|GABA -- Shorthand for gamma-aminobutyric acid. This common neurotransmitter acts as an inhibitory agent, an "off" switch. Neurons are constantly chattering with random firing, and
GABA prevents the electrical impulse from moving down the axon.
gadolinium -- atomic number 64, symbol Gd; a silvery-white, malleable, ductile, metallic rare earth element obtained from monazite and bastnaesite; used in improving high-temperature
characteristics of iron, chromium, and related alloys; ferromagnetic, lanthanide discovered in 1880 by Jean de Marignac.
gait -- a manner of walking or moving on foot; the manner or rate of movement or progress.
gait disturbance -- deviation from normal walking. Normal gait requires many systems, such as strength, sensation, and coordination, to function together. Gait disturbance can occur as the
result of an illness, disorder, or disability. Some disorders that can cause gait disturbance are multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and
galactose -- a simple sugar contained in milk. Galactose makes up half of the sugar called lactose found in milk. The other half is glucose. Galactose is metabolized through the action of an
enzyme called GALT (galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase).
galactosemia -- lethargy, jaundice, hypotonia in the newborn period, failure to thrive with vomiting and diarrhea, cataracts, liver dysfunction,
varying degrees of intellectual disability (severe if untreated). In 70% of treated children, IQ score is less than 90; 50% have significant visual-
perceptual impairments. Verbal dyspraxia is also seen in 62% of treated infants. Associated complications: ovarian failure, hemolytic anemia,
increased risk of sepsis (particularly E coli in neonate), cerebellar ataxia, tremors, choreoathetosis. Onset of clinical features is in part
dependant on the ingestion of dietary galactose; individuals diagnosed by newborn screening in whom galactose has been withheld still experience
some cognitive deficits and ovarian failure (females). Caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase or GACT, less
commonly, galactokinase (both are enzymes required for digestion of galactose, a natural sugar found in milk. The GALT gene is on chromosome
9p13; autosomal recessive. (See picture.)
galaxy -- a system of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity. Our galaxy is the Milky Way. Scientists estimate that there are more than 100 billion
galaxies scattered throughout the visible universe. The most distant galaxies ever photographed are as far as 10 billion to 13 billion light-years away. A light-year is the distance that light
travels in a vacuum in a year (about 5.88 trillion miles). Our galaxy has a diameter of about 100,000 light years. There are about 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. Our solar system lies
about 25,000 light-years from the center of the galaxy. Only 3 other galaxies are visible with the unaided eye: the Andromeda Galaxy (2 million light years away), the Large Magellanic Cloud
(160,000 light-years away), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (180,000 light-years away). (See pictures of the Milky Way galaxy (artist's rendition), Andromeda galaxy, and ESO 510-13
gale -- a harsh gust of wind; a strong current of wind.
gallavant -- to go about usually ostentatiously or indiscreetly with members of the opposite sex; to travel, roam, or move about for pleasure.
gallbladder -- a small pear-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile. It is connected to the liver by the hepatic duct. It is approximately 3 to 4 inches long and about 1 inch wide.
galleria -- spacious passageway, court, or indoor mall, usually with a vaulted roof; gallery.
gallery -- raised area, often having a stepped or sloping floor, in a public building.
galley-west -- into destruction or confusion.
gallium -- atomic number 31, symbol Ga; a silvery rare metallic element that is liquid near room temperature, expands on solidifying, and is found as a trace element in coal, bauxite, and
other minerals; used in thermometers and semiconductors ; discovered in 1875 by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran.
gallophobia -- fear of France or French people.
gallstones -- hard, pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder. They may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Symptoms may be pain in the right upper or
middle upper abdomen, fever, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, abdominal fullness, clay-colored stools, nausea and vomiting. Gallstones can be made of excess cholesterol or
galumph -- to move with a clumsy heavy tread; probably originated with Lewis Carroll who used the word "galumphing" to describe the actions of the vanquisher of the Jabberwock in
Through the Looking Glass. Etymologists suspect that Carroll created galumph by altering the word "gallop" and throwing in a pinch of "triumphant" for good measure, which was
appropriate because "galumph" did convey a sense of exultant bounding.
