History of the World, Part 1: Big Bang to 1500 AD (updated historically)
accretion disc -- the growth of a
massive object by gravitationally
attracting more matter, typically
gaseous matter. This is common around
smaller stars or stellar remnants in a
close binary, or black holes in the
centers of spiral galaxies. Gravity
causes material in the
accretion disc
to spiral inward towards the central body.

acritarch -- generally, any small, non-
acid soluble organic structure that can
not otherwise be accounted for is
classified as an
acritarch (small
organic fossils, not otherwise specified).

alchemy -- a form of chemistry and
speculative philosophy practiced in the
Middle Ages and Renaissance and
concerned principally with discovering
methods for transmuting baser metals
into gold and with finding a universal
solvent and an elixir of life. One who
practices
alchemy is an alchemist.

amniote egg -- eggs with a hard shell
to prevent drying, and a series of
membranes that surround the
developing baby.
Amniotes are turtles,
lizards, birds, dinosaurs, and some
mammals (such as monotremes) and
stuff ....

amphitheater -- an oval or circular
building with rising tiers of seats
arranged about an open space and
used in ancient
Rome especially for
contests and spectacles; a place of
public entertainment.

anaerobic -- without oxygen.

anatomy -- the physical structure of a
plant or animal or any of its parts; an
expert in the study of
anatomy is an
anatomist
.

Anglo-Saxon -- people who lived in
England from about 600 AD before the
Norman Conquest and their language
and customs; modern societies that are
based on or influenced by
English
customs.

aqueduct -- a pipe or channel
designed to transport water from a
remote source, usually by gravity; a
bridge-like structure supporting a
conduit or canal passing over a river or
low ground.

archaea -- a group of single-celled
organisms with no cell nucleus or
membrane-bound organelles. They are
classified as prokaryotes.
Archaean

assassinate -- the murder of (usually)
a politically prominent person.
(
assassination)

asteroid -- small solar system bodies
in orbit around the sun. They are small
in comparison to planets and there are
thousands of them. The first asteroid
(
Ceres) discovered was in 1801 by
Giuseppe Piazzi
, who thought it was a
new planet. They are generally
considered to be orbiting in the inner
solar system out to the orbit of
Jupiter.

astrophysics -- a branch of
astronomy that deals with the physical
and chemical processes that occur in
stars, galaxies, and interstellar space;
evolution and structure of stars and
other space thingies. One who
understands
astrophysics is called a
genius or an astrophysicist.

bacteria -- prokaryotic
microorganisms, present in most
habitats of earth: soil, acidic hot springs,
radioactive waste, water, deep in the
earth's crust, organic matter and live
bodies of plants and animals. There are
approximately five noniliion
bacteria on
earth.

basalt -- an extrusive igneous rock.

basso rilievo -- a piece of artwork
that is sculpted, carved, or molded in
such a way that it barely protrudes from
the background flat surface.

black hole -- a region in spacetime
from which gravity prevents anything,
including light, from escaping. They may
be formed when massive stars collapse
at the end of their life cycle.

botany -- the study of plant life. An
expert of
botany is called a botanist.

Buddhism -- a religion of
approximately 300 million people
worldwide. It began about 2500 years
ago by the enlightenment at age 35 of
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha).
There are Four Noble Truths: 1. Life is
suffering; 2. Suffering is caused by
craving and aversion; 3. Suffering can
be overcome and happiness can be
attained; 4. The
Noble 8-fold Path
leads to the end of suffering. The

Noble 8-Fold Path
includes being
moral, focusing on the mind (full
awareness of thoughts and actions);
developing wisdom, developing
compassion. The
5 Precepts are: not
to take the life of anything living, not to
take anything not freely given, to
abstain from sexual misconduct and
sensual overindulgence; to refrain from
untrue speech; and to avoid
intoxication. (
Karma, Wisdom,
Compassion.) One who practices
Buddhism
is a Buddhist.

caliph -- any spiritual leader of Islam,
claiming succession from
Muhammad;
any of the former
Muslim rulers of
Baghdad (until 1258) and of the
Ottoman Empire (from 1571 until
1924).

caravel -- a small, fast Spanish or
Portuguese
ship of the 15th -- 17th
centuries
. They had two or three masts
and lateen sails.

carbon dioxide -- a colorless,
odorless, imcombustible gas,
CO₂,
present in the atmosphere and formed
during respiration, usually attained from
coal, coke, or natural gas by
combustion, from carbohydrates by
fermentation, by reaction of acid with
limestone or other carbonates, or
naturally from springs.

cartographer -- one who makes maps.

Cathars -- a Christian religious sect
with dualistic (belief in a god of good
and a god of evil --
Rex Mundi) and
gnostic elements that appeared in

Europe
in the 11century and flourished
in the
12th and 13th centuries. The
Cathars believed that the purpose of
man's life on earth is to transcend
matter, renouncing power and attaining
union with the principle of love; to
reclaim and redeem matter by
spiritualizing and transforming it.

Catholic Church -- a visible society
of baptized
Christians professing the
same faith under the authority of the
invisible head (
Christ) and the authority
of the visible head (the
Pope and the
bishops in communion with him).

chlorophyll -- the green coloring
matter of leaves and plants, essential
for photosynthesis.

chloroplasts -- a chlorophyll-
containing plastid found in algal and
green plant cells.

Christianity -- a monotheistic religion
based on the life and teachings of

Jesus
, who is the Son of God and the
Messiah. There are lots of
Christian
churches, such as:
Catholic,
Lutheran, Methodist, Baptist,
Presbyterian, Jehovah's Witness,
Church of Christ, Mormon, ... and
about a kajillion others. One who
practices
Christianity is called a
Christian
, or by the name of their
congregation, i.e.,
Baptist.)

circumnavigate -- to sail or fly around.

conquistador -- a conqueror,
especially one of the
16th century
Spanish
soldiers who defeated the
native civilizations in
Mexico, Central
America
, or Peru. (pl.
conquistadores
)

copepods -- any of the tiny marine or
freshwater crustaceans of the order (or
subclass) Copepoda, lacking compound
eyes or a carapace and usually having
six pairs of limbs on the thorax, some
abundant in plankton and others
parasitic on fish.

crurotarsans -- archosaurs including
birds, crocodilians, and dinosaurs. The
only living crurotarsans are crocodiles,
but during the early and middle
Triassic, between 250 and 200 million
years ago
, they were responsible for
most reptilian diversity.

cuneiform -- composed of slim
triangular or wedge-shaped elements,
as the characters used in writing by the
ancient
Akkadians, Assyrians,
Babylonians
, Persians, and others.

cyanobacteria -- (blue-green algae;
blue-green bacteria ...) a phylum of
bacteria that obtain energy through
photosynthesis.

demotic -- of, pertaining to, or noting
the simplified form of hieratic writing
used in ancient
Egypt between 700 BC
and
500 AD.

deposed -- removed from office
suddenly and forcefully

dinosaur -- chiefly terrestrial,
herbivorous or carnivorous reptile of
extinct orders
Saurischia and
Ornithischia from the Mesozoic Era;
some considered to be the largest
known land animals.

disk -- an enlargement or outgrowth
from the receptacle of a flower.

dwarf planet -- a spherical celestial
body revolving around the
sun, similar
to a planet but not large enough to
graviationally clear its orbital region of
most or all other celestial bodies.
Pluto
and
Ceres are dwarf planets.

eclipse -- a lunar eclipse occurs
when the
Moon passes directly behind
the
Earth into its shadow (umbra). This
can occur only when the
Sun, Earth,
and
Moon are aligned (in syzygy) and
so can only happen at a
Full Moon. A
solar eclipse occurs when the Moon
passes between the
Sun and Earth and
the
Moon fully or partially blocks
(
occults) the Sun. This can only
happen at a
New Moon.

eukaryote -- an organism with DNA --
an nucleus containing DNA and other
membrane-bound organelles such as
mitochondria, chloroplasts, and Golgi
apparatus. Animals, plants, fungi ...

eunuch -- a castrated man.

extinction -- the dying out or
termination of a species.

Extinction Event -- also known as a
mass extinction or biotic crisis; a
widespread and rabid decrease in the
amount of life on
Earth.

extrusive -- igneous rock formed by
hot magma flowing outside of the earth,
that subsequently crystallizes.

fable -- a short story, typically with
animals as characters, conveying a
moral. (pl.
fables)

fabulist -- a person who relates or
invents fables.

flatulence -- expulsion through the
rectum of a mixture of gases that are
byproducts of digestion in mammals and
other animals.

Fourth Lateran Council -- convoked
by
Pope Innocent III on April 19, 1213,
but the council didn't gather until
November,
1215 at Rome's Lateran
Palace
. The council was called with the
purpose
"to free the Holy Land."
There were 71 degrees;
Frederick II
was confirmed as
Holy Roman
Emperor
; and many other things were
decreed.

frond -- a large, divided leaf.

genius -- a person having an
extraordinarily high intelligence rating
on a psychological test, as an IQ above
140; exceptional natural capacity of
intellect.

geometry -- a branch of mathematics
concerned with questions of shape,
size, relative position of figures, and the
properties of space.

glaciation -- a covering of ice or
glacier; frozen ice, from glaciers to
permafrost to polar ice caps. One who
studies glaciers to determine whether
the ice sheets are growing or shrinking
is called a
glaciologist.

gnostic -- esoteric or intuitive
knowledge -- the way to salvation of the
soul from the material world, created by
an intermediary being rather than
directly by
god.

gold -- chemical element number
79
, symbol Au; a bright yellow, dense,
soft, malleable and ductile metal; not
very reactive; solid under standard
conditions; transition metal.

goldsmith -- a metalworker that
specializes in working with gold and
other precious metals; jeweler.

