Habeas corpus -- one of a variety of writs that may be issued to bring a party before a court or judge, having as its function the release of the party from unlawful restraint; the right of a
citizen to obtain such a writ.

haberdasher -- a dealer in notions; a dealer in men's clothing and accessories.

habilitation -- the teaching of new skills to children with developmental disabilities. It is called habilitation rather than rehabilitation, because these children did not possess these skills

habits -- unconscious repetitions of particular behaviors.

habituation -- a decrease in attention to a stimulus that has been presented repeatedly.

hcienda -- the main building of a farm or ranch.

hadephobia -- fear of hell.

haemphilus influenzae, type B or HiB -- a bacterium estimated to be responsible for some three million serious illnesses and an estimated 386,000 deaths per year. Almost all victims are
under the age of 5, and children between 4 and 16 months old are especially vulnerable. In developing countries, where the vast majority of HiB deaths occur,
pneumonia accounts for a
larger number of deaths than
meningitis. This bacterium does not cause influenza (the flu).

hafnium -- atomic number 72, symbol Hf; a brilliant, silvery transition metal; used in nuclear reactors and tungsten filaments; obtained
from zirconium; discovered in 1923 by
Dirk Coster.

haggard -- appearing worn and exhausted; gaunt; wild or distraught in appearance; wild and intractable; an adult hawk captured for

hagiophobia, hierophobia -- fear of holy things.

haiku -- most commonly, a poem with 3 lines, 5 syllables, 7 syllables, and then 5 syllables. It doesn't rhyme. Haiku often has a "kigo" or
a seasonal word.

hair follicle -- a sac from which a hair grows and into which the sebacous glands open. The follicle is line by cells derived from the
epidermal layer of the skin. Each follicle normally goes through a 5-year cycle of growth and rest, with about 90% of the follicles
growing hair at any one time, averaging about 6 inches of growth per year.
(See picture.)

halcyon --
a bird identified with the kingfisher and held in ancient legend to nest at sea about the time of the winter solstice and to calm
the waves during incubation; tranquil, calm, without strife, serene.

half-kneeling position -- kneeling on one knee and foot

half-life -- the time required for half the nuclei in a sample of a specific isotopic species to undergo radioactive decay.

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome -- Proportionate short stature, characteristic facial appearance with small eyes; cataracts; small pinched nose; undeveloped or missing teeth; small mouth;
thin hair, prominent central forehead. Associated complications are various eye abnormalities, including
nystagmus, strabismus, cataracts and/or decreased visual acuity; neonatal teeth
and other dental abnormalities; narrow upper airway or
tracheomalacia (softening of the tracheal cartilages), with related respiratory difficulty; frequent respiratory infections, snoring, and
feeding difficulties; overlap with
oculodenodigital dysplasia (ODDD) has been suggested. Cause is unknown but believed to be genetic; presumed new mutation.

hallucinations -- sense perceptions without a source in the external world. These most commonly occur as symptoms of psychoses or drug intoxication.

hamartia (hah-mahr-TEE-uh) -- tragic flaw.

hamartophobia, harmatophobia -- fear of sin or sinning.

hand eye coordination -- the use of hands and eyes at the same time.

handicap -- a limitation imposed on an individual by the environment and the person's capacity to cope with that limitation; the consequences or impact encountered
by or imposed on a child with a disability as he or she attempts to function and interact in the environment; best used as a description of a parking spot, a bathroom
stall, or golfing or bowling thingie.

handicapism -- prejudice or discrimination based solely on a person's disability, without regard for individual characteristics.

handling -- therapeutic preparation for movement and positioning.

hand over hand assistance -- method of assisting a child by physically guiding him through an activity.

Hand-Schuuler-Christian disease -- a cause of deaf-blindness.

hand signs -- see manual communication (---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->).

hands-on --
active involvement in a project; actually doing something.

haphazard -- marked by lack of plan, order, or direction.

haphephobia, haptephobia, haptophobia, hapnophobia -- fear of being touched.

haploid -- having a single set of human chromosomes, 23, as in the sperm or egg.

haptic -- related to the sensation of touch and to information transmitted through body movement or position (haptic sensory system).

harassment -- to irritate or torment persistently; to wear out; exhaust.

harbinger (HAHR-bun-jer) -- one that pioneers or initiates a major change; precursor; one that presages or foreshadows what is to come.

hard-boiled -- devoid of sentimentality; tough; of, relating to, or being a detective story featuring a tough unsentimental protagonist and a matter-of-fact attitude towards violence;
hardheaded; practical; a way of cooking an egg.

hard of hearing -- a term used to describe individuals with a sense of hearing that is deficient but somewhat functional.

hardiness -- the combination of three personality traits -- commitment, control, and challenge -- that protect us from the potentially harmful effects of stressful situations and reduce our
chances of developing illness.

harm standard -- a standard used in defining child abuse and neglect that requires demonstrable harm to children as a result of maltreatment.

Harpaxophobia -- fear of thieves.

harsh set-up -- initiating communication with sarcasm, criticism, and/or contempt.

haruspex (huh-RUSS-peks) -- a diviner in ancient Rome basing his predictions on inspection of entrails of sacrificed animals.

harvesting -- picking or gathering fruits or grains.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis -- the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US. It is caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the
body inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland as if it was foreign tissue. It is 5 to 10 times more common in women and most often starts in adulthood. Symptoms are fatigue, depression,
modest weight gain, cold intolerance, excessive sleepiness, dry coarse hair, constipation, dry skin, muscle cramps, increased
cholesterol levels, decreased concentration, vague aches and
pains, swelling of the legs.

hassium -- atomic number 108, symbol Hs; an artificially produced radioactive transition metal; made by bombarding lead with iron ions; other names Unniloctium (Uno), Hahnium (Hn);
discovered in 1984 by
Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Munzenber, and others.

hassles -- frustrating irritants.

hasty generalizations -- see jumping to conclusions.

haughty -- blatantly and disdainfully proud.

Hawthorne effect -- factor that applies to participant observer research when subjects of research change their typical behavior because they realize they are under observation.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) -- a food safety and self-inspection system that highlights potentially hazardous foods and how they are handled in the food service

hazel -- light brown or light yellow.

hCG -- see human chorionic gonadotropin.

head circumference --
the distance around the head obtained by measuring over the forehead and bony protuberance on the back of the head; it is an
indication of normal or abnormal growth and development of the
brain and central nervous system (---------------->).

head drop --
results from weakness of the neck extensor, or increased tone of the flexor muscles.  

Head righting -- an attempt to hold the head in an upright position that occurs when an infant's trunk is pushed out of an upright position.