gam -- to engage in a visit or friendly conversation at sea or ashore; to have a visit or friendly conversation with; to spend or pass (as time) talking.
gambeson -- a padded defensive jacket, worn as armor or combined with mail or plate armor.
gambol -- to skip about in play; frisk, frolic.
games with rules - play where players take turns and act according to a mutually understood standard.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) -- a woman must have at least one unblocked fallopian tube for GIFT. In GIFT, eggs are retrieved
from the woman’s ovaries and placed with the male sperm (obtained prior to the procedure) into a small catheter. The catheter (a flexible tube)
is used to immediately deliver the eggs and sperm into the woman’s fallopian tubes where nature takes over. Unlike IVF where fertilization
occurs in the laboratory, in GIFT the fertilization takes place inside the woman’s body. (See illustration -------------------------->>.)
gametes -- human sperm and ova, which contain half as many chromosomes as a regular body cell. (Scroll to the bottom of the page to
see meiosis, with resulting gametes.)
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) -- an amino acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
gamma ray, gamma radiation, gamma ray radiation -- an extremely high-energy form of electromagnetic radiation.
gamophobia, gametophobia -- fear of marriage.
ganglia -- 1) a small, cystic tumor connected either with a joint membrane or a tendon sheath; 2) a mass of nerve tissue containing cell bodies of neurons external to the brain or spinal cord;
3) basal ganglia are four deeply placed masses of gray matter (as the amygdala) in each cerebral hemisphere; 4) spinal ganglia on the dorsal root of each spinal nerve that is one of a
series of ganglia lodging cell bodies of sensory neurons. Did you get that? It's Greek to me.
gargantuan -- tremendous in size, volume, or degree; gigantic; colossal.
garner -- to gather into storage; to deposit as if in a granary; to acquire by effort; earn; accumulate; collect.
garrulous -- given to excessive and often trivial or rambling talk; tiresomely talkative; wordy and rambling.
gaslighting -- when one partner, perhaps using sarcasm, constantly criticizes the other's definition of reality, diminishing the other's self-esteem.
gastric glands -- any of the branched tubular glands in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach, containing parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and zymogenic cells that
produce pepsin. Also called fundus gland or gastric follicle.
gastrin -- a hormone secreted by glands in the mucous membrane of the stomach that stimulates the production of gastric juice.
gastroenteritis -- stomach flu; an acute illness marked by vomiting and diarrhea usually associated with a viral infection (e.g., rotavirus in infants) that generally lasts a few days; also
called stomach flu.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) -- the backward flow of food into the esophagus after it has entered the stomach.
gastrointestinal symptoms -- one of the associated complications of autism: increased prevalence of abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating.
gastrointestinal system (or tract) -- the part of the digestive system that consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestine. (See
gastrointestinal problems -- most gastrointestinal problems in children with Down syndrome manifest in the newborn period, such as poor feeding,
vomiting, or aspiration pneumonia. Malformations include stenosis (narrowing) or atresia (blockage) of the duodenum, imperforate (closed) anus,
esophageal atresia, pyloric stenosis (narrowing of the stomach outlet), and gastroesophageal reflux.
gastronomy feeding tube -- a rubber tube that is inserted into the stomach, through which an individual can be fed.
gastroparesis -- a condition that affects the ability of the stomach to empty its contents, but there is no blockage. Symptoms are abdominal distention,
nausea, premature abdominal fullness after meals, unintentional weight loss, vomiting.
gastroschisis -- a congenital defect characterized by incomplete closure of the abdominal wall with protrusion of the abdominal organs. It is a type of
hernia. Babies with this condition have a hole in the abdominal wall, usually on the right side of the umbilical cord. (See picture below.)
gastrostomy -- an operation in which an artificial opening is made into the stomach through the wall of the abdomen.
gastronomy feeding tube -- the process of feeding the individual through a rubber tube that is inserted into the stomach.
gatekeeping -- keeping others away from the child, either physically or by subtle interference.
gatophobia, galeophobia -- fear of cats.