Golgi apparatus -- a network of
stacked membranous vesicles present
in most living cells that functions in the
formation of secretions within the cell.

granodiorite -- an intrusive igneous
rock similar to granite but containing
more plagioclase than orthoclase-type
feldspar; a phaneritic igneous rock with
greater than 20% quartz. It contains
biotite mica and hornblende.

gravity -- universal stickiness (Biff).

hammerstone -- an object used as a
prehistoric hammer, to cause fractures
on another object. It might have been a
round cobble of quartzite, for example.

heliocentric -- measured or
considered as being seen from the
center of the sun.

hieroglyphics -- ancient writings.
Hieroglyphics date back to
3000 BC.
They are a combination of logographic
and alphabetic elements.

Hippocratic oath --  see oath below
definitions ...

humanist -- a person having a strong
interest in or concern for human
welfare, values, and dignity.

Hussites -- religious following of
Czech
reformer Jan Hus who became
one of the forerunners of the Protestant
Reformation.

hydrogen sulfide -- H₂S; a colorless,
poisonous, flammable gas that smells
like rotten eggs. It results from the
anaerobic bacterial breakdown of
organic matter, such as in swamps and
sewers.

ice age -- glacial age, a geological
period of time in which there is a
reduction in temperature in the earth's
surface and atmosphere, resulting in ice
sheets, polar ice sheets, and alpine
glaciers.

ichthyosaur -- extinct marine reptiles
strikingly similar to modern dolphins and
bluefin tuna. Their name means
"fish
lizard."
They lived about 200 million
years ago.

igneous rock -- rock formed through
the cooling and solidification of magma
or lava.

immobile bags -- one of the
Ediacaran fauna -- most mysterious
category of life to have ever existed --
along with segmented worms, fronds,
and disks.

ion -- an electrically charged atom or
group of atoms formed by the loss or
gain of one or more elections.

Islam -- a religion based on the
Qur'an
, a text considered to be the
verbatim word of
God. The religion also
is informed by the teachings of

Muhammed
. Beliefs include Oneness,
God, prophets, revealed books, angels,
predestination, resurrection, prayer,
fasting, alms, pilgrimage, etc. Followers
of
Islam are called Muslims.

isthmus -- a narrow strip of land,
bordered on both sides by water, that
connects two larger bodies of land, such
as the
Isthmus of Panama.

Jainism -- an Indian religion that
prescribes a path of
ahimsa
(nonviolence) to all living beings;
spiritual interdependence and equality
between all forms of life

Judaism -- religion, philosophy, and
way of life of Jewish people; sacred texts
(
Tanakh and Talmud, for example)
express the covenantal relationship
between
God and the children of
Israel
. A follower of Judaism is called
Jewish.

jurist -- one who has thorough
knowledge and experience of law, such
as a judge, lawyer, or legal scholar.

Khmer -- the Khmer Empire was one
of the most powerful empires in

Southeast Asia
, with many different
religions and covering modern day

Laos
, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar,
and
Malaysia.

Kushites -- the people and religion of
the
Kingdom of Kush which reaced its
peak between
1700 and 1500 BC.

lateen -- a triangular sail set on a long
yard mounted at an angle on the mast.

lead -- a chemical element: number
82
, symbol Pb (from Latin: plumbum);
malleable, heavy post-transition metal;
bluish-white color but soon tarnishes to
a dull grayish color when exposed to air;
heaviest non-radioactive element;
poisonous if ingested.

leprosy -- a disease that causes
progressive skin sores, nerve damage,
and muscle weakness. It is caused by a
bacteria. It isn't very contagious.

lunar eclipse -- occurs when the
moon passes directly behind the earth's
shadow (umbra). It can only happen at a
full moon.

lycopodium (lycopod) -- a family of
ferns that are flowerless; creeping club
mosses.

magma -- molten rock that is found
beneath the surface of the earth; and is
observed usually in the form of lava
outflows.

mammoth-- an extinct genus
Mammathus, with long tusks and
covering of long hair. The most well-
known mammoth is a woolly mammoth.

marsupial -- any viviparous,
nonplacental mammal of the order
Marsupialia, comprising opossums,
kangaroos, wombats, and bandicoots;
the female has a
marsupium
containing mammary glands and serves
as a receptacle for the young.

mastodon -- extinct large tusked
mammals. The most well-known is the
American mastadon. They look similar
to elephants and mammoths.

mercenary -- working or acting merely
for money or other reward; hired to
serve in a foreign army; any hireling.

messiah -- one who is anticipated as,
regarded as, or professes to be a
saviour or liberator; the anticipated
saviour of the Jews;
Jesus Christ.

metamorphism -- change in form due
to extreme heat and pressure.

meteor -- a sand- to boulder-sized
particle of debris that enters the earth's
atmosphere. Sometimes called a
"falling star" or "shooting star."  

meteorite -- a meteor that is not
obliterated by friction and lands on the
ground.

meteoroid -- a rock in space that has
the potential to collide with the Earth's
atmosphere..

methane -- CH₄; the principal
component of natural gas; the most
abundant organic compound on earth.

microfossils -- itty bitty fossils.

microorganism -- tiny, one-celled
organisms, fungi, viruses, and bacteria,
found everywhere, and are
nevertheless invisible to the naked eye.

mitochondria -- power producers in a
cell that convert energy into forms
usable by the cell. Mitochondria are
found in cytoplasm.

Mongol -- Central and Northern
Asian
ethno-linguistic group, including
inhabitants of
Mongolia and smaller
minorities in
Russia and China;
belonging to the
Buryat ethnic group;
bound together by culture and
language, a group of related tongues
known as
Mongolic languages.

monotreme -- mammals that lay eggs
(platypus and echidna).

moonwalk -- a kind of dance step in
which the dancer seems to be sliding on
the spot; perfected by
Michael Jackson.

mosaic -- a picture or pattern
produced by arranging together small
colored pieces of hard material such as
stone, tile, or glass. OR Of, or
pertaining to
Moses.

mosque -- a place of worship for
followers of Islam.

Muslim -- one who follows the Islam
religion: a monotheistic religion
articulated by the
Qur'an and the
teachings of Muhammad; belief that

God
is one and incomparable and the
purpose of existence is to love and
serve
God. They consider Abraham,
Moses, and Jesus prophets, as well as
others.

Neptune -- in Roman mythology
Neptune was the god of the sea. In
astronomy,
Neptune is the 8th planet
from the
Sun. It is made largely of
various "ices" and rock with about 15%
hydrogen and a little helium and
methane.

neuron -- a specialized cell that
conducts nerve impulses: consists of a
cell body, axon, and dendrites;
constitutes the brain, spinal column, and
nerves

nightshade -- a family and a genus of
weedy plants, including potato, tomato,
petunia, tobacco, and eggplant, as well
as many poisonous plants, such as
belladonna, jimsonweed, and henbane.

obelisk -- an upright, four-sided
monolithic pillar that gradually tapers as
it rises and terminates in a pyramid at
the top.

occultation -- an event that occurs
when one object is hidden by another
object that passes between it and the
observer, as in an
eclipse.

opium -- the dried, condensed juice of
a poppy (flower), that has a narcotic,
soporific, analgesic, and astringent
effect and contains morphine, codeine,
papaverine, and other alkaloids used in
medicine in their isolated or derived
forms; also a narcotic substance,
poisonous in large doses.

organelle -- any of a number of
organized or specialized structures
within a living cell.

orthodox -- pf. relating to, or
conforming to the approved form of any
doctrine, philosophy, ideology, etc.

pagan -- one of a people or community
observing a polytheistic religion, as the
ancient
Romans and Greeks; a
member of a religious, spiritual, or
cultural community based on the
worship of nature or the earth;
neopagan; a person without any
religion: heathen.

pagoda -- a tiered tower with multiple
eaves common in
India, China, Japan,
Korea, Vietnam, Nepal and other
Asian
countries.

paramecium -- a unicellular protozoa
with cilia used to move; feed on bacteria
and other small cells; eukaryote;
very
cute.

pharaoh -- the title of an ancient
Egyptian king (or queen).

phlebotomy -- the act or practice of
opening a vein for letting or drawing
blood as a therapeutic or diagnostic
measure; venesection. (phlebotomist)

photosynthesis -- a chemical
process that converts carbon dioxide
into organic compounds using energy
from sunlight. It occurs in plants, algae,
and some bacteria. The by-product of
photosynthesis in plants is oxygen.

plastid -- a double membrane bound
organelle involved in the synthesis and
storage of food, and is commonly found
within the cells of photosythetic
organisms, like plants.

plesiosaur -- any marine reptile of the
extinct genus
Plesiosaurus from the
Jurassic and Cretaceous periods,
having a small head, a long neck, four
paddlelike limbs, and a short tail.

polyglot -- one who is able to speak or
write several languages; multilingual.

polymath -- a person of great learning
in several fields of study.

polymetamorphism -- two or more
metamorphic events have left their
imprint upon the same rocks.

potassium -- chemical element
number 19, symbol K,
a soft silvery-
white alkali metal that oxidezes rapidly in
air and is very reactive with water.

prokaryote -- a single-cell organism,
the smallest and most simple. It doesn't
have a cell nucleus or any other
membrane-bound organelles. Bacteria
and archaea.

Protestant -- a Christian who is not
Catholic, Anglican, or an Eastern
Church adherent.

protists -- a diverse group of
eukaryotic microorganism.

protobiont -- considered to be the
precursor of prokaryotic cells --
nanobes, nanobacteria
(??).