Head Start -- A federally funded program aimed at young children in poverty; designed to increase the chances of success in school and opportunities for achievement; compensatory.
education program started in 1965.

health -- a state of wellness. Complete physical, mental, social, and emotional well-being; the quality of one element affects the state of the others.

health assessment -- the process of gathering and evaluating information about an individual's state of health.

health disorders -- disabling conditions characterized by limited stamina, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems.

health impairment -- physical health problems limiting an individual's strength, including chronic illness or weakened condition that requires ongoing medical treatment and interferes with
everyday functioning.

health promotion -- engaging in behaviors, including concern for certain social issues affecting the diet and environment, that help to maintain and enhance one's health status.

hearing -- one of the five senses: the one you do with your ears.

hearing aids -- electronic devices that amplify sound before it reaches the receptor organ (----->).

hearing impairment -- Term that refers to any degree of hearing loss, from mild to profound, encompassing the terms deaf or hard of hearing.
This term is losing acceptance by deaf persons because the word impaired has a negative connotation. A category of

hearing loss --
general term used when a distinction among various types of hearing impairments is not critical to make.

hearing screening --
simple method to assess hearing quickly to determine if more extensive testing is necessary.

heart -- a vital organ that serves as a pump to send blood throughout the body. The blood nourishes and oxygenates the body and carries away waste. It is
made up of
cardiac muscle, and is about the size of a fist. It is made up of four chambers, two atria and 2 ventricles. The atria are on top and the ventricles
on the bottom. Between the right and left side of the heart is the
septum. The valves between the atria and ventricles are the mitral valve and tricuspid valve.
The other two valves are the
aortic valve and the pulmonary valve. Over an average lifetime, the heart will beat more than 2 1/2 billion times. A wonderful
interactive lesson on the heart can be found at:
http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/. Amazing heart beat from http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/heart.html#.

heart attack -- occurs when blood flow to a section of heart muscle becomes blocked. If the
flow of blood isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle becomes damaged from lack of
oxygen and begins to die.

heart condition -- any disorder of the heart that limits performance.

heart-lung bypass -- see cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

heart murmur -- an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat. They sometimes sound
like a whooshing or swishing noise. There are two kinds: innocent (harmless) and abnormal.
Innocent murmurs can be heard in many, if not most, children at some time in their lives.
Abnormal heart murmurs are due to a
congenital heart defects.

heart valves -- there are four heart valves. The tricuspid valve is between the right
atrium and the right ventricle. The pulmonary valve is between the right ventricle and the
pulmonary artery. The mitral valve is between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The
aortic valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. Each valve has a set of flaps (leaflets
or cusps). When they are working properly, the valves open and close fully. Poorly
blood from the body enters the right atrium and then the tricuspid valve opens, allowing the blood to enter the right ventricle. When it contracts, the pulmonary valve opens, and the blood is
propelled into the pulmonary artery where it is carried to the
lungs for oxygen. Well-oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the lungs enters the left atrium and when the heart
contracts, the mitral valve opens and the blood flows into the left ventricle. When the heart contracts again, the aortic valve opens, and the blood is propelled through the aorta to take
oxygen throughout the body.
(See heart anatomy above.)

heat exhaustion --
above normal body temperature caused by exposure to too much sun or heat.

heath -- plain tract of wasteland; uncultivated land.

heat stroke -- failure of the body's sweating reflex during exposure to high temperatures; causes body temperature to rise.

Heavens to Betsy -- a mild exclamation of surprise.

Hecate -- a Greek goddess associated with the underworld, night, and witchcraft.

hector -- to play the bully, swagger; to intimidate or harass by bluster or personal pleasure.

hedonistic affairs -- extramarital affairs that are acts of playfulness.

hedonophobia -- fear of pleasure.

hegemony -- predominant influence; dominance, supremacy, preeminence.

helicase -- enzymes that bind and may even remodel nucleic acid protein complexes. There are DNA and RNA helicases. DNA helicases are essential during DNA replication because they
separate double-stranded DNA into single strands to allow each strand to be copied. RNA helicases are involved in shaping the form of RNA molecules, during all processes involving RNA
such as transcription, splicing, and translation.

heliopath -- a spirit of fire; great tall flaming creatures that gallop across the ground burning everything in front of them. (Luna Lovegood, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, J. K.

heliophobia -- fear of sunlight.

Heliopolis -- an ancient city of norther Egypt in the Nile River delta north of modern Cairo. It was the center of worship of the sun god Ra until the rise of Thebes (c. 2100 BCE). Its
importance as a historical repository with famed schools of philosophy and astronomy declined after the founding of Alexandria in the forth century BCE. Two of its obelisks, both known as
Cleopatra's Needle, are now in London and in New York City's Central Park.  

heliotrope -- a type of purple flower; a light purple.

helium -- atomic number 2, symbol He; a colorless, odorless, nonflammable, inert noble gas element occurring in natural gas, with radioactive ores, and in small amounts in the atmosphere.
It has the lowest boiling point of any substance and is the second most abundant element in the universe It is used as a component of artificial atmospheres, laser media, a refrigerant, lifting
gas for balloons, and as a superfluid in cryogenic research ; discovered in 1895 by
Sir William Ramsay. Another source says it was discovered in 1868 by Joseph Normal Lockyer.

helix -- the outer rim of the auricle (see picture); the coiled structure of DNA. (See picture.)

hellion --
a mischievous, troublesome, or unruly person.

helminthophobia -- fear of being infested with worms.

help agents for transitions -- sources of support who can assist families during transitions.

helplessness -- a stage or emotion of grief.

hemangiomas -- benign tumor consisting of a mass of blood vessels (----->).

hematocrit --
percentage of red blood cells in whole blood, normally about 35% -- 40%.

hematologic -- relating to the blood system.

hematologic disorders - common problems in the blood system (hematopoietic) are: erythrocytosis (too many
red blood cells) and elevated numbers of white blood cells (transient leukemia) which may later develop  into
acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia if not treated.

hematoma -- a collection of blood outside the blood vessels.

hematophobia, hemaphobia, hemophoba -- fear of blood.

hematopoietic -- relating to the formation of red blood cells.

hematuria -- the presence of red blood cells in the urine.

heme -- the deep red, nonprotein ferrous component of hemoglobin.

hemianopia -- partial blindness resulting in a loss of vision in either the whole left or the whole right half of the field of vision. Also called hemianopsia.

hemiatrophy --
atrophy of one side of the body or one half of an organ or part.

hemichordate -- a phylum of marine animals, considered the sister group of the echinoderms.

hemifacial microsomia -- see oculoauriculovertebral spectrum.

hemihypertrophy -- asymmetric hypertrophy (enlargement) of face or limbs.

hemiparesis -- weakness on one side of the body.

hemiplegia -- paralysis of one side of the body; i.e., the arm, trunk, and leg on the same side (---------->).

hemispheres --
the left and right sides of the cerebral cortex, which differ in function. The right hemisphere is largely responsible for spatial abilities and negative emotion. The left
hemisphere is largely responsible for verbal abilities and positive emotion.  

hemithorax -- half of the thorax on one side of the chest.

hemivertebrae -- a congenital defect of the spine in which one side of a vertebra is incompletely developed.

hemochromatosis -- a disorder in which there is an excess of iron. A person with hemochromatosis deposits the excess iron in most of their organs, but the iron deposited in their skin leads
to a bronzed hue. Iron deposits in the
liver, pancreas, thyroid, and other internal organs lead to significant medical problems such as liver cirrhosis and cancer, diabetes, and heart
failure. Oddly, since there are no regulated pathways to eliminate excess iron, it can only be eliminated through blood loss.
Bloodletting is wildly effective for hemochromatosis -- the patient
donates a pint of blood a week until their iron stores drop to normal levels. Then, donating blood once a month keeps the levels under control. Other symptoms are abdominal pain, fatigue,
joint pain, lack of energy, loss of body hair, loss of sexual desire, weight loss, and weakness. Primary hemochromatosis is the most common
genetic disorder in the US -- 1/200 to 300
Americans. Secondary hemochromatosis can be caused by
thalassemia or sideroblastic anemia, if the person has received a large number of blood transfusions. It affects more men than
women, and is more common in Caucasians of western European descent.

hemodialysis -- a procedure in which blood is pumped through a dialysis chamber that cleanses it of toxins. It serves as an artificial kidney.  

hemoglobin -- component of red blood cells that enables them to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.

hemolytic anemia -- a condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood due to the premature destruction of red blood cells. It may be due to bone marrow that is
unable to increase production of red blood cells to make up for the premature destruction, abnormalities of blood proteins, abnormal
immune system responses, blood clots, infections,
medications, chemicals or
toxins, etc.  

hemophilia -- hereditary (X-linked) recessive disease characterized by faulty blood clotting. The oldest known blood disorder, there are two types, A and B. With hemophilia A, the blood
lacks the clotting protein, Factor VIII. In hemophilia B, the blood lacks the clotting protein, Factor IX.

hemorrhage -- excessive bleeding.

hemorrhagic stroke -- see stroke.

hemosiderosis -- dangerous increase in tissue iron stores, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.

hemostat -- a small surgical clamp used to constrict a tube or blood vessel.

hendiadys (hen-DYE-uh-dis) -- the expression of an idea by the use of usually two independent words connected by "and" (as "nice and warm").

henna -- reddish-brown dye used in tinting the hair, skin, or nails.

hepatitis -- an inflammation of the liver caused by several different viruses. They can cause short-term or acute viral hepatitis, or long-term chronic hepatitis. Symptoms include
jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, low grade fever, and headache.