Gaucher disease -- three clinically distinct forms, the most common of which (type 1) has onset in adulthood including enlarged spleen and liver, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone
involvement, no nervous system involvement has been noted. Most individuals with type 1 go undiagnosed. Type II presents in infancy with an enlarged spleen, hematological abnormalities,
bony lesions, abnormalities of skin pigmentation, and varying degrees of intellectual disability. Most children will die within the first 2 years of life. Type III is more variable with ataxia,
seizures, eye movement disorder, and dementia. Associated complications: rare associated features such as cardiac valvular involvement and Parkinsonian features have been associated
with specific genotypes. Caused by an accumulation of glucosylceramide due to deficiency of the enzyme beta-glucosidase on chromosome 1q21; autosomal recessive.
gaucherie -- awkwardness; inexperience; embarrassments.
gavage feeding -- tube feedings for children whose disabilities prevent oral feeding.
gay -- homosexual; usually refers to a male.
GBS -- see group B streptococcus.
geegaw -- a decorative trinket; a bauble.
gelding -- a castrated animal, especially a male horse.
gelophobia -- fear of laughter.
Gemini -- a constellation of the zodiac and one of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; Latin for twins; lies between
Taurus, Cancer, Auriga, Lynx, Monoceros, and Canis Minor; its two brightest stars are Castor and Pollux; at least 7 of the stars in Gemini have planets.
gender -- general term for the biological differences in the two sexes, male and female--------->.
gender apartheid -- a system of gender-based segregation and stratification in which women and girls are stripped of their basic human rights.
gender constancy -- the understanding that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyles, and play activities change. (Also referred to as gender consistency.)
gender identity -- the characteristics determining who or what a person is; in this case, those social and cultural differences around being male or female; the image of oneself as relatively
masculine or feminine in characteristics.
gender labeling -- labeling oneself and others on the basis of gender group.
gender labeling of jobs -- identification of jobs as being primarily appropriate for one sex or the other.
gender polarization -- the organizing of social life according to female and male gender-role distinctions.
gender roles -- the function or part played by a person according to the social and cultural expectations of being male and female.
gender role stereotype -- a rigid, simplistic belief about the distinctive psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns attributable to a man or woman based exclusively on sex.
gender schemas -- mental representations about the sexes.
gender schema theory -- an information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features to explain how environmental pressures
and children's cognitions together shape gender-role development.
gender segregation of workers -- the separation of female and male workers into two different types of jobs.
gender stability -- understanding that gender is stable over time.
gender stereotype -- the belief that men and women each display traditional gender-role characteristics.
gender typing -- the process of developing gender roles, or gender linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society.
gene -- a unit of genetic material (DNA) that encodes a single protein.
gene-environment interactions -- genetic sensitivity to particular environmental factors.
genealogy -- a line of descent traced continuously from an ancestor, combing through the birth records and genealogies; the study and tracing of lines of descent or development.
general case method -- a teaching strategy designed to help children generalize skills.
general coordination deficits -- commonly a characteristic of a child with a learning disability; clumsiness and difficulty with fine and/or gross motor skills (e.g., typing shoes, running,
hopping, skipping) and depth perception.
general curriculum -- instructional content that all students are expected to learn as they progress through school and earn a high school diploma. The specific content and performance
standards for student achievement are set by each individual state or local school district.
general education classroom teacher -- a teacher in a typical classroom designed to serve students who do not have disabilities, although inclined to inclusion. As a team member, this
teacher works to develop and implement appropriate educational experiences for the child while in the general education classroom; ensures that experiences outside the general ed
classroom are consistent with the ones inside the classroom; keeps an accurate and continuous record of the child's progress; and is responsible for referring students for evaluation who
may be at risk or seem to need special education services.
general fertility rate -- a statistic that compares the yearly number of births in a society to the number of women of childbearing age in the population.
general growth curve -- a curve that represents overall changes in body size -- rapid growth during infancy, slower gains in early and middle childhood, and rapid growth again during
generality -- general rather than specific skills that can be adapted to meet individual needs and used in many situations.