Prussia -- a historical region and
former kingdom of north-central
Europe
including present-day northern

Germany
and Poland. The state
became a republic in 1918 and was
formally abolished after World War II.

psyche -- the human soul, spirit, or
mind; the mental or psychological
structure of a person.

Pythagorean Theorem -- the
theorem that the sum of the squares of
the lengths of the sides of a right
triangle is equal to the square of the
length of the hypotenuse:
a² + b² = c².

quadrilingual -- the ability to read,
write, or speak four languages.

quantum mechanics -- a branch of
physics dealing with atomic and
subatomic particles.
One who
understands quantum mechanics is
called a genius (see also calculus,
physics, and astrophysics.)
Some of
those particles are quarks
(with all of
their charming names)
, leptons,
electrons, neutrinos, muons, taus.
bosons, protons, etc.

radiation -- the emission or transfer of
radiant energy as particles,
electromagnetic waves, sound, etc.

realist -- a person who tends to view or
represent things as they really are; an
artist or a writer whose work is
characterized by realism.

Reformation -- 16th century skirmish
started by
Martin Luther, John
Calvin
, and other early Protestants.
They protested the doctrines, rituals,
and ecclesiastical structure of the
Roman Catholic Church, leading to the
creation of Protestant churches.

Renaissance man -- a cool term
for polymath (which is also a cool
word)
; a person whose expertise spans
a significant number of different subject
areas.

rickets -- a disease of childhood,
characterized by softening of
developing bones, malnutrition, and
enlargement of the liver and spleen as a
result of inadequate intake of vitamin D
and insufficient exposure to sunlight.

Roman Catholicism -- Catholicism.

rotifer -- microscopic aquatic animals,
found in many freshwater environments
and moist soil.

Russian -- one who lives in Russia; a
person whose family is from
Russia; the
language of the
Russian people.

Russian Orthodox Church -- a
body of Christians who are under the
jurisdiction of the
Patriarch of
Moscow
. It is traditionally believed that
the church was founded by the apostle
Andrew.

saber-toothed cat -- the extinct
subfamilies of several families found
worldwide in the Eocene Epoch to the
Pleistocene Epoch; called for their large
saber-like maxillary canine teeth; not all
were related to modern felines. An
example is Smilodon.

saltpeter -- potassium nitrate (KNO₃)
or the mineral niter, the critical oxidizing
component of gunpowder, and a food
preservative. Also can refer to sodium
nitrate (
NaNO₃) or the mineral Nitratine,
a component of fertilizers, explosives
and solid rocket propellants, and a food
preservative. Also can refer to calcium
nitrate (
CaNO₃) or Nitromagnesite, a
compound produced in
Norway in the
early 20th century. Also can refer to
magnesium nitrate (
Mg(NO3)2); the
Saltpeter War or War of the Pacific
between
Chile, Peru, and Bolivia; or a
saltpeterman, who dug saltpeter up,
found it, or made it for a living.
OK?

Sanskrit -- since circa 1200 BC, the
religious and classical literary language
of
India.

scholarship -- education.

Slav -- one of a group of peoples in
eastern, southeastern, and central
Europe
, including Russians,
Ruthenians, Bulgars, Serbs, Croats,
Slavonians, Slovenes, Poles, Czech,
Morovians, Slovaks, etc.

smallpox -- an acute, highly
contagious, febrile disease, caused by
the variola virus, and characterized by a
pustular eruption that often leaves
permanent pits or scars; eradicated
worldwide by small pox vaccinations.

Socratic method -- eliciting
discussion and insight from students
through a series of questions.

spiral galaxy -- a galaxy that is
shaped like a spiral: spiral arms that
spread outward from the center of the
galaxy. These galaxies have a lot of
gas, dust, and newly forming stars.
About 20% of all galaxies are spiral. The
Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

star -- a self-luminous celestial body
consisting of a mass of gas held
together by its own gravity in which the
energy generated by thermonuclear
reactions in the interior is balanced by
the outward-directed gas and radiation
pressures.

stele -- a stone or wooden slab,
generally taller than it is wide, erected
for funerals, etc. and inscribed with
names and titles. The
Code of
Hammurabi
is a series of stelae of
stone or clay tablets. The
Rosetta
Stone
stele is made from granodiorite.

stentor -- trumpet animalcules,
eurkaryotes, horn shaped, common in
freshwater lakes and streams.

stromatolite -- the oldest known
fossils, formed by huge colonies of
prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which
contributed directly to the formation of
the earth's atmosphere.

sulfur -- an allotropic nonmetallic
element,
number 16, symbol S, .
yellowish and brittle; which exists in
several forms, and burns with a blue
flame and a suffocating odor

sultan -- a title given to certain rulers
who claimed sovereignty without
claiming the overall caliphate.

supercontinent -- a landmass
comprising more than one continental
core.
Eurasia is a supercontinent. Here
is a list of prehistoric supercontinents:
Vaalbara (3.6 billion years ago), Ur (~3
billion years ago),
Kenorland (~2.7
billion years ago),
Nena (~1.8 billion
years ago),
Columbia (~1.8 -- 1.5
billion years ago),
Rodinia (~1.1 billion
-- 750 million years ago),
Pannotia
(~600 -- 540 million years ago),
Oldredia (~418 -- 380 million years
ago),
Euramerica (~300 million years
ago),
Pangaea (~300 -- 180 million
years ago),
Laurasia (~300 -- 60 million
years ago),
Gondwana (~300 -- 30
million years ago).

supernova -- a stellar explosion which
is extremely luminous and causes a
burst of radiation that briefly outshines
an entire galaxy.

syzygy -- a straight line configuration
of three celestial bodies in a
gravitational system (as in an
eclipse).

Taoism -- a philosophical, ethical,
political, and religious tradition of
Chinese origin that emphasizes living in
harmony with the
Tao ("way" or "path"
or
"principle" or the source of, and
force behind, everything that exists.)

teratorn -- very large extinct bird of
prey.

testate amoeba (arcellinida) --
single-celled protists enclosed in a
simple shell, commonly found in soil,
leaf litter, peat bogs, and fresh water.

tetracycline -- a family of broad-
spectrum antibiotics effective against a
remarkably wide variety of organisms.

tetrapod -- a vertebrate animal having
four limbs (quadruped): amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds.

theologian -- a person who studies
and analyzes of
God and God's
attributes in relation to the universe;
study of divine things or religious truth.

therapsids -- any of the various
groups of mammall-like reptiles of the
extinct order
Therapsida, inhabiting all
continents from
mid-Permian to late
Triassic times
, some of which were
probably warm-blooded and directly
ancestral to mammals.

tirthankara -- in Jainism, a person
who has conquered
samsara, the cycle
of death and rebirth, and can provide a
bridge for
Jains to follow them from
samsara to moksha (liberation).

trilobite -- fossils of extinct marine
arthropods which flourished throughout
the Paleozoic era until extinction in the
Devonian.

umbra -- shadow.

virulent -- actively poisonous;
intensely noxious; highly infective;
violently or spitefully hostile; intensily
bitter or malicious;
yucky.

vorticella -- a genus of protozoa,
stalked inverted bell-shaped ciliates.
They live in freshwater ponds and
streams.

Waldensians -- a Christian movement
of the
Middle Ages. They were
persecuted as heretical in the 12th
century. The church was founded by
Peter Waldo about 1177. Their belief
system involves serving marginalized
populations, social justice, advocating
respect for religious diversity, and
freedom of conscience.

Yersinia pestis bacteria -- a
bacterium transmitted from rodents to
humans by the bite of infected fleas.
The bacterium causes the
Bubonic
Plague
(the Black Death of the 14th
century
). It was discovered by
Alexandre Yersin in 1894. Worldwide,
up to 3000 cases of plague are
reported to the
World Health
Organization
each year.

zircon -- ZrSiO₄ (zirconium silicate), a
well-known mineral with brilliant luster
and fire, good hardness; most crystals
are opaque and brownish; often
contains traces of radioactive elements
(hafnium, and occasionally uranium,
thorium, and yttrium).
Hippocratic Oath,ancient

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil
according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a
share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art - if they desire to learn it - without fee
and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me
and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an
abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual
relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must
spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I
transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

Hippocratic Oath, Modern

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are
to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures which are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or
the chemist's drug.

I will not be ashamed to say "I know not," nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in
matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must
be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and
economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as
the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to
preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.
REALLY REALLY REALLY OLD

Universe began (Big Bang)...............14,000,000,000 to 12,000,000,000 years ago.  (Generally considered 13.8 billion.)          

Birth of our sun....................................4.6 billion years ago.                                            

Solar planets formed...........................4.5 billion years ago.       

Birth of earth..........................................4.5 billion years ago. The oldest materials on earth are 4.3 billion year old zircon crystals. Early,
the
earth suffered constant bombardment from meteorites.                                          

PRECAMBRIAN AGE...........................4500 million years ago -- 542 million years ago.                            

Hadean Eon...........................................4500 million years ago -- 3800 years ago; solar system was forming; accretion disc            
around the sun (gas and dust cloud), derived from the explosion of an old massive star; Earth's surface changed from liquid to solid.
No continents yet, just a global ocean peppered with small islands.

Archaean Eon..........................................3800 million years ago -- 2500 million years ago; atmosphere was methane, ammonia, other
gasses;
Earth's crust cooled enough so rocks and continental plates began to form; our oldest fossils date to roughly 3.5 billion years
ago, consisting of
bacteria microfossils. There was a vast amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.                                   