Hepatitis A -- spread through food or water contaminated by the feces of an infected person. Rarely, it spreads through contact with infected blood.  Infection can occur in situations ranging
from isolated cases to widespread epidemics. There is no chronic hepatitis A infection; once you have had it, you cannot get it again.

Hepatitis B -- a strain of hepatitis resulting from infections or toxic agents that results in inflammation of the liver and often leads to jaundice and fever. It can cause a lifelong infection,
cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. It is transmitted through bodily fluids or blood. Of people infected with hepatitis B: 90% are infants infected at birth; 30% are
children infected ages 1 -- 5; 6% are people infected after age 5. Death from chronic liver disease occurs in 15% to 25% of infected persons.

Hepatitis C -- a serious disease of the liver which can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis of the liver, and chronic liver disease. It is transmitted through blood. Long term effects include
chronic infections (75% to 85% of infected persons), chronic liver disease (20% of infected persons), cirrhosis (1% to 5% of infected persons may die.) This is the leading indication for liver
transplant. There is no vaccination for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D -- a disease of the liver, transmitted through blood or bodily fluids of an infected person. The vaccination for hepatitis D is the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis E -- a hepatitis virus found in the feces of infected persons and animals. It is spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. It remains uncommon in the United States.

hepatoma -- see liver cancer. Also called hepatoblastoma or hepatocellular cancer.

hepatosplenomegaly -- enlargement of the liver and spleen.

hepatomegaly -- having a large liver.

herbaceous -- relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant; green and leaflike in appearance or texture.

Hercules -- a constellation named after the Roman hero Hercules; one of the 48 constellations listed by 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; the fifth largest of
the modern constellations; fourteen of the stars that make up Hercules have planetary systems; it lies between Draco, Boötes, and Ophiuchus;
see shape of
the constellation.

hereditary --
transmitted or capable of being transmitted genetically from parent to offspring; ancestral; traditional.

Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy (HMSN) -- see Charcot Marie Tooth Disease.

hereditary progressive arthroophthalmopathy -- see Stickler syndrome.

hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) -- a group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the legs. Early in the progression, there may be mild gait
difficulties and stiffness, which progress slowly so that eventually a person with HSP may require a cane, walker, or wheelchair. More complicated forms may affect the
optic nerve and
retina, cause cataracts, ataxia, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness. There are at least 20 different forms of HSP. HSP infantile onset, HSP type 1,
HSP type 2, HSP type 3A, HSP type 4, HSP, type 7, and HSP type 8 are described below.

heredity -- transmission of physical and personality characteristics from parent to offspring.

heredity influences (hereditary information) -- the portion of development that can be attributed to characteristics passed from parent to offspring.

heretic -- a dissenter from established religious dogma.

heritability -- an estimate of the degree to which variation of a characteristic in a population is influenced by genetic factors.

hermaphrodite -- also called intersexual; a person who has both male and female sex organs, or organs that are not distinct, as when a female's clitoris resembles a man's penis. Jung:
both male and female,represents the union of opposites, an important idea in
Jung's theory.

hermaphrodite archetype -- Jung. (See black and white picture--->.)

hermetic --
relating to or characterized by occultism or abstruseness; recondite; airtight; impervious to external influence; recluse; solitary.

hernia -- the protrusion of an organ or organ tissue through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it.

hero archetype -- Jung: the mana personality and the defeater of evil dragons -- our EGO -- the hero is, however, often dumb as a post.
(See color picture -------------------->.)

herpes simplex 1 -- a virus that is usually associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face. It is the most common herpes simplex virus
and many people develop it during childhood. It can lead to
meningoencephalitis (infection in the meninges around the brain). It is
transmitted by saliva. By adulthood, 30% to 90% of people will have antibodies to HSV-1.

herpes simplex virus 2 -- a virus leading to symptoms that range from cold sores to vaginal infections to encephalitis; also a cause of fetal malformations and
sepsis in early infancy; maternal or teratogenic. A cause of deaf-blindness. It is usually, but not always sexually transmitted. Symptoms include genital ulcers or sores. However, some
people with HSV2 have no symptoms.  

herpes virus -- There are 2 types of herpes simplex viruses (see above). HSV is never eliminated from the body, but stays dormant and can reactivate, causing symptoms such as blisters
or ulcers (most often on the mouth, lips, gums, or genitals), enlarged lymph nodes, fever blisters, fever.

herpes zoster -- the virus that causes chicken pox (varicella-zoster virus) causes zoster. After chicken pox clears, the virus remains dormant within certain nerve cells of the body.
When it reactivates, it can cause
shingles, and can be quite painful. About 20% of people who have chicken pox will get zoster. Most only get it once. Symptoms are pain, burning, skin
sensitivity, rash, fever, headache, blisters.

herpetophobia -- fear of snakes.

hertz (Hz) -- a unit used to measure the frequency of sound in terms of the number of cycles that vibrating molecules complete per second.

heterochromia -- difference in coloration, usually of the iris, but also of hair or skin. It may be genetic (autosomal dominant) or acquired due to injury, inflammation, some eyedrops, or
tumors. Disorders that may have heterochromia as a symptom include
Sturge-Weber syndrome, Waardenburg's syndrome, piebaldism, etc.

heteronomous morality stage -- Piagetian stage of moral development in which children adhere strictly to rules and base moral decisions on the authority of others.

heterogamous marriages -- marriages in which the participants are of different education, ethnicity, race, religion, age, and social class.

heterogeneity -- a great variety, such as a wide range of strengths and abilities in a group.

heterogenous -- not arising within the body; derived from another individual or species.

heterosexism -- one kind of mind set; the belief that the standard family is heterosexual, with homosexual families -- lesbians and gays -- not being viewed as true families.

heterosexual -- person who has a sexual attraction to members of the opposite gender.

heterosexuality -- sexual inclination toward members of the opposite gender.

heterotaxia -- abnormal arrangement of organs or parts of the body in relation to one another.

heterotopia -- migration and development of normal neural tissue in an abnormal location in the brain.

heterotrophy -- an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition. All animals, protozoans, fungi, and most bacteria are

heterozygote -- a carrier of a recessive genetic disorder.

heterozygous -- describes a child's condition with respect to a trait when each parent has contributed a different copy of the gene for that trait to their child; having 2 different alleles at the
same place on a pair of chromosomes.

heuristic -- a shortcut or rule of thumb used to help solve a problem.

hexosaminidase -- an enzyme, a deficiency of which leads to Tay Sachs disease.

heyday -- the period of one's greatest popularity, vigor, or prosperity.