generalization -- the use of newly acquired skills in a variety of situations.
generalization stage of learning -- stage of learning in which the aim is for mastered skills to be employed across all appropriate situations.
generalize -- To learn a specific skill so well that a child can use it in a variety of situations.
generalized -- a term that refers to survey results: the results of the survey sample can be said to apply to the population, or the larger group from which the sample was taken.
generalized anxiety disorder -- consists of excessive, overwhelming worry not caused by any recent experience.
generalized seizure -- seizure that involves the entire body and may be one of two types: tonic-clonic or absence. The whole of the brain is involved and consciousness is lost. This
kind of seizure often occurs without warning, and there is usually no memory of the seizure later.
general practitioner -- a physician who does not limit practice to a specialty. (Look at that guy over there ------->).
general systems theory -- a set of principles and concepts that can be applied to all types of systems, living and non-living.
general space -- it is normally limited only by floors, walls, and ceilings. It may also be referred to as shared space.
general vocabulary -- words that are used on a regular basis during conversation.
generational stake theory -- the idea that family members who are at different points in the life cycle may regard their relationships differently.
generation gap -- a conflict of basic interests, beliefs, and values between youth and their parents.
generation-processing level -- vocabulary acquisition level wherein words can be used for discussion purposes or in activities.
generative learning -- educational approach in which students are taught how to use specific methods of problem solving to integrate new information with preexisting information.
generativity vs. stagnation -- seventh stage of Erikson's model. Generativity means giving to the next generation through child rearing, caring for others, productive work, OR stagnation
if the person fails in these ways or feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment (adulthood).
genes -- the biological elements that transmit hereditary characteristics. A segment of a DNA molecule that contains hereditary information. There are an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 genes
along a human chromosome.
gene therapy -- the treatment of certain disorders, especially those caused by genetic anomalies or deficiencies, by introducing specific engineered genes into the patient's cells.
genetic code -- the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells.
genetic counseling -- a communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder and choose the best course of action in
view of risks and family goals.
genetic deficit theories -- typically support the notion that nonwhites are genetically deficient when compared to whites.
genetic disorders -- Disorders caused by alteration in the chromosomal materials that control inherited characteristics.
genetic endowment -- another term for inherited attributes passed from biological parents to offspring.
genetic-environmental correlation -- the idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed.
genetic factors -- a possible cause of learning disabilities, along with neurological factors, maturational delay, and environmental factors. A cause of hearing loss: responsible for at
least half of all cases of sensorineural hearing loss. In approximately 80% of children with hereditary hearing loss, it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is not associated
with a syndrome; that is, it is the child's sole disability. Other hereditary disorders can affect the formation or function of any part of the hearing mechanism. There are more than 70 inherited
syndromes associated with deafness. Conductive hearing loss is also associated with cleft palate.
genetic hearing loss -- hearing loss caused by the presence of an abnormal gene within one or two chromosomes.
genetic imprinting -- a pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one pair member is activated, regardless of its makeup.
genetic influences -- biological factors that are a result of heredity (come from genes).
geneticists -- professionals who specialize in the study of heredity. (See acclaimed geneticist THERE -->.)
genetic mapping -- a process of learning the genetic code of humans by charting the relationships between specific genes and individual chromosomes.
genetics -- a discipline of biology, the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.
genetics counselors -- specially trained professional who counsel people about their chances of producing a seriously ill infant, in reference to their genetic history.
geniophobia -- fear of chins.
genital herpes (HSV) -- a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Most individuals have nor or only minimal signs of
herpes. Typical signs are one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum.
genitals -- the external sex or reproductive organ.