Eoarchean Era......................................4000 -- 3600 million years ago; prokaryote formed which evolved from protobionts; Isua
Greenstone Belt
.                                

Paleoarchean Era.................................3600 -- 3200 million years ago; oldest ascertained life form (bacteria).                          

Mesoarchean Era.................................3200 -- 2800 million years ago; stromatolites, first supercontinent Vaalbara broke up;
supercontinent
Ur formed. It was a small supercontinent, smaller than Australia is today.

Neoarchean Era....................................2800 -- 2500 million years ago; oxygenic photosynthesis first evolved. Supercontinent
Kenorland
formed and broke up about 2100 mya.                      

Proterozoic Eon...................................2500 -- 543 million years ago; stable continents first appeared and began to accrete; first
abundant fossils of living organisms (bacteria and
archeans); eukaryotic cells; oxygen build-up in atmosphere.                            

Paleoproterozoic Era..........................2600 -- 1600 million years ago.                   

Siderian Period.............................2500 -- 2300 million years ago; banded iron formations; anaerobic algae.                             

Rhyacian Period..........................2300 -- 2050 million years ago.                           

Orosirian Period..........................2050 -- 1800 million years ago; atmosphere changed to oxygen-rich due to photosynthesis of
cyanobacteria.

Slatherian Period.........................1800 -- 1600 million years ago; first complex single-cell life; fold belts; supercontinent  Columbia
was formed, also called
Nuna. Another supercontinent Nena formed as well.

Mesoproterozoic Era..........................1600 -- 1000 million years ago.                   

Calymmian Period........................1600 -- 1400 million years ago; platform covers.                        

Ectasian Period............................1400 -- 1200 million years ago; first sexually reproducing organism -- earliest complex multicellular
organism.                             

Stenian Period..............................1200 -- 1000 million years ago; polymetamorphic belts; supercontinent Rodinia assembled.

Neoproterozoic Era.............................1000 -- 542 million years ago.                    

Tonianian Period.........................1000 -- 850 million years ago; breakup of Rodinia; radiation of acritarchs.

Cryogenian Period.......................850 -- 635 million years ago; greatest ice ages ever; all of earth covered in ice "Snowball Earth"
events; very cold climate;
Rodinia continuing to break up; supercontinent Pannotia formed; testate amoebas; sponges. Other life
consisted of microscopic ancestors of fungi, plants, animals, and kelps. The
Sturtian and Marionan glaciations, which are the
greatest
ice ages known to have occurred on earth, and may have covered the entire planet, occurred during this period.  

Ediacaran Period........................635 -- 542 million years ago; end of global glaciation; soft-bodied fossils; segmented worms, fronds,
disks, immobile bags. All life was soft-bodied; there were no bones, shells, teeth, or other hard parts. Extinctions caused possibly by
impact events.                            

Phanerozoic Eon.................................542 million years ago to present.                       

Paleozoic Era........................................543 -- 248 million years ago.                               

Cambrian Period...........................542 -- 488 million years ago; "Cambrian explosion" -- life in oceans, land still barren; includes
Terreneuvian
(542 -- 521 mya) (Fortunian and Stage 2 Ages), Series 2 (521--510 mya) (Stage 3 and Stage 4 Ages), Series 3
(
510--499 mya) (Stage 5, Drumian, and Guzhangian Ages), and Furongian (499 -- 488 mya) (Paibian, Stage 9 and Stage 10
Ages) Epochs
. Life had diversified into many forms. There was no life on land and little or none in freshwater -- just the oceans. Life
forms were barnacles,
copepods, snails, slugs, jellyfish, trilobites.

Ordovician Period........................488 -- 443.7 million years ago; first land plants; trilobites; includes Early (488 - 472 mya)
(
Tremadocian and Floian Ages), Middle (472 -- 461 mya) (Dapingian and Darriwilian Ages), and Late (461--444 mya) (Sandbian,
Katian, and Hirnantian Ages) Epochs. The Ordovician Period started with shallow warm seas, but at the end of the period
experienced a 500,000 year long
ice age, triggered by the drift of the supercontinent Gondwana to the south polar regions, ending
with a
mass extinction.                     

Silurian Period...............................443.7 -- 416 million years ago; long, warm greenhouse phase; glaciers only at South Pole; coral
reefs first appeared; first bony fishes; includes
Llandovery (444--428 mya) (Rhuddanian, Aeronian, Telychian Ages), Wenlock
(
428--423 mya) (Sheinwoodian and Homerian Ages), Ludlow (423 -- 419 mya) (Gorstian and Ludfordian Ages), and Pridoli
(
419--416 mya) (Pridolian Age) Epochs.

Devonian Period...........................416 -- 359.2 million years ago; fish evolved legs and started to walk on land as tetrapods (365
million years ago
); includes Early (416 -- 398 mya) (Lockhovian, Praghian, and Emsian Ages), Middle (398-385 mya) (Eifelian and
Givetian Ages
), and Late (385-359 mya) (Frasnian and Famennian Ages) Epochs. Supercontinent Oldredia formed.                        

Carboniferous Period..................359 -- 299 million years ago; rich deposits of coal-bearing layers of northern Europe, Asia, and
midwestern and eastern
North America, and limestone layers in later Carboniferous; amniote egg, tetrapods, milder temperatures,
lycopods
, insects, tree ferns; collision of Laurussia [Laurasia] (present day Europe and North America) into Godswanaland
[Gondwana] (present day Africa and South America) produced the Appalachian Mountains in USA and the Hercynian
Mountains
in UK; a further collision of Siberia and eastern Europe created the Ural Mountains; marine life caused limestone
minerals;
glaciations; includes Mississippian (359-318 mya) (Tournaisian, Visean, and Serpukhovian Ages) and Pennsylvanian
(
318-299 mya) (Bashkirian, Moscovian, Kasimovian, and Gzelian Ages) Epochs.           

Permian Period.............................299 -- 251 million years ago; Pangea supercontinent; ocean called Panthalassa; includes
Cisuralian
(299 -- 271 mya) (Asselian, Sakmarian, Artinskian, and Kungurian Ages), Guadalupian (271-260 mya) (Roadian,
Wordian
, and Capitanian Ages), and Lopingian (260-251 mya) (Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian Ages) Epochs; between
Permian
and Triassic (first period of Mesozoic), there was the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event: 90 -- 95% of all marine species
and 70% of all land organisms became extinct;
trilobites extinct.
Theories on cause of
Extinction Event:  
a)
magma eruptions (flood basalt eruption theory);
b) ocean venting
hydrogen sulfide;
c) flood basalt, warming,
methane released from ocean;
d) radiation from a nearby
supernova;
e)
meteor.                      

Mesozoic Era.......................................251 million years ago -- 65 million years ago.                        

Triassic Period.............................251 -- 199.6 million years ago; hot, no glaciation; marine dinosaurs; amphibians, land dinosaurs,
mammals, turtles; includes
Early (251-245 mya) (Induan and Olenekian Ages), Middle (245-235 mya) (Anisian and Ladinian
Ages
), and Late (235-200 mya) (Carnian, Norian, and Rhaetian Ages) Epochs; at end of Triassic: Triassic-Jurassic Extinction
Events
: wiped out 50% of all species; occurred over 10,000 years; particularly severe in the oceans; on land, all large crurotarsans,
some remaining
therapsids, and many large amphibians were wiped out.
Theories on cause of
Extinction Event:                         
a) volcanic eruptions;
b) global cooling;
c)
meteor.

Jurassic Period............................199.6 -- 145.5 million years ago: Age of Reptiles; warm, no glaciation, fish, marine reptiles,
dinosaurs; includes
Early (200-176 mya) (Hettangian, Sinemurian, Pliensbachian, and Toarcian Ages), Middle (176-161 mya)
(
Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian Ages), and Late (161-145 mya) (Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian, and Tithonian Ages)
Epochs.                       

Cretaceous Period.......................145.5 to 65.5 million years ago; warm climate; high sea levels; marine reptiles, dinosaurs, insects
diversified;
marsupials; new mammals and birds; flowering plants appeared; includes Early (145-100 mya) (Berriasian, Valanginian,
Hauterivian, Barrelmian, Aptian, and Albian Ages), and Late (100-66 mya) (Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian,
Campanian, and Maastrichtian Ages) Epochs; KT extinction period (Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event) (K = Kreidezeit; T
= Tertiary); end of dinosaurs.
Theories on cause of
Extinction Event:
a) massive asteroid impacts;
b) volcanic eruptions;
c) changes in sea level and climate.    
            

Cenozoic Era.........................................65 million years ago to present.                        

Paleocene Period...........................65.6 -- 23.03 million years ago; mammals and birds evolved; includes Paleocene (66-56 mya)
(
Danian, Selandian, and Thanetian Ages), Eocene (56-34 mya) (Ypresian, Lutetian, Bartonian, and Priobonian Ages) and
Oligocene
(34-23 mya) (Rupelian and Chattian Ages) Epochs.

Neogene Period..............................23.03 -- 2.588 million years ago; evolution continues; includes Miocene (23-5.3 mya) (Aquitanian,
Burdigalian
, Langhian, Serravallian, Tortonian, and Messinian Ages) and Pliocene (5.3-2.6 mya) (Zanclean and Piacenzian
Ages
) Epochs.                  

Quarternary Period.....................2.588 million years ago to present; glaciations; humans first appear; extinction of large mammals
such as the
saber-toothed cats, mammoths, mastodons, long-horned bison, giant ground sloths, teratorn birds with 25-foot
wingspans, etc.; includes
Pleistocene (2.6-1.8 mya) (Gelasian and Cambrian Ages) and Halocene (0.01 mya to present)
Epochs.            