H-frame relationship -- a type of relationship in which partners have strong self-identities and are extremely independent of each other and of the relationship.

Hg -- atomic number 80, symbol for mercury.

hidden agenda -- in a blended family, expectations about how everyone should behave that often are not communicated.

hidden marriage contract -- an unwritten but legally binding set of rights, responsibilities, and obligations of spouses.

hideous thunder -- an excellent expression used to describe a bad hair day and stuff.

HIE -- see hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

hie --
to go quickly, hasten; to cause (oneself) to go quickly.

hierarchal charts -- charts on which broader concepts are listed first and then connected to smaller, supporting concepts.

hierarchy of needs -- Maslow: his pyramid (------------------------------------------------>).

hierophobia --
fear of clergymen.

higgledy-piggledy -- in utter disorder or confusion; topsy-turvy; jumbled.

Higgs boson -- a cornerstone of modern physics which plays a key role in imbuing things
with mass. In July 2012 (the 4th), physicists announced that they had discovered a new
subatomic particle that "looks for all the world like the Higgs boson." It is the only
manifestation of an invisible force field, a cosmic molasses that permeates space and
imbues elementary particles with mass. Look at this video:
The Higgs Boson Explained:

high blood pressure -- see hypertension.

high density lipoproteins (HDL) --
a protein-fat combination with a high protein in fat
ratio, which is formed in the blood to aid fat transport; a high HDL blood value may
decrease risk of cardiovascular disease.

higher auditory cortex -- That section of the brain that processes sound.

higher level esteem -- Maslow: In the hierarchy of needs theory, the fourth level, or the need for self-esteem, confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, etc. The other
part of the level are the lower level esteem needs.

higher levels of consciousness -- Maslow: one of the aspects of the Fourth Force of Psychology inaugurated by Maslow.

high frequency words -- the most commonly occurring words in text.

high fructose corn syrup -- a frequently used sweetener produced by exposing corn starch to acid and enzyme action to increase the fructose content; it is much sweeter than sucrose.

high guard position -- walking position with arms up and out to the side that suggests abnormal physical development or balance problems if this position is typically used beyond the
toddler years.

highly mobile children -- a new group of children recognized in IDEA, 2004 (PL 108-446).

highly qualified -- PL 108-446 --
all special education teachers must have state special education certification OR have passed a state licensing exam AND have license to teach special
education; have not had certification or licensure waived on emergency, temporary, or provisional basis, AND have at least a bachelor's degree. This law revisitation required these as well as
other qualifications for teachers at the close of school year 2005--2006 (according to

high incidence disabilities -- special education categories with the most students.

high muscle tone -- muscles are very rigid and tense.

high risk -- see at risk.

High Scope model -- focuses on active learning, which includes children participating in the planning and preparing of activities and then reviewing the process at completion.

High/Scope project -- a project begun in 1962 designed to reveal the effects of early intervention on children who are economically disadvantaged. The project is based on the cognitive
curriculum of
Piaget. The longitudinal study traces the impact of the project into adulthood.

"high stakes" assessment -- Any assessment that has the potential to influence educational opportunities for children, such as placement in special programs, ability grouping, or retention
in grade.

high-stakes test -- on the basis of the tests, decisions are made that affect the child, the teacher, or the school.

hillocks -- a small protuberance or elevation, as from an organ, structure, or tissue.

hindbrain (rhombencephalon) -- includes the cerebellum, the pons, and the medulla oblongata, which function collectively to support
vital bodily processes. The medulla is connected to the spinal cord, and controls unconscious, yet essential, body functions such as
breathing, swallowing, blood circulation, and muscle tone. Located above the medulla is the pons, which serves as a bridge to connect the
brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls eye and body movements and plays a role in sleep and arousal states.
See picture.

hindfoot varus --
see clubfoot

hinge joint -- a joint that allows movement in one direction, as in the elbows or knees.

hinkypunk -- "A little one-legged creature who looked as though he were made of wisps of smoke, rather frail and harmless looking. They
lure travelers into bogs." (
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, J.K. Rowling.)

hip bone -- a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone in the lower abdomen, and connected to the thigh bone by the hip joint, one of the few ball and socket joints of the body. It
surrounds the pelvic cavity on the sides and back. Together with the
sacrum and the coccyx, it comprises the pelvis. It is made of three parts -- the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis --
which are fused in the adult.

hippocampus -- found deep in the temporal lobe, central to the middle of the brain area. It is crescent shaped and strongly
involved in learning and memory formation

hippocampus --
a seahorse with two forefeet, and a body ending in the tail of a dolphin or giant fish. A group of hippocampi is a
whirl. A hippocampus baby is a tadfoal.

hippogriff -- a legendary creature, supposedly the offspring of a griffin and a mare. It is a magical creature that has the front legs,
wings, and head of a giant eagle and the body, hind legs, and tail of a horse. It is very similar to another mythical beast, the Griffin.
They have cruel, steel-colored beaks and large, brilliantly orange eyes. The talons on their front legs are half a foot long and
appear deadly. Hippogriffs are carnivorous and extremely dangerous until tamed. They live on insects, birds, and small animals such
as rats and ferrets. To approach a hippogriff, maintain eye contact, and bow. If the hippogriff returns the bow, it can be touched
Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling). A group of hippogriffs is a politeness. A hippogriff baby is a beakle.

hippophobia -- fear of horses.

hippotherapy -- the therapeutic use of horseback riding.

Hirschsprung's disease -- a disease of the large intestine that causes severe constipation or intestinal obstruction. It is a congenital condition, and is usually diagnosed in infancy.
Hirschsprung's disease is caused by the absence of some
nerve cells in all or part of the large intestines. These nerve cells signal muscles in the large intestine to push stool through to
anus. Symptoms in newborns are green or brown vomit, explosive stools after a doctor inserts a finger into the rectum, swelling of the abdomen, lots of gas, and bloody diarrhea.
Symptoms in toddlers and older children include not being able to pass stools without laxatives or enemas, swelling of the abdomen, lots of gas, bloody diarrhea, slow growth and
development, lack of energy due to a shortage of
red blood cells (anemia).

hirsutism -- excessive body hair. (See picture of a woman with hirsutism.)

historical studies --
type of research whereby researchers compare census data, or demographic data to ascertain changing patterns of family life.

HIV -- see Human Immunodeficiency virus.

hobgoblin -- a mischievous goblin; a source of fear, perplexity, or harassment.

hobnail -- a short nail with a thick head used to protect the soles of shoes or boots.

Hobson's choice -- an apparently free choice when there is no real alternative; the necessity of accepting one of two or more equally objectionable alternatives.
hoddypeak --
noun, a fool, simpleton, noodle, blockhead.