Genital stage -- the last stage in Freud's model of development in which puberty causes the sexual impulses of the phallic stage to reappear, leading to sexual maturity (adolescence).
genitourinary system -- the reproductive organs and the urinary tract.
genitourinary tract anomalies -- malformations in the genitals and the urinary tract.
genogram -- diagram that shows clearly all the people who genetically, emotionally, and legally constitute a particular family.
genome -- a person's complete set of DNA.
genomic imprinting -- a condition manifested differently depending on whether the trait is inherited from the mother or father; also called uniparental disomy. An example is a deletion in
chromosome 15q11-q13; which when inherited from the mother results in Angelman syndrome and when inherited from the father results in Prader-Willi syndrome.
genophobia -- fear of sexual intercourse.
genotype -- the genetic composition of an individual.
genre -- a class or category of artistic endeavor having a particular form, content, technique, etc.; genus, kind, sort, style; a distinctive form of writing or text -- a poem, a cookbook.
genteel -- of or relating to the gentry or upper class; elegant or graceful in manner, appearance, or shape; free from vulgarity or rudeness; impolite; marked by falso delicacy, prudery, or
genuflect -- to bend the knee; to touch the knee to the floor or ground especially in worship; to be servilely obedient or respectful.
geoponics -- the study or science of agriculture.
georgic -- of or relating to agriculture.
geotropism -- the growth of a living organism in response to gravity, as in the downward growth of plant roots.
gephyrophobia, gephydrophobia -- fear of crossing bridges.
GER -- see gastroesophageal reflux.
gerascphobia -- fear of growing old.
germanium -- atomic number 32, symbol Ge; a brittle, crystalline, gray-white metalloid element, used as a semiconductor, as an alloying agent and catalyst, and in some optical glasses;
found in coal, zinc ores, germanite, and argyrodite; discovered in 1886 by Clemens Winkler.
germanophobia -- fear of Germany or German people.
germ cells -- reproductive cells produced by the gonads in both sexes. A female germ cell is an ovum and a male germ cell is a sperm. Also called gametes.
German measles -- see rubella.
germinal stage -- the first stage of prenatal development which begins at conception and lasts until the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterine wall.
gerund -- a verb + ing that functions as a noun. An example is the word swim. It is a verb. If you add -ing, and use it as a noun, it is a gerund: "Tom loves swimming more than he loves
gestalt -- a physical, biological, symbolic, or psychological phenomena so configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple
summation of its parts.
gestation -- the period of intrauterine fetal development.
gestational age -- the chronological age of an embryo or fetus dating from conception.
gestational diabetes -- acquisition of diabetes during pregnancy.
gestational surrogacy -- a technique in which a woman's eggs are fertilized with her partner's sperm and the fertilized egg is implanted in another woman who will carry it to term.
gesundheit (German) -- used to wish good health especially to one who has just sneezed.
geumophobia, geumaphobia, geumatophobia -- fear of unfamiliar tastes.
ghost -- a semi-transparent, non-corporeal being. Ghosts can pass through solid objects. They do not eat, but in many other ways they seem to enjoy a full "life." They often seem somewhat
tied to particular places (haunt). They can't really affect the physical world, however. They are sometimes called disembodied souls of a deceased person, or an apparition of such a person.
A group of ghosts is a transparency. A ghost baby is a boo boo.
ghoulish -- delighting in the revolting, morbid, or loathsome; a grave robber; of or relating to ghouls; morbid or disgusting; unhealthily interested in death; suggesting the horror of death and
ghrelin -- a 28-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted primarily by stomach cells with lesser amounts secreted by other cells (as of the hypothalamus), that is a growth hormone, and
that has been implicated in the stimulation of fat storage and food intake.
giardiasis -- a parasitic infection of the intestinal tract that causes diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal bloating and gas, weight loss, and fatigue. (See?)
gibbous -- marked by convexity or swelling; of the moon or a planet: seen with more than half but not all of the apparent disk illuminated; having a hump:
gifted children -- children who have an unusually high intelligence, as characterized by learning to read spontaneously, being able to solve problems
and communicate at a level far advanced from their chronological age; excellent memory; extensive vocabulary; and unusual approaches to ideas, tasks,
giftedness -- Evidence of superior or unusual ability in areas of intellect, creativity, artistic talent, physical agility, or leadership.