Birth of our moon.................................when Earth was about 50 million years old.                                              

Fish first evolved into land walking tetrapods..........365,000,000 years ago.                

Dinosaurs on earth..............................230,000,000 years ago.                                          

End of the dinosaurs..........................65 million years ago.                                       

Australopithecus anamensis man......approximately 4 million years ago.              

Australopithecus africanus (Ethiopia)........approximately 3.5 million years ago.        

Earliest biped footprints (Tanzania)............approximately 3.5 million years ago.                    

“Lucy”A. afarensis – Afar Valley, Africa.........3 million years ago.

Invention of stone tools......................approximately 2.6 million years ago.                                  

Stone Age..............................................~2.5 million years ago to 10,000 BC, the earliest use of tools made of chipped stone; Paleolithic
(
Old Stone Age) (600,000 -- 700,000 years ago); hammerstones and simple core tools such as hand axes and cleavers; Mesolithic
(
Middle Stone Age) (10,000 -- 8,000 BC); Neolithic (New Stone Age) (8,000 -- 5,000 BC): beginning of farming, domestication of
animals, pottery, weaving, polished stone tools.

Homo habilus........................................approximately 2 million years ago.                                                  

Homo Erectus and Homo Ergaster man....~1.6 million years ago.   

Homo Neanderthalensis....................approximately 200,000 years ago.                               

Discovery of fire...................................approximately 500,000 years ago.                                               

Homo Sapiens.....................................approximately 40,000 years ago.                                                 

Cro-Magnon man.................................about 30,000 to 32,000 years ago.                                             

Ice Age....................................................happens about every 100,000 years.                                                                


BC THINGIES

Copper Age.........................................5,000 -- 3,500 BC; transition to Bronze Age; stone toolmaking gave way to smelting and casting
of easily forged and metallic tools and weapons.                                   
                                                

Biblical date of creation (Christianity)........October 23, 4004 BC, 9:00 am (6006 years ago).                

Biblical date of creation (Judaism)...........October 7, 3761 BC (5763 years ago).                     

Biblical date of “Noah’s flood”.......4,400 years ago.                             

Invention of the wheel......................as early as 3500 BC (in Ur of Mesopotamia).                                             

Sumerian Civilization........................between 3500 and 2000 BC; lived between the Tigris and the Euphrates in what is now Iraq;
developed
cuneiform writing (on lumps of clay).                                              

Invention of the sundial....................as early as 3500 BC (obelisks and shadows used in Egypt); around 1500 the Egyptians
improved the clock to measure hours. (Anaximander, 511 -- 547 BC, introduced the sundial to Greece.)

Egyptian Civilization.........................between 3100 -- 525 BC; lived along the Nile River; built huge temples and pyramids out of stone;
developed writing system called
hieroglyphics; conquered by Kushites.                                               

Minoan Civilization............................between 3000 -- 1100 BC; made pottery and wall paintings with bright colors; fell as Greece grew
in power.                                                  

Bronze Age..........................................3000 -- 1000 BC; making of tools and weaponry from copper and tin alloys.

Invention of the abacus....................3000 BC (China).                                         

Invention of glass...............................about 3000 BC; Egyptian beads date back to ~2500 BC.    

Menes..................................................flourished c. 2925 BC; Egyptian pharaoh of early dynastic period; united Upper and Lower
Egypt
; founder of Dynasty 1; reigned for 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus.        

Khufu (Cheops)..................................26th century BC; also Khnum-Khufu, Suphis, Sofe, Saurid, Salhuk; second pharaoh of the
Fourth Dynasty ancient Egyptian Pharaoh; commissioned Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World
.                                      

Indus Valley Civilization...................between 2500 -- 1500 BC; lived in what is now Pakistan; famous for well-planned cities with neat
blocks of buildings facing paved streets; vast floods damaged the city.                     
                    

Hittite Civilization...............................between 1900 -- 1200 BC; lived along the Halys River; probably the first people to make things
out of iron.                                                     

Babylonian Civilization.....................between 1900 -- 538 BC; lived between the Tigris and Euphrates; great lawmakers; Code of
Hammurabi
(King Hammurabi, 1792 -- 1750 BC) carved on a stone column; first to count seconds and minutes by 60s; conquered by
the
Persians in 538 BC.     

Planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn....................1690 BC; mentioned in Babylonian and Roman cuneiformic texts. They
called
Mars Nergal.

Moses.....................................flourished 13-14 century BC; according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian prince and later prophet;
authored the
Torah; mother Jochebed hid him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed; raised by the
pharaoh's sister
Queen Bithia; led the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea; received the 10
commandments on
Mount Sinai.

Ramses II (Ramesses II)...................c. 1303 -- 1213 BC; referred to as Ramesses the Great; 3rd Egyptian pharaoh (reign, 1279 --
1213 BC
); consider the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire.

Abu Simbel built.................................1250 BC; two ancient temples on the Nile carved into a sandstone cliff by order of Ramses II
(~
1303 -- 1213 BC), an Egyptian pharaoh. The Great Temple was over 180 feet tall, guarded by 4 statues of Ramses II. The temple
was built so that the sun's early morning rays shone through the halls and touched the carved figure of the sun god deep inside. The
smaller temple had six figures, each 33 feet high. Four were
Ramses II and two were his queen, Neferari (birth date unknown, died ~
1250 BC).                                                

Phoenician Civilization.....................between 1100 -- 842 BC; lived along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean; invented an
alphabet improved by the
Greeks; skillful with cloth and other goods; Assyria grew in power and took over most of the region.

Iron Age................................................1050 -- 850 BC; mining, smelting, and casting artifacts of iron and steel; iron much more common
and easily obtained than copper or bronze.                    
                                                 

Chou Dynasty.....................................between 1027 -- 221 BC; lived in China; iron tools replaced bronze; literature and visual arts;
Confucius
(551 -- 479 BC), Lao-tzu (604 -- 531 BC); architectural style palaces, pagodas, Great Wall of China; China broke into
small, warring states.

Hebrew Civilization...........................between 1000 -- 587 BC; nomadic; Israel and Jordan; created great literature, including Old
Testament
(probably written about 900 -- 150 BC); King Solomon; Babylonians conquered Hebrews and destroyed the great
temple in
Jerusalem.    

Homer...................................................c. 850 BC or 1102 BC; ancient Greek author of the Iliad and the Odyssey; believed to be the first
and greatest epic poets.
                                            

Assyrian Civilization.........................between 800 -- 612 BC; lived along the Tigris River; formed the first great army with iron
weapons; conquered by
Babylonians.                                                

Greek Civilization...............................between 800 -- 197 BC; lived in southern Greece; built fine buildings and sculptures (graceful
pillars and columns, temples, theaters); great poetry and drama; wise scientists and philosophers;
Hippocrates (~469 -- 370 BC),
Euclid
(~325 -- 212 BC), Archimedes (~287 -- 212 BC), Homer (~8th century BC -- unknown death date), Sophocles (~496 -- 406
BC
), Aeschylus (524 -- 456 BC), Euripides (~480 -- 406 BC), Aristophanes (~446 -- 386 BC), Socrates (469 -- 399 BC), Plato
(
429 -- 347 BC), Aristotle (384 -- 322 BC); conquered by Rome.                      

Invention of eyeglasses...................8th century BC; Egyptian hieroglyphs depicted "simple glass meniscus lenses;" Seneca the
Younger
(4 BC -- 65 AD), in the 1st century, a tutor of Emperor Nero (37 BC-- 68 AD), wrote "Letters, however small and
indistinct, are seen enlarged and more clearly through a globe or glass filled with water."
                            

Olympic Games..................................at least 776 BC until 393 AD when Emperor Theodosius I (January 11, 347 -- January 17, 395)
banned them.

Roman Civilization.............................between 735 BC -- 476 AD; spread from Rome to England and Mesopotamia, including all the
lands around the
Mediterranean; Ovid (March 20, 43 BC -- 17/18 AD), Horace (December 8, 65 -- November 8, 8 BC), Virgil
(
October 15, 70 -- September 21, 19 BC); architectural arches, aqueducts, amphitheaters, roads, villas with central heating; civil war
and political
assassinations tore the Roman Empire apart; split in half in 385 BC.              

Kushite Civilization............................between 725 BC -- 350 AD; lived along the Nile River, south of Egypt; expanded through much
of
Africa below Sahara Desert; iron-making center; beautiful pottery, pyramids, temples, palaces, developed a written language not yet
deciphered; conquered by
Ethiopians.                                                  

Persian Civilization............................between 720 -- 331 BC; lived between the Indus River and the Aegean Sea; built huge palaces
of mud, brick, and stone; wall paintings; mail was delivered by
"Pony Express"; crumbled before the army of Alexander the Great
(J
uly 20/21, 356 -- June 10/11, 323 BC) in 331 BC.       

Zoroaster...............................................c. 625 BC or 550 -- 523; also known as Zarathustra; Persian founder of Zoroastrianism;
credited with authorship of the
Yasna Haptanghaiti and the Gathas, hymns; with wife Huvovi had 3 sons and 3 daughters; sees
human condition as being a mental struggle between truth and lie.    
                                         

Aesop....................................................about 620 -- 562 BC; a fabulist (storyteller) that lived in Greece; a young slave on the island of
Samos. He told stories of animals that acted like humans. His stories are called fables. Examples of his stories are: the turtle and the
hare have a race; the goose that laid the golden egg; grasshopper and ant; lion and mouse ...         