Hodgkin's disease or lymphoma -- a type of lymphoma, which is a type of cancer originating from white blood cells called lymphocytes. It is characterized by the spread of disease
from one
lymph node group to the other, with the development of systemic symptoms as the disease progresses. The survival rate is generally 90% of more when the disease is detected
during early stages.

hodophobia -- fear of travel.

hoity-toity -- pretentiously self-important; pompous; given to frivolity or silliness.

holding activities -- Activities children can work on independently while waiting for group activities to begin.  

holiday -- used synonymously with the term "celebration" to reflect a broader approach to special days in a child's life.  

holistic --
focuses on treating the entire person, including cognitive, physical, and social-emotional needs.

holistic evaluation scale -- evaluation scale in which a single, overall rating is assigned to achievement in learning the curriculum; contrast with the use of an analytical evaluation scale.

holmium -- atomic number 67, symbol Ho; a silver-white, relatively soft, malleable, stable rare earth element occurring in gadolinite, monazite, and other rare earth minerals; used mainly in
scientific research; discovered in 1878 by
J.L. Soret.

holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency --
see multiple carboxylase deficiency, infantile or early form.

holographic -- one-word sentences that have meaning.  

holophrases --
individual words that convey as much meaning as whole sentences.  

holophrastic speech -- A state of speech development where the child conveys meaning with a one-word utterance.

holoprosencephaly -- this classification encompasses a spectrum of midline defects of the brain and face. The most severe are incompatible with life. Individuals who survive have varying
degrees of disability ranging from typical development with
hypertelorism (widely spaced eyes) to alobar holoprosencephaly (brain without segmentation into hemispheres) and cyclopia
(single central eye). Associated complications:
seizures, endocrine abnormalities, micropenis and other genital anomalies, cleft of retina, and intellectual disability. Facial anomalies
are seen in 80% of cases. Cause: genetically heterogenous; sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene on chromosome 7q36 implicated in some cases; many cases have involved mutations in different
genes, such as those located at 2p21 (SIX3 gene), 13q32 (ZIC2 gene), or 18p11.3 (TGIF gene); cases may be caused by a single gene or a larger chromosomal abnormality. May be part of
a syndrome or caused by
teratogenic exposure; as an isolated birth defect, it may be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.

Holt-Oram syndrome -- upper-limb defect ranging from hypoplastic (incompletely formed), abnormally placed or absent thumbs to hypoplasia of radius, ulna, or humerus (arm bones) to
phocomelia (foreshortened limbs); 85% to 95% of affected individuals also have congenital heart defect (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect are most
common). Associated complications: occasional abnormalities of chest muscles and vertebral anomalies. Caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene on chromosome 12q2;
autosomal dominant.

home-based program -- Services for young children with disabilities performed in the child's home. Parents take on much of the responsibility of the intervention. Professionals make
regular visits to work directly with the child and to provide instruction for the caregiver.

home file -- a record system parents maintain about their child's medical and educational history.

home health nurse -- this professional provides at-home nursing care for patients, as a follow-up after discharge from a hospital, for rehabilitation, long-term care, or skilled nursing.

homeless children -- PL 108-446 -- Children who do not have a regular, adequate nighttime residence, including children (a) sharing others' housing due to loss of housing, economic
hardship, or similar reasons; living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or campgrounds due to lack of alternative adequate accommodations; living in emergency or transitional shelters;
abandoned in hospitals; or awaiting foster care placement; (b) whose primary nighttime residence is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used for regular sleeping
accommodation; (c) living in cars, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and (d) who are migratory youth living in circumstances
described in (a) -- (c). (Homeless children are eligible -- just like any other student -- to IDEA services, if their disability is such that impedes their educational performance.

homemaker role -- traditional role whereby the woman is principally responsible for housework, child raising, and maintaining family ties to parents and in-laws.

homeobox  (HOX) -- a group of genes involved in early embryonic development.

homeostasis -- equilibrium of fluid, chemical, and temperature regulation of the body; Maslow: normalcy; status quo.

Home Start -- a derivation of the Head Start program; designed to provide comprehensive services to young children and their parents in the home through the utilization of home visitors.

homichlophobia -- fear of fog.

homiletic -- of, relating to, or resembling a homily; of or relating to the act of preaching; preachy.

homilophobia -- fear of sermons.

homily -- a sermon, especially one intended to edify a congregation on a practical matter and not intended to be a theological discourse; a tedious moralizing lecture or admonition; an
inspirational saying or platitude.

homocystinuria -- downward dislocation of lens of the eye (with myopia); tall, slim physique; hypopigmentation (fair skin); and sparse thin hair. Two forms have been described, differing in
their responsiveness to pyridoxine (Vitamin B6). Associated complications: mild to moderate
intellectual disability in 1/2 to 3/4 of untreated individuals; a vascular event such as
myocardial infarction and stroke occurs in 50% of affected individuals by age 30 due to increased risk for blood clots; behavioral disorders, cataracts, or glaucoma; scoliosis;
osteoporosis. Caused by an inherited defect in the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthetase caused by mutations in a gene on chromosome 21q22; autosomal recessive.

homoeroticism -- erotic attraction toward a member of the same gender.  

homogamous marriages -- marriages between partners of similar education, ethnicity, race, religion, age, and social class.  

homogamy -- marriage between partners of similar education, ethnicity, race, religion, age, and social class.

homographs -- words that are spelled alike but pronounced differently with different meanings ("bass" for a musical instrument or a low voice and "bass" for a fish; "live" as in live or die and
"live" as in a live concert).

homologous -- having the same relative position, value, or structure, such as having the same or allelic genes with genetic loci usually arranged in the same order; derived from or
developed in response to organisms of the same species.

homonyms -- words that are spelled alike and pronounced alike but have different meanings ("left" to leave and "left" the opposite of right).

homophobia -- also called anti-gay prejudice, negative attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexuals; also a fear of monotony.

homophones -- words that are pronounced alike but have different spelling and meaning (two, to, too, or their, there, they're, for example).

homosexual -- a person who has a sexual attraction to members of his/her own gender.

homosexuality -- sexual inclination toward members of the same gender.

homozygous -- describes a child's condition with respect to a trait when both parents have contributed identical copies of the gene for that trait to their child; having 2 identical alleles at the
same place on a pair of

homunculus --  a diminutive human; a miniature, fully-formed individual believed by early theorists of preformation to be present in the sperm cells.

honker -- a goose or a person that honks; an especially large nose; a mad person in a car; schnoz.

hoodlum -- thug, especially a violent criminal; a young ruffian.

hook up -- a physical encounter that allows possible sexual interaction -- ranging from kissing to having sex -- without commitment.

Hoover cane -- a mobility device used by people with severe visual loss to aid in movement through the environment independently; also known as a long cane or more commonly, a white
cane. White Cane Safety Day is October 15.

horcrux -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a dark magical object used to attain immortality. The horcrux is an object in which a dark wizard  or witch has hidden a segment of his or
her soul. Making a horcrux is the foulest, most evil kind of dark magic, because it violates laws of nature and morality, and requires a horrific act as well as murder to accomplish. The first
horcrux was created by Herpo the Foul. Voldemort made horcruxes in Tom Riddle's diary /Moaning Myrtle's murder; destroyed by Harry Potter), Marvolo Gaunt's ring (Tom Riddle, Sr.'s
murder, destroyed by Dumbledore), Salazar Slytherin's locket (a muggle tramp's murder, destroyed by Ron Weasley), the snake Nagini (Bertha Jorkins' murder, destroyed by Neville
Longbottom), Helga Hufflepuff's cup (Hepzibah Smith's murder, destroyed by Hermione Granger, Rowena Ravenclaw's diadem (an Albanian peasant's murder, destroyed by VIncent Crabbe),
and Harry Potter (Harry's parents' murder, destroyed by Voldemort unintentionally).

horizontal decalage -- development within a Piagetian stage. Gradual mastery of logical concepts during the concrete operational stage is an example.

hormephobia -- fear of shock.

hormonal methods -- female forms of contraception that use chemicals to prevent ovulation or implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus, via pill, vaginal ring, vaginal insertion, skin
patch, injection, or implant.  

hormones -- chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands. Men usually have more testosterone (produced by the testes), and women have more
estrogen and progesterone (produced by the ovaries). These hormones and the different sex chromosomes underlying them are certainly what produce different physical
characteristics -- for example, facial hair on men and breasts on women.

hostile aggression -- aggression directed toward another person, generally in retaliation for his or her actions.  

hostile sexism -- holding negative attitudes toward women and their status.  

house elf -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a small, humanoid creature that inhabits large houses belonging to wealthy wizard families.
A house elf is short with bat-like ears and enormous eyes. They do not wear clothing, but cover themselves in towels, tea cozies, pillowcases, or
some other such item. They are "bound" to their family, but can be set free if their family gives them an article of clothing. A group of house elves is
an apology. A house elf baby is a sorry.
See the picture of Dobby, the house elf from the movie, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.

household --
a person or group of people who occupy a housing unit.  

householder -- The person in whose name a housing unit is either owned, being bought, or rented.  

househusband -- also known as stay-at-home dad; a man who is a full-time homemaker.

housekeeping/dramatic play center -- a place for acting out familiar home scenes with various real-life props in an early childhood setting.