gifts -- A Froebelian concept referring to manipulative objects, such as balls and wooden blocks, used as tools for learning in Froebel's curriculum.
gimble -- to gimble is to make holes like a gimblet; "It was evening and the smooth active badgers were scratching and boring holes in the hillside ..." and "The hill was probably full of 'raths'
which ran out, squeaking with fear, on hearing the 'toves' scratching outside." (Lewis Carroll, describing Jabberwocky.)
gimcrack -- a showy object of little use or value.
gingivitis -- an inflammation of the gums. Symptoms are bleeding gums, bright red or purple gums, tender gums, mouth sores, swollen gums, shiny gums.
girandole -- a mirror having attached candle holders.
glabella – a flat, triangular area of bone between the two ridges of the forehead.
glabrous (GLAY-brus) -- smooth; especially having a surface without hairs or projections.
glacial -- slow; staggering; of or pertaining to glaciers or ice sheets.
glands -- a cell, or group of cells, or an organ that produces a secretion for use elsewhere in the body or in a body cavity or for elimination from the body. Glands are classified as either
exocrine or endocrine types. Most glands in the body are exocrine glands. Some exocrine glands are the goblet cells (in the trachea), sweat glands, salivary glands, sebaceous
glands, mammary glands, and gastric glands. Some endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, and adrenal glands.
glassine -- a nearly transparent, resilient glazed paper resistant to the passage of air and grease.
glaucoma -- a disease of the eye caused by increased intraocular pressure (increased pressure within the anterior chamber of the eye), which can
cause blindness. (See illustration.)
glial cells -- cells that are responsible for myelination. They are one of two major types of brain cells. The other is a neuron. Glials outnumber
neurons 10 to 1 and also are known as interneurons. They carry nutrients, speed repair, and may form their own communication network. Glial is
short for "neuroglia."
glimpse -- brief, incomplete view or look; to glance at.
glisten -- to shine by reflection with a sparkling luster; coruscate; shimmer.
gloaming -- twilight, dusk, evening, vesper.
globalization -- trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system.
globoid cell leukodystrophy -- see Krabbe disease.
gloom -- sadness; melancholy; depression.
gloss -- to provide a gloss for; explain; define; interpret; to dispose of by false or perverse interpretation.
glossopharyngeal -- the ninth pair of cranial nerves, pertaining to the tongue and the pharynx.
glossophobia -- fear of talking.
glossoptosis -- protruding tongue.
glucagon -- a hormone produced in the pancreas, useful in raising very low blood sugar.
glucose -- a sugar, also called a sucrose, contained in fruit and other carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are foods like rice, pasta, grain, potatoes, fruit, some vegetables, and processed
sweets. The digestion system breaks down the starch and sugar in these foods into glucose. Glucose is the principle circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source for the body.
glutamate -- an amino acid found in every cell in the body, it is also used in the nervous system as a "fast excitatory" neurotransmitter.
glutaminergic neurons -- brain cells that release the chemical glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter.
glutaric acidemia, type 1 (a disorder of organic acid metabolism) -- macrocephaly, hypotonia, movement disorder (dystonia), and seizures present between 6 and 18 months,
interrupting otherwise typical development. This disorder may mimic dyskinetic cerebral palsy. Associated complications: episodic acidosis, vomiting, lethargy, and coma. Intellectual
disability is usual, although intellectual functioning may remain intact. Caused by mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene on chromosome 19p13.2 which result in accumulation of
glutaric acid and to a letter degree of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaconic acids; autosomal recessive.
glutaric acidemia, type II (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency -- an inborn error of metabolism that may present in infancy with severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia,
and cardiomyopathy. The urine has a characteristic odor of sweaty feet, similar to that present in isovaleric acidemia. Dysmorphic facial features (macrocephaly, large anterior
fontanelle, high forehead, flat nasal bridge, and malformed ears) are seen in half of the cases. This condition also can present later in life with episodic vomiting, acidosis, and
hypoglycemia. Associated complications: muscle weakness, liver disease, cataracts, respiratory distress, renal (kidney) cysts. Caused by mutations in at least three different genes --
ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH; autosomal recessive.