Lao Tzu..................................................604 -- 531 BC; also Laozi or Lao-Tze; Chinese philosopher; authored Tao Te Ching; founder
of
Taoism; revered as a deity; contemporary of Confucius (551 -- 479 BC).  

Cyrus the Great.................................c. 600 (or 576) -- 530 BC; Persian founder of Achaemenid Empire; also known as Cyrus the
Elder
; "King of Kings of Persia;" "King of Anshan;" "King of Media;" "King of Babylon;" "King of Sumer and Akkad;" "King of
the Four Corners of the World;"
oldest known declaration of human rights, transcribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder.      

Pythagoras of Samos........................~582 -- 507 BC; Greek mathematician; "Father of Numbers;" Pythagorean Theorem:
a² + b² =. Pythagoras also concluded that the morning and evening versions of Venus were the same planet.               

Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama).........~563 -- 483 BC; Supreme Buddha (Sammasambuddha); founder of Buddhism.  

Mahavira....................................559 -- 527 BC; also known as Vardhamana; 24th and last tirthankara of Jainism; philosophy is based
on
ahimsa (nonviolence), satya (truthfulness), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha (non-possession, non-
attachment); achieved nirvana at age 72; the name
Mahavira means "great warrior" and Vardhamana means "one who grows;"
some historians consider him a junior contemporary of
Gautama Buddha (~563 -- 483 BC).

Confucius............................................September 28, 551 -- 479 BC; Chinese thinker, social philosopher, teacher, editor, politician of
the Spring and Autumn period of
Chinese history; married to Qiguan.        

Aeschylus............................................525 -- 456 BC; the first Greek writer of tragedy: The Persians, Prometheus Bound; Oresteia
(
Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides).

Sophocles...........................................~496 -- winter 406 BC; Greek tragedian playwright; wrote 123 plays but only 7 have survived in
complete form:
Ajax, Antigone, The Women of Trachis, Oedipus the King, Electra, Philoctetes, and Oedipus at Colonus.

Euripides..............................................~480 -- 406 BC; last of the three great tragedians of classical Athens.      

Socrates...............................................469 -- 399 BC; Classical Greek philosopher; one of the founders of Western philosophy;
Socratic method
; mentor to Plato (428/427 -- 348/347 BC).

Hippocrates.........................................460 -- 377 BC; Greek physician; "Father of Medicine;" Hippocratic Oath.

Aristophanes.......................................446 -- 386 BC; Greek comic playwright of ancient Athens; "Father of Comedy;" "Prince of
Ancient Comedy"
; Lysistrata, 411 BC.

Xenophon............................................~430 -- 354 BC; Greek soldier, mercenary, and contemporary and admirer of Socrates (469 --
399 BC
); preserved his quotes and the history of that time; the original "horse whisperer."

Plato......................................................428/427 -- 348/347 BC; Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogs,
founder of the
Academy in Athens; helped lay the foundation of Western philosophy, natural philosophy, and science.

Discovery of the atom.......................suggested in 400 BC by Democritus (460 -- 370 BC); soundly rejected by Aristotle (384 -- 322
BC
); John Dalton (1766 -- 1844) 1803 -- atomic theory.

Alchemy................................................~3rd century BC until 1700s; study of metals and elements in a strange blend of science, magic,
and religion. All matter is a mixture of four basic elements -- air, earth, fire, and water. The three main goals of
alchemy were: to change
base metals (such as
lead) into gold; to find a medicine that would cure all diseases: and to make a substance that would make old
people young and allow them to live forever.

Mencius................................................385 (or 372) -- 289 (or 302/303) BC; also known as Meng Ke or Ko; Chinese itinerant
philosopher and sage; most famous
Confucian after Confucius (September 28, 551 -- 479 BC) himself; asserted the innate
goodness of the individual:
"He who exerts his mind to the utmost knows his nature;" and "the way of learning is none other
than finding the lost mind."

Aristotle................................................384 -- 322 BC; Greek philosopher; student of Plato (~428 -- 348 BC). Aristotle showed that the
earth is spherical by noting that the earth's shadow is always round during
lunar eclipses.

Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon).........356 -- 323 BC; Greek King of Macedonia; military commander; father was
King Philip II
(382 -- October 336 BC); became king when he was 20; conquered Greece, southeastern Europe, Asia Minor, Egypt,
and
India; crushed Persian Empire and became King of Egypt and Asia; died of "fever" in Babylon, age 33.

Euclid of Alexandria..........................~325 -- 212 BC; Greek mathematician, "Father of Geometry."  

Asoka Maurya...............................................304 -- 232 BC; also known as Ashoka and Ashoka the Great; Indian emperor of the
Maurya Dynasty; ruled the Indian subcontinent from ~269 -- 232 BC; embraced Buddhism after witnessing the mass deaths of the
Kalinga War; referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka -- "Emperor of Emperors Ashoka;" name means "painless, without
sorrow"
in Sanskrit; "Amidst the tens of thousands of names of monarchs that crowd the columns of history, their majesties
and graciousness and serenities and royal highnesses and the like, the name of Ashoka shines, almost alone, a star."
(H.G.
Wells
, The Outline of History).

Mercury (the planet)................................2nd Century BC: first mentioned by Sumarians and Babylonians who called it Nabu.       

Archimedes of Syracuse..................~287 -- 212 BC; Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

Shih Huang-ti (Qin Shi Huang).......259 -- 210 BC; first Emperor of China.      

Invention of the compass................221 -- 206 BC; (probably made in China in the Qin Dynasty); first used as a navigational aid by
Zheng He (1371 -- 1433) from China, 1405 -- 1453.                                       

Rosetta Stone written.......................196 BC; granodiorite stele inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt on behalf of
King Ptolemy V
(~210 -- 180 BC). It is written in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic scripts, and ancient Greek.        

Julius Caesar......................................July 13, 100 -- March 15, 44 BC (Ides of March); reign 49 -- 44 BC; Roman military and political
leader; child with
Cleopatra (69 -- 30 BC): Caeserion (47 -- 30 BC); in 46 BC, he made a calendar that instituted a solar year of a
dozen 30 day months, with five days left over and a leap year every four years.      
              

Mark Antony........................................January 14, 83 -- August 1, 30 BC; Roman politician and general; children with Cleopatra (69 --
30 BC
).

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro).........October 15, 70 -- September 21, 19 BC; Roman poet best known for the Eclogues, the
Georgics
, and Aeneid.

Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator....................January 69 -- August 12, 30 BC; Egyptian Pharaoh; reign 51 -- 12 August 30 BC
(21years); last active
pharaoh of Ancient Egypt; killed herself by means of an asp bite; spouses Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (c.
62 -- 47 BC
), Ptolemy XIV (c. 60 -- 47 BC), and Mark Antony (83 -- 30 BC); children Caesarion, Ptolemy XV Philopator
Philometor Caesar
(June 23, 47 -- August 23, 30 BC), Alexander Helios (c. late 40 -- between 29 and 25 BC), Cleopatria Selent,
Queen of Mauretania
(late 40 BC -- ?), and Ptolemy XVI Philadephus (August or September 36 -- 29 BC).

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)....December 8, 65 BC -- November 27, 8 AD; Roman lyric poet; "He can be lofty sometimes,
yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words."
(Augustus about
Horace
).

Caesar Augustus...............................September 23, 63 BC -- August 19, 14 AD; reign 27 BC -- 14 AD; first emperor of the Roman
Empire
.  

Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso)............March 20, 43 BC -- 17/18 AD; Roman poet best known for Heroides, Amores, Ars Amatoria,
and
Metamorphoses, among many more.         

Tiberius.................................................November 16, 42 BC -- March 16, 37 AD; Tiberius Claudius Nero; reign 14 -- 37; Roman
Emperor
; during his reign Jesus (4 BC -- 30 AD) was crucified by Pontius Pilate.

Claudius...............................................August 1, 10 BC -- October 13, 54 AD; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus;
reign 41 -- 54; Roman Emperor.

Jesus of Nazareth..............................4 BC -- 30 AD; central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations consider him a
Messiah
. Born ~7 to 2 BC in Bethlehem, died 30 -- 36 AD in Calvary; Jewish. Father: God; mother: Mary; stepfather: Joseph; name:
Joshua
.


0 TO 1000 AD

St. Paul.................................5 AD -- 69 AD; also known as Saul of Tarsus; considered one of the most important figures of the
Apostolic Age; 15 of 27 books in the New Testament attributed to him.

Gaius (Caligula)..................................August 31, 12 -- January 22, 41; Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; reign 37 -- 41;
Roman Emperor
; first Roman Emperor to be assassinated.

Nero.......................................................December 15, 37 -- June 9, 68; Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; reign 54 -- 67;
Roman Emperor
.

Ts’ai Lun...............................................50 -- 121; Chinese; conventionally regarded as the inventor of paper and paper making
processes.

Galen of Pergamum...........................130 -- 216; Roman physician and philosopher of Greek origin; most accomplished medical
researcher of the
Roman period.

Mani.......................................................c. 216 -- 274; founder and prophet of Manichaeus, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity, now
extinct.

Constantine the Great.................................February 26, 272 -- May 22, 337; also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine;
Roman emperor from 306 -- 337; first Roman emperor to claim conversion to Christianity and influenced the Edict of Milan, which
decreed tolerance for
Christianity; Nicene Creed (a profession of faith); city Constantinople named for him.

Byzantine.............................................300 -- 1400; built ornate churches with domes rising from a square base; brickwork, pillars,
mosaics
.