H. Pylori (Helicobacter Pylori) --  a bacterium that causes chronic inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach in humans. It is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. In the US,
30% of the adult population is affected (50% of infected persons are infected by age 60). In countries where there is poor sanitation, 90% of adult population can be infected.

HSP, infantile onset -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- a very rare form of HSP caused by mutations on the ALS2 gene on chromosome 2, autosomal recessive. Initial symptoms
may begin in infancy or early childhood and gradually worsen. Symptoms are weakness of the legs, hypertonicity in the legs. Children with this disorder are usually wheelchair-bound by late
childhood or early adolescence. Weakness and stiffness of the arm muscles usually occurs by age 8. More progressive symptoms are slow eye movements, and difficulty with speech and

HSP, type I -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- also called L1 syndrome; includes muscle stiffness and weakness of the lower limbs, intellectual disability, hydrocephalus, adducted
aphasia, seizures, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. It is caused by mutations in the L1CAM gene on the X chromosome, X-linked recessive.

HSP, type 2 -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- a rare form of HSP, with spasticity in the lower limbs, ataxia, nystagmus, mild intellectual disability, tremor, and atrophy of the
optic nerves. Symptoms become apparent between the ages of 1 and 5 years; those affected are typically able to walk and have a normal lifespan. It is caused by mutations in the PLP1
gene on the X chromosome,
X-linked recessive.

HSP, type 3A -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia marked by the usual muscle stiffness characteristic of HSP; also progressive muscle wasting
amyotrophy) in the lower limbs, reduced bladder control, and scoliosis, all usually appearing in the first decade of life. It is caused by mutations in the ATL1 gene on chromosome 14,
autosomal dominant.

HSP, type 4 -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia marked by spasticity of the leg muscles and muscle weakness; also exaggerated reflexes
(hyperreflexia), ankle spasms, high-arched feet, and reduced bladder control. It usually affects nerve and muscle function in the lower half of the body. It is caused by mutations in the SPAST
gene, chromosome 2,
autosomal dominant.

HSP, type 7 -- see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- involves spasticity of the leg muscles and progressive muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, dysarthria, dysphagia, nystagmus, mild
hearing loss, scoliosis, high-arched feet, numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy), motor neuropathy, and amyotrophy. It is caused by mutations in the
SPG7 gene on chromosome 16,
autosomal recessive.

HSP, type 8 --  see hereditary spastic paraplegia -- a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia, leg weakness and spasticity, hyperreflexia, a decreased ability to feel vibrations, amyotrophy,
and reduced bladder control, usually starting in early to mid-adulthood. It is caused by mutations on the KIAA0196 gene, chromosome 8,
autosomal dominant.

HPV -- see human papilloma virus.

HSV --
see herpes simplex virus.

hubris --
excessive pride; overbearing arrogance.

hue -- gradation or variety of a color.

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) -- the hormone secreted by the embryo that prevents its expulsion from the uterus. A pregnancy test measures the presence of this hormone in
the blood or urine.

Human Genome Project -- Project developed by the United States and the United Kingdom to identify the 80,000 genes in human DNA; to determine the sequences of the 3 billion
chemical base pairs that make up human DNA; to store this information in databases; to develop tools for data analysis; and to address the ethical, legal, and social issues that may arise
from the project.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) -- The virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), bringing about a variety of ills and the breakdown of the immune
system, which allows the development of certain infections and cancers; maternal or teratogenic. HIV is now considered pandemic. As of January 2006, the World Health Organization
has estimated that AIDS has killed over 25 million people since it was first recognized December 1, 1981.

human kinship -- Maslow: a quality of the self-actualizing principle -- means finding social interests, compassion, beauty, and humanity.

humanistic theory -- a humanistic approach to intervention that concentrates on providing an atmosphere of love and trust in teaching and learning, with an emphasis on open
communication and the child's immediate experiences (

Humanist theory -- the psychological theory of Abraham Maslow and others; it involves principles of motivation and wellness, centering on people's needs, goals, and successes.

humanitarian -- one who is devoted to the promotion of human welfare and the advancement of social reforms; a philanthropist.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) -- a virus which causes warts, usually passed by sexual contact, and some strains are associated with an increased incidence
cervical cancer.

humerus -- an arm bone. See picture.

humiliate --
to enervate or embarrass through specific actions or events.

humph -- used to express doubt, displeasure, or contempt; an exclamation of annoyance, dissatisfaction, skepticism.

humpies -- another name for pink salmon.

hunkalicious -- a very attractive man.

Hunter syndrome (MPS II) -- see mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS); a cause of deaf-blindness. (see NPS II).

Huntington Disease (previously called Huntington chorea), juvenile -- juvenile onset progressive neurological disorder. For cases to be considered juvenile HD, onset must occur by
20 years of age. Children present with
dysarthria, clumsiness, hyperreflexia, rigidity, and oculomotor disturbances. Associated complications: joint contractures, swallowing dysfunction,
, grimacing, absentmindedness, and involuntary dancelike movements (chorea). Caused by an expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) trinucleotide repeat in huntingtin
gene on chromsome 4p16.3 (normal number of CAG repeats is 11 -- 34; individuals affected with juvenile HD have greater than 60 CAG repeats);
autosomal dominant.

Hurler-Scheie syndrome -- see Hurler syndrome or MPS I.

Hurler syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis I-H) -- inborn error of mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Short stature, progressive intellectual disability, coarse facial appearance, full
lips, flat nasal bridge, clouded
corneas, liver and spleen enlargement, body abnormalities of spine and limbs. Cell, tissue, and organ dysfunction. Life span usually does not exceed 10 years.
Caused by a deficiency of enzyme alpha iduronidase,
autosomal recessive inheritance. Prenatally diagnosis available through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and enzyme
analysis. Associated complications are visual and hearing deficits, progressive joint limitation,
kyphosis, hernias, progressive cardiac failure, motor and muscle development usually peak at
2 years of age and then deteriorate. Incidence: 1/100,000; recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25%; a cause of
deaf-blindness. (See MPS I.)

hurlyburly -- uproar, tumult.

hyacinth -- tropical, American herb; red, transparent variety of zircon used as a gemstone.

hyaline cartilage -- semi-transparent and appears bluish-white in color. It is extremely strong, but very flexible and elastic. It consists of living cells, chondrocytes, which are situated far
apart in fluid-filled spaces, the
lacuna. It contains a number of collagenous fibers. It occurs in the trachea, the larynx, the tip of the nose, in the connection between the ribs and the
breastbone, and also the ends of bone where they form joints. Temporary cartilage in
embryos consists of hyaline cartilage. Called hyaline connective tissue.

