishing a task, discovering something new, or solving a problem.

introjection -- Freud: Ferenczi's term for the psychological action by which a person is internalized and made a part of one's own psyche.

intron -- a segment of a gene situation between exons that is removed before translation of messenger RNA and does not function in coding for protein synthesis.

introspective -- given to examining own sensory and perceptual experiences.

intubation -- the insertion of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to permit mechanical ventilation.

intuition -- the direct perception of a fact or truth without any reasoning process; immediate insight.

inundate -- deluge; to fill quickly beyond capacity; to cover with water; drench; overwhelm.

inure -- accustom to something, especially something unpleasant; come into operation; take effect.

in utero -- Unborn, literally, in the uterus.

invariant features -- in differentiation theory of perceptual development, features that remain stable in a constantly changing perceptual world.

invasive -- a procedure that penetrates the body (such as surgery).

invented spelling -- children's first attempts at spelling words the way they sound to them, based on their current knowledge of letters and sounds. Far from "correct" ("scnd" for "second",
"grrn" for green, or "relly" for really), invented spelling becomes more conventional over time.

inversion -- the result of two breaks on a chromosome followed by the reinsertion of the missing fragment at its original site but in the inverted order. Freud: 1) homosexuality, the cause of
which, for
Freud, was in the boy's failure to disidentify with Mom and identify with Dad and in the girl's identification with Dad rather than Mom; 2) the dream's transformation of one thing into
its opposite in order to disguise it.

inverted -- 1) reversed; 2) in anatomy, turned inward.

invidious -- likely to arouse or incur resentment or anger in others; unfairly discriminating, unjust.

invincible -- incapable of being conquered, overcome, or subdued.

in vitro fertilization (IVF) -- procedure in which the egg and the sperm are taken from the parents and kept in a
laboratory setting until the mother's
uterus is hormonally ready; then the fertilized egg is implanted in the wall of the

involuntary action (movements) -- automatic reflexive actions.

involuntary muscle -- a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in the walls of internal organs such as
stomach, intestine, bladder, and blood vessels, but not the heart (cardiac muscle).

involuntary stable singles -- people who would like to marry, have not found a mate, and have come to accept their
single status.

involuntary temporary singles -- people who would like to marry and are actively seeking mates.

involved style of grandparenting -- a relationship style in which grandparents engage directly and intimately in the
everyday lives of their grandchildren.

involvement -- degree to which a child is affected motorically; ranges from mild to severe.

invulnerable child -- child who escapes from childhood psychological trauma without harm.

iodine -- atomic number 53, symbol I; a lustrous, grayish-black, corrosive, poisonous halogen element having radioactive isotopes; used as a medical tracer and in thyroid disease diagnosis
and therapy; also used in germicides, antiseptics, and dyes; occurs in very small amounts in nature, but is one of the 13 most common elements in the human body; discovered in 1811 by
Bernard Courtois.

ion --
an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. An ion with more
electrons than protons is an
anion, and has a negative charge. An ion with more protons than electrons is a cation, which has a positive charge.

ionic -- pertaining to mineral ions, a group of atoms carrying an electrical charge.

ionization -- the separation of a substance in solution to its component atoms.

iophobia -- fear of poison.

iota -- the 9th letter of the Greek alphabet; an infinitesimal amount; jot.

IQ -- intelligence quotient.

IQ-achievement discrepancy -- a discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability, as measured by an IQ test, and the
student's achievement, as measured by a
standardized achievement test. I can't even begin to tell you what I think about
standardized tests, ...

IQ tests -- Standardized measures of intellectual functioning.

irascible -- easily provoked to anger; very irritable; characterized or produced by anger.

iridium -- atomic number 77, symbol Ir; a very hard and brittle, exceptionally corrosion-resistant, whitish-yellow metallic
element; used to make the tip of gold pens, crucibles and other special containers; also used as an alloy with platinum;
obtained from gravel deposits with platinum; discovered in 1804 by
S. Tenant.

iris -- the circular, colored membrane behind the cornea, perforated by the pupil. The function of the iris is to adjust the size
of the pupil

iron -- a chemical element (Fe, atomic number 26); a mineral that functions in the body primarily as a carrier of oxygen, both
as a part of
hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in the muscles. It aids in immune function, cognitive development, temperature regulation, energy metabolism, and work
performance. About 90% of the iron in the body is conserved and reused every day; the rest is excreted.

iron-deficiency anemia -- a nutrient deficiency common in infants and toddlers.