St. Augustine....................................November 13, 354 -- August 29, 430; also known as Augustine of Hippo or Saint Austin; early
Christian theologian and philosopher; his contemporary Jerome said that Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith;"
considered a saint by the
Catholic Church and Anglican Church; patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, the alleviation of sore
eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses;
Protestants consider him one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation.

Fall of Rome........................................September 4, 476.

Justinian I......................................................c. 482 -- November 14, 565; also known as Justinian the Great; Byzantine emperor from
527 -- 565; possibly the last Roman emperor to speak Latin as a first language; renovatio imperii ("restoration of the Empire");
rewriting of
Roman law: "Corpus Juris Civilis;" known as "the emperor who never sleeps;" many wars.

Sui Wen Ti..............................................July 21, 541 -- August 13, 604; also known as Emperor Wen of Sui, Yang Jian, Puliuu Jian,
Naluoyan; founder and first emperor of the Sui Dynasty in China; Buddhist; reunited China in 589 after division since the fall of the
Western Jin Dynasty in 317; construction of Grand Canal started; stored enough food for 50 years in his reign.

'Umar ibn al-Khattab...............................557 -- November 3, 644; also spelled Umar, Omar, Umar bin al-Khat'tab; one of the most
powerful and influential
Muslim caliphs in history; senior Sahaba of Muhammad.

Muhammad..........................................570 -- 632; founder of the religion of Islam; messenger and prophet of God; diplomat, merchant,
philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general.

Charlemagne.................................................April 2, 742/747/748 -- January 28, 814; also known as Charles the Great or Charles I;
King of Franks who united most of Western Europe during the Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and
Germany; Emperor and Augustus (December 25, 800 -- January 28, 814); King of the Lombards (July 10, 774 -- January 28, 814);
King of the Franks (October 9, 768 -- January 29, 814); married to Desiderata (770 - 771), Hildegard (771 - 783), Fastrada (784 --
794
), and Luitgard (794 -- 800) concubines Gersuinda, Magelgard, Regina, and Ethelind; children Pepin the Hunchback (c. 767
-- 811
), Charles, King of the Franks (c. 772 -- December 4, 811), Pepin, King of the Lombards (April 770 or 773 -- July 8, 810),
Adalhaid (born 774), Adaltrude (born 774), Rotrude (775 -- June 6, 810), Ruodhair, Abbess of Faremoutiers (775 -- 810),
Carloman, King of Italy (April 777 -- July 8, 810), Louis I, Holy Roman Emperor (778 -- June 20, 840), Lothair (778 -- February 6,
779 or 780
), Bertha (779 -- 826), Gisela (781 -- 808), Hildegarde (782 -- 783), Theodrada, Abbess of Argenteuil (born 784),
Hiltrude (born 787) Drogo, Bishop of Metz and Abbot of Luxeuil Abbey (801 -- 855),  Hugh, Archchancellor of the Empire (805
-- 844
), and Theodoric (born 807); Carolingian Dynasty; Roman Catholic.

Invention of gun powder..................~800s; China.

Lief Erikson.........................................970 -- 1020; Norse explorer, probably first European to land in North America.

Guido of Arezzo.................................~991 -- 1033; musical theorist and teacher; devised a system of musical notation that has evolved
into the 5 line staff; used syllables that began a hymn
(ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la) and the notes on which they were sung to teach sight-singing.


1000 TO 1500

The First Novel.....................................1008; The Tale of Genji, Japanese literature; regarded as the world's first fully realized novel;
written by
Murasaki Shikibu (~ 978 -- 1025) (a woman), a Kyoto aristocrat; about the colorful life of the royal court.

William the Conqueror.......................~1027 -- 1087; as Duke of Normandy, he crossed the English Channel and won the Battle of
Hastings
in 1066; dispossessed Anglo-Saxon nobles and divided their land among his followers; reigned for 21 years as King.

Pope Urban II..........................................1042 -- July 29, 1099; born Otho de Lagery; Pope from March 12, 1088 -- 1099; initiated the
First Crusade.

Battle of Hastings................................1066; Norman victory between the Norman army of William the Conqueror (1027 -- 1087) and
the
English army under the command of Harold Godwinson (1022 -- 1066) (Harold II, King of England); "the last successful
invasion of England."

First university.....................................1088 in Bologna, Italy; law school first, soon professors needed a license to teach (the earliest
academic degree); soon
University of Paris in 1150; Oxford University in 1187; Cambridge University in 1209; Harvard
University
in 1636; Moscow University in 1755; University of Berlin in 1810; University of Tokyo in 1877; Beijing University in
1898
(among lots of others ...).

Crusades...............................................1095 -- 1291; religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian
Europe
to restore Christian control of the Holy Land, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire; mainly against
Muslims
, pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians,
and enemies of the
Pope; purported relics from the era of Jesus (6-4 BC -- 30-33 AD), unearthed in Jerusalem (the Holy Lance,
John the Baptist's
, ~late 1st century BC -- 31 --36 AD, remains); Pope Urban II (~1035 -- July 29, 1099) launched the first Crusade
in
1095; 1099 the Christians took Jerusalem; 1244 Muslims regained the city; some things that Europe got from the Crusades:
apricots, artichokes, brocades, cinnamon, cloves, cotton, ginger, glass mirrors, henna, ivory, muslin,
opium, pepper, Persian carpets,
pistachio nuts, rhubarb, silk, slippers, steam baths, sugar, watermelon, windmills.

Middle Ages..........................................lasted roughly a millennium (Medieval) 5th century (fall of Western Roman Empire) to 16th
century
(Early Modern Period).

Dark Ages (early Middle Ages).........between the Fall of Rome and the Renaissance.

Gunpowder weapons first used......1100; in the 9th century by Chinese alchemists -- saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal -- Song
Dynasty
was besieged by the Jurchen Jin Tatars -- arms race from bamboo flamethrowers to metal-barreled guns; paper incendiary
grenades to iron bombs; first used in
Europe at the siege of Metz (in France) in 1324.

First sea-going compass...................1117; in ZhuYu's P'ingchow Table Talk: "In dark weather, sailors look at the south-
pointing needle."
, reached Europe about 1190; invented in China in the 4th century BC.

Angkor Wat built..................................~1150 for King Suryavarman II (unknown -- ~1150) (in what is now Cambodia); the largest
religious monument in the world; built without mortar, held together by weight and friction. It is roughly a square mile large; has sandstone
relief carvings of Hindu legends and
Khmer battle scenes; now a Buddhist temple.

Genghis Khan......................................probably 1155 or May 31, 1162 -- August 25, 1227; founder of Mongol Empire; became chief of
a small tribe of
Mongol herdsmen in 1175 when he was 13; began conquest of China in 1211.

Pope Innocent III..................................1160 -- July 16, 1216 (Lotario di Segni); 38 years old when elected Pope Innocent III in 1198;
18 years as Pope; dominated
Middle Ages; claimed right to the Holy Roman Empire; launched two crusades to assert the church's
power;
Fourth Lateran Council shaped the Catholic Church of today.

Kublai Khan..........................................September 23, 1215 -- February 18, 1294; ruler of the Mongols from 1260; completed the
conquest of
China started by his grandfather Genghis Khan (~1162 -- 1227); became first emperor of the Yüan Dynasty in 1271;
established
Beijing as the capital; boosted agriculture and business, fostered scholarship, encouraged arts, retained many Chinese
institutions, promoted religious tolerance.   

Magna Carta.........................................1215; King John of England was forced by barons to sign; held him to his feudal obligations; no
free man would be imprisoned without the lawful judgment of his peers; justice was not to be sold or impeded; no property seized
without compensation; if king reneged, the barons would revolt; he reneged and died fighting in
1216.

Saint Thomas Aquinas......................~1225 -- March 7, 1274; Dominican priest from Italy; began to study religion under Albertus
Magnus
(~1193 or 1206 -- November 15, 1220); Summa Theologica; declared a saint in 1323; proclaimed a doctor of the Church by
Pope Pius V
(January 17, 1504 -- May 1, 1572) in 1567; the patron saint of Catholic schools; declared that faith and reason do not
conflict, but man is rational and can find the highest happiness in contemplation of
God.

Marco Polo............................................1254 -- January 8, 1324; merchant from Venetian republic; wrote Il Milione which introduced
Europeans
to Central Asia and China.

Chartres, cathedral in France, dedicated.............1260; a soaring feat of agriculture; vaults 116 feet high; stained glass windows
considered the most magnificent in
Europe; T.S. Eliot (September 26, 1888 -- January 4, 1965) said of Chartres, "prayer has been
valid."

Dante Alighieri......................................c. mid-May to mid-June 1266 -- September 13/14, 1321; an Italian poet of the Middle Ages;
most famous work:
Divine Comedy.  

Holy Pilgrimage to Mecca..................1324 by Mansa Musa (~1312 -- 1337) across Sahara with ~60,000 men and 12,000 slaves;
also 80 camels loaded with 300 pounds of gold each; gave away gold freely in
Cairo, causing the price of gold to plummet.

Tenochtitlán founded.........................1325 by Aztecs; on Mexico's Lake Texcoco; palaces, pyramids, grand plazas, canals, dikes,
bridges;
conquistadores arrived in 1519 and slaughtered most of its inhabitants; today it is Mexico City.

Hundred Years War............................1337 -- 1453; between two royal houses (House of Valois and House of Plantagenet) vying for
the
French throne; the House of Valois won the throne of France and the Plantagenets claimed the English throne, calling
themselves
Kings of France and England.