hyalinopygophobia -- fear of glass bottoms.

hyalophobia, hyelophobia -- fear of glass.

hybrid -- offspring of parents of dissimilar species.

hydra -- a water or marsh serpent with nine heads, each of which, if cut off, grows back as two. Hercules killed a hydra by cauterizing the necks when he cut off the heads. The hydra's breath
is so virulent that even its tracks are deadly. A group of hydras is an unpossibility. A hydra baby is a golgi baby.

hydranencephaly -- a rare condition in which the brain's cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced by sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid. An infant born with this condition may
appear normal at first, but after a few weeks, the infant becomes irritable and has increased muscle tone. After a few months,
seizures and hydrocephalus may develop. Other symptoms
may include
visual impairment, lack of growth, deafness, blindness, spastic quadriparesis (paralysis), and intellectual disability. It is considered to be an extreme form of
porencephaly, and may be caused by vascular infections or traumatic events after the 12th week of pregnancy. Outlook is poor and most infants with hydranencephaly die before age 1.

hydrocephalus -- a condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain. This leads to enlargement of the head; a cause of
deaf blindness; multifactorial. Hydrocephalus can be controlled by a surgical procedure called "shunting" which relieves the fluid buildup in the brain. If a drain (shunt) is not implanted, the
pressure buildup can cause brain damage,
seizures, or blindness. Hydrocephalus can occur without spina bifida, but the two conditions often occur together.

hydrochloric acid -- a clear, colorless, fuming, poisonous, highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen and chloride, HCl, used as a chemical intermediate and in petroleum production, ore
reduction, food processing, pickling, and metal cleaning. It is found in the stomach in dilute form in the
gastric juice.

hydrogen -- a chemical element with the atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. It has an atomic weight of 1.00794. It is composed of a single proton and a single electron.
It is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. It is estimated that 90% of the visible universe is composed of hydrogen. It is also among the most common elements in the
human body (CHOPKINS CaFe MgNaCl). Hydrogen is a colorless, highly flammable gaseous element, the lightest of all of the gases, used in the production of synthetic ammonia and
methanol, petroleum refining, hydrogenation of organic materials, reducing atmosphere, oxyhydrogen torches, rocket fuel; It was discovered in 1766 by
Henry Cavendish.

hydrophobia -- fear of water.

hydrops -- extreme swelling in all tissue spaces resulting in destruction of the normal development and functioning of organs.

hygrophobia -- fear of dampness.

hylephobia, hylophobia -- fear of forests or wood.

hymen -- thin mucous membrane at the juncture of the vulva and the vagina.

hymenotomies -- a procedure to enlarge the hymen.

hyoid bone -- a bone in the head that is not attached to any other bones in the body; it is supported by a network of muscles and ligaments,
which keep it trapped directly below the tongue. The primary role of the hyoid bone is to support the weight of the tongue, allowing
while speaking, and making possible the production of a wide range of vocalizations. Without the hyoid bone, humans would be incapable of
speech as we know it. The first hyoid bone appeared in hominids around 300,000 years ago. The hyoid bone is shaped like a horseshoe. It is
sometimes called the
lingual bone. (See picture.)

hypengyophobia, hypegiaphobia --
fear of responsibility.

hyperactivity -- perhaps the most frequently mentioned behavior characteristic in the literature on ADHD. In some cases, the term hyperactivity refers to too much activity. In others, the term
refers to activity inappropriate for a given situation or context. The child who is hyperactive has difficulty sitting still, is in constant motion, is fidgety and driven by an "inner motor."

hyperacusis -- collapsed tolerance to normal environmental sounds. Ears also lose most of their dynamic range, which means the ability of the ear to deal with quick shifts in sound
loudness. With hyperacusis, ALL sounds are nearly intolerably loud. The disorder is chronic, and is usually accompanied by
tinnitus. Other symptoms are inner ear pain and a feeling of
pressure in the ears. Hyperacusis may be caused by loud sounds such as a rock concert, firing a gun, air bag deployment, fireworks, any other extremely loud sound, drugs,
disease, Meniere's, TMJ, head injury, or postoperative surgery.

hyperalimentation -- intravenous provision of high-quality nutrition (i.e., carbohydrates, protein, fat). This is also called parenteral nutrition. It is used in children with malabsorption,
malnutrition, and short gut syndrome.

(Congenital) Hyperammonemia -- group of inborn errors of metabolism presenting with vomiting, lethargy, and coma in the newborn period or early childhood. If untreated, infants die
or have
intellectual disability. Caused by a defect in one of the five urea cycle enzymes, leading to a buildup of ammonia. Autosomal recessive inheritance except ornithine
transcarbamylase enzyme deficiency (OTC) which is
X-linked recessive). Can be diagnosed prenatally by enzyme analysis of cells from amniotic fluid or DNA studies. Can be treated by
protein restriction and arginine supplements with sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate therapy. Associated complications are coma and death,
intellectual disability, cerebral palsy.
Incidence: 1/30,000; recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25%, except OTC, which is 50% for patient's male siblings, and 50
% of female siblings being carriers.

hyperbilirubinemia -- excess of bilirubin in the blood, which can result in jaundice, a yellowing of the complexion and/or whites of the eyes, or kernicterus, the yellow staining of certain
central parts of the brain.

hyperbola -- a plane curve generated by a point so moving that the difference of the distances from two fixed points is a constant.

hyperbole -- extravagant exaggeration or overstatement that is intended to produce an effect without being taken literally: "I could sleep for a year," or "this box weighs a ton," or "I'm so
hungry I could eat a horse" or "I've told you a million times not to exaggerate" or "I nearly died laughing" or "I tried a thousand times" or "Your mother is so small she does chin-ups on the

hyperborean -- a member of a people held by the ancient Greeks to live beyond the north wind in a region of perpetual sunshine; an inhabitant of a cool northern climate.

hypercalcemia -- excessively high levels of calcium.

hypercholesterolemia (familial) -- high levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) at birth. The condition can cause heart attacks at an early age. Symptoms are fatty, cholesterol-rich
skin deposits (
xanthomas); cholesterol deposits in the eyelids (xanthelasmas); chest pain (angina) associated with coronary artery disease; and obesity. It is caused by a defect of a gene
on chromosome 19; typically
autosomal dominant.

hyperelastic -- skin that can be stretched beyond what is considered normal, which then returns to normal. It occurs when there is a problem with the production of collagen fibers. Collagen
is a type of protein that makes up much of the body's tissue. It is seen in
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma, subcutaneous
lymphoma, and sun-related changes in aging skin.

hyperextension -- the movement of extension beyond that needed to straighten a limb.

hyperfocus -- refers to demonstrating intense levels of concentration and attention in completing tasks.

hyperglycemia -- a condition characterized by an abnormally high level of sugar in the blood.

hyperimmune serum -- blood that is especially rich in antibodies against a virus.

hyperkinetic behavior -- an excess of behavior in circumstances where it is not appropriate.

hyperkinetic dysarthria -- involves a loss of inhibitory (stopping, halting, slowing) control -- thus, abnormal involuntary movements interrupts speech. This may occur in the form of tremors,
athetosis (writhing movements), or dystonia (movement to an extraneous posture and momentary freezing in that position).

hypernasality -- a voice resonance disorder  that occurs when excessive air passes through the nasal cavity, often resulting in an unpleasant twanging sound.

hyperopia -- farsightedness; a refractive problem wherein the eyeball is excessively short, focusing light rays behind the retina.