irony -- a deliberate discrepancy between what one says and what one means (verbal irony), between what one expects and what actually occurs (situational irony), and what a character
expects and what the listener or reader knows will actually happen (dramatic irony). The use of words to convey a meaning that is opposite of its literal meaning; an outcome of events
contrary to what was, or might have been, unexpected; the incongruity of this; an objectively sardonic style of speech or writing; an objectively or humorously sardonic utterance, quality,
disposition, etc.

irradiation -- food preservation by short-term exposure of the food to gamma ray radiation.

irreducible -- not able to be brought to a simpler or reduced form; incapable of being made smaller or simpler.

irrefragable (ih-REF-ruh-guh-bul) -- impossible to refute; impossible to break or alter.

irregular connective tissue -- a loose or dense connective tissue with fibers irregularly woven and irregularly distributed; collagen is the dominant fiber type.

irregular words -- words in which some or all of the letters do not make their common sounds; high-frequency words that cannot easily be sounded out (they, could, though, for example).

irrelevant attack on an opponent -- also called ad hominem argument; argumentation fallacy that attacks a person's reputation or beliefs rather than his or her argument.

irrelevant reason -- see false cause.

irreversibility -- the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.

Iscariotic -- traitorous; treacherous; given to betrayal; having committed betrayal.

ischemia -- decreased blood flow to an area of the body; leads to tissue death.

Ischemic stroke -- see stroke.

ischium -- the lowest of the three major bones that constitute each half of the pelvis. See picture.

I-self --
a sense of self as agent, who is separate from the surrounding world and can control its own thoughts and actions.

isinglass -- thin sheets of translucent mica.

islet cells -- cells in the pancreas that produce insulin and control blood sugar levels.

islets of Langerhans -- groups of specialized cells in the pancreas that make and secrete hormones. They are made of five kinds of cells: alpha cells that make glucagon; delta cells
that make somatostatin; beta cells that make insulin; and two others: PP cells and D1 cells,  which are not understood, poor babies. Degeneration of the beta cells is the main cause of
type 1 diabetes.

isochromosome -- a chromosome with two copies of one arm and no copy of the other (--------->).

isolation -- the tendency of some children to stay apart from others as a result of shyness or withdrawal associated with the more severe
forms of impairment in social and emotional development.

isolettes -- artificial environments used to warm and shelter a premature or ill infant.

isolophobia -- fear of solitude.

isomerism -- the relation of two or more nuclides with the same mass numbers and atomic numbers but different energy states and
rates of
radioactive decay.

isopterophobia -- fear of termites.

isosceles -- of a triangle, having two equal sides.

isotope -- atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; the different possible versions of each element are called isotopes.

isovaleric acidemia --
a disorder of organic acid metabolism; an acute, often fatal neonatal form is characterized by acidosis and coma; a chronic form presents with recurrent attacks
ataxia, vomiting, lethargy, and ketoacidosis. Attacks are generally triggered by infection or increased protein load. Urine smell of sweaty feet is characteristic. Associated complications:
seizures, intellectual disability if untreated, enlarged liver, vomiting, hematological abnormalities. Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase; gene linked to
chromosome 15q14 -- q15;
autosomal recessive.

issuable --
open to contest, debate, or litigation; authorized for issue; possible as a result or consequence.

isthmus -- narrow strip of land connecting two larger masses of land.

it, its, it's -- it means "it"; its means "belonging to it"; it's means "it is".

itinerant specialists -- Specialists from various disciplines, such as special education and speech, occupational and physical therapy, who provide services on a schedules basis
rather than as part of day-to-day educational services.

itinerant teacher -- visits classrooms or home regularly to see that appropriate methods, materials, and services are provided.

ITP -- see individualized transition plan.

IUCD -- intra-uterine contraceptive device. A small plastic and metal object which is inserted through the vagina and into the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized ovum. It has
to be changed at intervals of several years.

IUD -- see intrauterine device.

see intrauterine growth restriction or retardation.

IVF --
see in vitro fertilization

IVH --
see intraventricular hemorrhage.

ivory --
pure white color; material derived from elephant tusks.

Ixionian -- Ixion was a Thessalian king (Greek myth) punished by Zeus for his love of Hera by being bound to a perpetually revolving wheel. Ixionian is an adjective, likely describing that
dang wheel.
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  JKL  M  NO PQ  R  Sa--So  
Sp--Sz  T     U--Z
"Dreams are illustrations
. . . from the book your
soul is writing about
you." -- M. Norman
1 Ovulation 2-4 Fertilization 5-8
Segmentation 9-10 Implantation
A: Ovary   B: Uterus   
C: Endometrium