Bubonic Plague...................................1347 -- 1351 (Europe); also called Black Plague and pestilence; killed a third of Europe's
inhabitants (25 million people); named for the buboes or boils that formed on the neck, groin, and armpits; transmitted by fleas carried
by rodents on ships from
Asia; seen as God's punishment for sinners. In 542, the plague ravaged the Roman empire of Justinian and
may have been responsible for devastating
Athens in 430 BC. Plague also hit Asia in 1894. A French-Swiss bacteriologist
Alexandre Yersin
(September 22, 1863 -- March 1, 1943) identified the Yersinia pestis bacteria as the cause. Cases of plague still
occur on earth, but there are ready treatments, such as
tetracycline. I'm just going to go ahead and say it seems that this might
not have been the best thing to name after yourself -- forever your name is connected to the Bubonic Plague.

First hand cannon...............................1350.

Ming Dynasty.......................................January 23, 1368 -- June 6, 1644; Empire of the Great Ming; ruling dynasty of China following
the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty. The Chinese Dynasties are: Xia (2100 -- 1600 BCE); Shang (1600 -- 1046 BCE); Zhou (1045 --
256 BCE
); Qin (221 BCE -- 206 BCE); Han (206 BCE -- 220 CE); Three Kingdoms (220 -- 280); Jin (265 -- 420); Southern and
Northern
(420 -- 589); Sui (581 -- 618); Tang (618 -- 907); Liao (907 -- 1125); Song (960 -- 1279); Yuan (1271 -- 1368), Ming (1368
-- 1644
); and Qing (1644 -- 1911), when the Republic of China began 1912 -- 1949; People's Republic of China (1949 -- present)
and
Republic of China (Taiwan) (1949 -- present).   

Zheng He................................................1371 -- ~1435; admiral of huge Chinese treasure ships; each five times as large as a typical
European
caravel; a court eunuch turned diplomat; he led seven naval expeditions for Ming Emperor Yongle (May 2, 1360 --
August 12, 1424
) between 1404 and 1433; sailed to Africa, Mecca, and India, picking up exotic souvenirs.

Donatello (Donato di Nicolò di Betto Bardi).........1386 -- December 13, 1446; early Renaissance Italian artist and sculptor; basso
rilievo
.

Henry V...................................................September 16, 1386 -- August 31, 1422; reign 1413 to 1422 (England; Plantagenet,
Lancastrian line). He was married to
Catherine of Valois (October 27, 1401 -- January 3, 1422), the daughter of Charles VI
(
December 3, 1368 -- October 21, 1422) of France. Henry and Catherine had one son, Henry VI (December 6, 1421 -- May 21,
1471
).

Johannes Gutenberg..........................1398 -- February 3, 1468; German goldsmith and printer; invented the printing press.

Joan of Arc............................................1412 -- May 30, 1431; national heroine of France and Catholic saint; led French army to many
victories in the
Hundred Years War, defeated English at Orléans in 1429; burned at the stake when she was 19; named a saint in
1920
.

First musket..........................................1425.

Sandro Botticelli..................................March 1, 1445 -- May 17, 1510; Italian painter in early Renaissance; Birth of Venus, 1486.

Printing press invented.....................around 1450; by Johannes Gutenberg (1398 -- 1468).

Queen Isabella I of Castille......................April 22, 1451 -- November 26, 1504; Isabela I of Castile or Isabella the Catholic; Queen
of Castile and León (Crown of Castile)
; with husband Ferdinand II of Aragon (March 10, 1452 -- January 23, 1516), brought
stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the political unification of
Spain under their grandson, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V
(February 24, 1500 -- September 21, 1558); she and Ferdinand supported and financed Christopher Columbus's 1492
voyage to the
New World; children Isabella (1470 -- 1498), stillborn son (31 May, 1475) John, Prince of Asturias (1478 -- 1497),
Joanna, Queen of Castile (1479 -- 1517), Maria (1482 -- 1517), stillborn daughter (1 July 1482, Maria's twin), Catherine, Queen of
England
(1485 -- 1536).

Christopher Columbus......................1451 -- May 20, 1506; Genoese navigator, colonizer, explorer; 1492 landed in "America".

Leonardo da Vinci...............................April 15, 1452 -- May 2, 1519; Italian polymath, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor,
anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician, writer, illustrator, mapmaker, optician, Renaissance man; Last Supper,
1498
; Mona Lisa, 1503 -- 1505/1507; Vitruvian Man, ~1485.

Collapse of Byzantine Empire and rise of Ottoman Empire.............1453; Mehmed II (March 30 1432 -- May 3, 1481) captured
Constantinople
.

Amerigo Vespucci...............................March 9, 1454 -- February 22, 1512; Italian explorer, navigator, cartographer.

Gutenberg printed the Bible..............1455; German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg (~ 1395 -- February 3, 1468); printing
emerged in
8th century China; movable type invented by Pi Sheng (~ 990 -- 1051) in China around 1040; movable metal type invented
by
Koreans in 14th century; Gutenberg's press was based on those used to squeeze olives.

Vasco da Gama....................................~1460 -- December 24, 1524; first voyage in 1497, rounded Africa's Cape of Good Hope and
sailed to
India, opening an all-water route from Asia to Europe.

Niccolò Machiavelli..............................May 3, 1469 -- June 21, 1527; Niccolò di Bermardo dei Machiavelli; a Florentine historian,
politician, diplomat, philosopher,
humanist, and writer during the Renaissance; founder of modern political science; wrote comedies,
carnival songs, and poetry; his masterpiece
"The Prince".

Francisco Pizarro...........................c. 1471 or 1476 -- June 26, 1541; Francisco Pizarro González; Spanish conquistador; made
two attempts (
1524 and 1526) to conquer the Incan Empire; both failed due to native hostilities, bad weather, and lack of provisions; in
1533, he executed
Atahualpa, the last sovereign emperor of the Incan Empire, entered Cuzco, and conquered Peru; founded Lima,
Peru
in 1535; assassinated in 1541.

Nicolaus Copernicus..........................February 19, 1473 -- May 24, 1543; Polish polymath, mathematician, astronomer, physician,
quadrilingual polyglot
, classical scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat, and economist;
displaced the earth as the center of the universe in
On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres published in 1543 just before his
death.

Juan Ponce de Leon...........................1474 -- July, 1521; Spanish explorer; first European expedition to Florida (which he named);
"Fountain of Youth."

Vasco Nunez de Balboa....................1475 -- January 15, 1519; Spanish governor, explorer, conquistador; first to cross Isthmus of
Panama
to reach the Pacific Ocean from the New World.

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni............March 6, 1475 -- February 18, 1564; Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor,
architect, poet, engineer;
Creation of Adam, 1511; La Pieta, 1499; David, 1504; Sistine Chapel, 1508 -- 1512.

Spanish Inquisition.............................1478 by Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452 -- 1515) and Isabella I of Castille (1451 -- 1504);
definitively abolished
1834 during the reign of Isabella II (1830 -- 1904).

Ferdinand Magellan............................Spring 1480 -- April 27, 1521; Portuguese explorer; his 1519 -- 1522 expedition was the first to
circumnavigate the globe; he died in the Philippines; his crew finished the circumnavigation.

Raphael Sanzio....................................April 6 or March 28, 1483 -- April 6, 1520; Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

Martin Luther.........................................November 10, 1483 -- February 15, 1546; initiated Protestant Reformation with The Ninety-
Five Theses
"for the purpose of eliciting truth" in 1517; German priest and theology professor; gave rise to Protestantism.

Sweating sickness..........................1485; first breakout; also known as "English sweating sickness" or "English sweate";
mysterious and highly
virulent disease that struck England and later continental Europe; last outbreak 1551; onset was sudden and
dramatic with death occurring within hours; cause remains unknown; in
1502, said to have caused the death of Arthur, Prince of
Wales
(September 20, 1486 -- April 2, 1502) who was the older brother of Henry VIII (June 28, 1491 -- January 28,1547); Arthur's
wife
Catherine of Aragon (December 16, 1485 -- January 7, 1536) subsequently married Henry VIII; 1528 outbreak was of the
greatest severity; many thousands died.

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro...........1485 -- December 2, 1547; set out in 1519 for Mexico in search of gold; landed in Vera
Cruz
and burned his ships; gained Tenochtitlán, seat of Aztec emperor Montezuma (~1466 -- June 29, 1520); seized vast amounts
of gold; returned in
1521.

Henry VIII...............................................June 28, 1491 -- January 28, 1547; reign 1509 -- 1547 (England); House of Tudor; Protestant
Reformation
; Supreme Head of the Church of England; six wives, two beheaded.

Columbus set sail................................August, 1492; in ships Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria; looking for a route to Asia by sailing west
across the
Atlantic; first landfall was likely what is today San Salvador; found native people "easy to conquer" but they resisted;
governorship of
Haiti; gold fever, enslavement and slaughter of native people; arrested December 1500 and sent home in chains.
Things the
New World got from Europe: apples, guns, hogs, horses, oranges, rice, roses, smallpox, wheat. Things Europe got from
the
New World: avocados, cacao beans, corn, cod, peanuts, pineapple, potatoes, tobacco.

Syphillis epidemic in Europe............1493 -- 1543; estimated 10 million deaths.

Süleyman the Magnificent (I)............~1494 -- 1566; greatest sultan of the Ottoman Empire; military campaigns, expanded realm;
known as the
Lawgiver, built fortresses, bridges, aqueducts, mosques (including Istanbul's grand Suleymaniye Mosque); art,
literature flowered ...

Hernando de Soto...............................1496 -- 1542; Spanish explorer and conquistador; first European to discover the Mississippi
River
.

Renaissance.........................................end of the 13th century to about 1600s.