hyperparathydoidism -- high levels of blood parathyroid hormone, which causes abnormalities in calcium and phosphorous metabolism.

hyperphagia -- an abnormally increased appetite for and consumption of food, thought to be associated with a lesion or injury in the hypothalamus.

hyperpigmentation -- the darkening of an area of skin or nails caused by increased melanin.

hyperreflexia -- overactive or overresponsive reflexes, such as twitching. It is most often caused by a spinal cord injury, but can be a result of several other factors and syndromes, such as
preeclampsia, brain tumor, stroke, Angelman syndrome, Charcot-Marie Tooth syndrome, Parkinson disease, Rubenstein-Taybi syndrome, etc.

hypersensitivity -- a state in which an immune response damages the body's own tissues.

hypersynchronous -- in the context of the central nervous system (CNS), pertaining to the discharge of many neurons at the same time, which leads to a seizure.

hypertelorism -- widely spaced eyes; an abnormally wide space between two organs or parts

hypertension -- elevation of blood pressure above the normally accepted values.  

hyperthyroidism --
overactivity of the thyroid gland characterized by increased metabolism. An example is Graves' disease.  

hypertonicity -- high muscle tone; hypertonia.

hypertonic muscle tone -- Muscle tone that is too high, resulting in tense, contracted muscles; also called spasticity.  

hypertrichosis --
excessive hair growth.  

hypertriglyceridemia --
excess triglycerides in plasma.

hypertrophy -- overgrowth of a body part or organ.  

hyperventilation --
rapid breathing often with forced inhalation; can lead to sensations of dizziness, light headedness, and weakness.

hypervigilant -- abnormally increased arousal, responsiveness to stimuli, and scanning of the environment for threats.

hyphenate -- a person who performs more than one function (as a producer-director in film-making).

hypnophobia -- fear of sleep.

hypnosis -- Freud: Freud spent a year in Paris learning hypnosis from Charcot. Impressed at first, he later abandoned it; as with the cathartic method, it did not produce long-term results.

hypnotic suggestion -- Freud.

hypocalcemia -- abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood.

hypochondria -- a preoccupying fear of having a serious illness. This conviction persists despite medical evaluation and reassurance of good health. People with hypochondria are
obsessed with bodily functions and interpret normal sensations (such as heart beats, sweating, or bowel movements) or minor abnormalities (such as a runny nose, a small sore, or slightly
swollen lymph nodes) as symptoms of serious medical conditions. They may also focus on vague and ambiguous physical sensations, like a "sore liver" or "tired veins." One form of this
disorder involves a preoccupation with a single organ (such as the lungs) or disease (such as cancer). Negative results of diagnostic examinations do little to decrease a patient's anxiety
about his or her health, and he or she continues to seek medical attention. Because patients with hypochondria usually see their primary care physicians rather than go to mental health
clinics or join psychiatric research programs, it is difficult to determine how many people actually suffer from this disorder. Estimates range from 0.8% to 8.5% of the general US population. It
seems to occur equally in men and women.

hypodontia -- missing teeth as a result of their failure to develop.

hypogenitalism -- partial or complete failure of the genitals to develop.

hypoglossal cranial nerve -- the 12th pair of cranial nerves; supplies the muscles of the tongue.

hypoglycemia -- low blood sugar; often found in premature infants and infants of mothers with diabetes.  

hypogonadism --
decreased function of sex glands with resultant retarded growth and sexual development.

hypokinetic dysarthria -- dysarthria that involves lack of movement, usually caused by Parkinson's disease.

hyponasality -- a voice resonance disorder whereby too little air passes through the nasal cavity; also known as denasality.

hypoparathyroidism -- an endocrine disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH). Symptoms are abdominal pain; brittle
cataracts; dry hair, dry, scaly skin; muscle cramps; muscle spasms; pain in the face, legs, and feet; seizures; tingling lips, fingers, and toes; weakened tooth enamel; decreased
consciousness; delayed or absent tooth formation; hand or foot spasms; and painful menstruation.

hypophosphatasia -- a disorder of calcium and phosphate metabolism with symptoms ranging from a severe infantile form (which can be rapidly fatal) to a relatively mild childhood form. A
total of 6 kinds of the disease have been described (perinatal severe, perinatal moderate, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia [dental only]). Features include short
stature, bowed long bones,
craniosynostosis, hypocalcemia; seizures, multiple fractures, premature loss of teeth. The neonatal form presents as short limbs and poor ossification of the
skeleton. The childhood form presents with an early loss of secondary teeth, short stature, and delayed walking with a waddling
gait. Joint pain and nonprogressive muscle weakness may
also be present. Caused by mutations in the "tissue non-specific" alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL) on chromosome 1p36;
autosomal recessive (severe forms), autosomal recessive
dominant (milder forms).

hypophosphatemic rickets -- X-linked dominant.

hypopigmented -- loss of skin color.

hypoplasia -- incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue (hypoplastic).  

hypoplastic lungs --
small lungs that are not fully developed; associated with oligohydramnios and lack of fetal breathing efforts.  

hypospadias -- abnormal urethral opening in the penis.  

hypotension --
low blood pressure.

hypothalamus -- an area in the center of the brain which influences the pituitary gland, which in turn influences the testes and ovary by
the release of sex hormones. Located in the bottom center of the middle of the brain area under the
thalamus. Complex  thermostat-like
structure that influences and regulates appetite, hormone secretion, digestion, sexuality, circulation, emotions, and sleep.
(See diagram ---->.)  

hypothermia --
low body temperature; especially a risk in premature infants.  

hypothesis --
a tentative theory or assumption made to draw inferences or test conclusions; an interpretation of a practical situation that is then taken as the ground for action.  

hypothetico - deductive reasoning --
the type of reasoning used in science.  

(Congenital) Hypothyroidism -- hoarse cry, large for gestational age, large tongue, umbilical hernia, floppy tone, intellectual disability. Cause can be a primary defect in development
thyroid gland, an inborn error of metabolism, or an abnormality of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. Prenatal diagnosis is unavailable, but newborn screening is available. Can be
treated with thyroid hormone supplementation. Associated complications are
intellectual disability, growth retardation, delayed bone and dental maturation. If treatment is initiated prior to 6
weeks of age, intellect is normal in 95% of cases. If treatment is delayed beyond 1 year, 10% or less will have normal intelligence. Incidence: 1/4000; recurrence risk, depends on cause.

hypotonia -- poor muscle tone; low muscle tone. (See illustration right there.)

hypotonic muscle tone --
A condition in which the individual has low muscle tone; floppy muscles that exhibit resistance to being stretched; having
decreased muscle tone; noun: hypotonia.

hypoxemia -- seriously low blood oxygen supply to the entire body.

hypoxia, hypoxic -- reduction of oxygen content in body tissues.

hypoxic brain damage -- see cerebral hypoxia.

hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) -- an acute brain malfunction often resulting in coma caused by acute reduction in the blood flow and the
oxygen supply to the brain.

hypsarrhythmia -- electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormality seen in infants with infantile seizures. It is marked by chaotic spike and wave activity.

hypsophobia, hypsiphobia -- fear of heights.

hysteria -- Freud: a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses.

hysterotomy -- surgical abortion performed late in a woman's pregnancy, in weeks 16 to 24; used mainly when the woman's life is in danger and other abortion methods are considered too
risky. Also called a "small cesarean section," this procedure requires hospitalization; the physician makes a surgical incision in the abdomen and uterus and removes the fetus.
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Smells are surer than
sounds and sights to
make heart-strings
crack. --Rudyard