glycine -- an amino acid that can serve as an excitotoxin, causing seizures.
glycogen -- the chief carbohydrate stored in the body, primarily in the liver and muscle.
glycogen storage disease (glycogenoses) -- more than 12 forms of glycogen storage diseases are currently known, all caused by defects in the production or breakdown of glycogen
and resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical features. They share varying degrees of liver and muscle abnormalities and can be broken down by whether they primarily affect the muscle (and
therefore present with muscle cramps, easy fatigability, and progressive muscle weakness) or the liver (where an enlarged liver and decreased blood sugar are the initial symptoms). In all
disease forms, patient organs have excessive glycogen accumulation. Types 1 (glucose-6-phosphate deficiency), II (Pompe disease, acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency), III (amylo-1, 6-
glucosidase deficiency), and VI (hepatic phosphorylase deficiency) are the most common and represent almost 95% of cases. Common clinical features include hypoglycemia, short stature,
enlarged spleen, muscle weakness, hypotonia, renal abnormalities, hypertension, respiratory distress, type II disease characteristically has severe cardiac, muscle, and neurological
involvement. Caused by deficiencies in the various enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. There are many genes and chromosome locations associated with
glycogenoses; all except type VIII are autosomal recessive; type VIII is X-linked recessive.
glycolysis -- a process which occurs in the cytoplasm that extracts energy from glucose. Glucose is the primary energy force for cell activities.
glyph -- a sigil or specific insignia; a letter of language; an arcane mark.
GM2 gangiosidosis, type I -- see Tay Sachs disease.
gnome -- a diminutive chthonic spirit in Renaissance magic, alchemy, and fantasy fiction. It is a common garden pest resembling a potato with legs. Gnomes live in gnome holes
underground. They dig up the roots of garden plants, and generally cause a mess. If you need to get rid of a gnome, you take it by the ankles, swing him around for a few times to disorient
him, then toss him out of the garden. The other gnomes, being rather dim, will emerge from their holes to see what is going on, making them easier to catch. Paracelsus described gnomes as
2 spans high and very taciturn. A group of gnomes is a gargantuan. A baby gnome is a daffodil.
goal attainment scaling -- is a process that enables teachers to compare goals and to quantify student goal attainment.
goal corrected partnership -- an attachment relationship in which the child becomes a partner in planning how the relationship develops.
goal interdependence -- establishment of a common goal or set of goals, including delineation of strategies that should lead to fruition, after careful consideration and active participation
by each team member.
goals -- specific, achievable objectives or purposes.
goblet cells -- any of the specialized glandular epithelial cells found in the mucous membrane of the stomach, intestines, and respiratory passages that secrete
mucus. Mucus is a sticky, viscous substance composed of mucins, enzymes, and electrolytes suspended in water. It coats the epithelium of vulnerable
structures to protect them from damage, and to trap invading pathogens. (See picture.)
goblin -- part of a race of highly intelligent creatures that live side by side with wizards, but are considered to be inferior to wizards (at least according to wizards). Goblins are quite short,
swarthy, have clever faces, pointed beards, long fingers, and long feet. They also have pointed ears and noses. Their eyes are slanted. Goblins are usually green or brown. A group of
goblins is a swarth. A goblin baby is a goblet.
God -- Freud: an idealized image of a nurturing (and primal) father created to reconcile us to Fate's cruelty, compensate us for the injustices of life, lend social moralities a divine origin, and
personify and appease the uncontrollable forces of nature. He is a condensation of prior gods. His Judeo-Christian characteristics unconsciously permeate Freudian thought.
God archetype -- Jung: represents our need to comprehend the universe, to give a meaning to all that happens, to see it all as having some purpose and direction.
goiter -- enlargement of the thyroid gland.
gold -- atomic number 79, symbol Au; a soft, yellow, corrosion-resistant element, the most malleable and ductile transition metal occurring in veins and alluvial deposits and recovered by
panning, sluicing or mining; a good thermal and electrical conductor; used in jewelry and decor; an international monetary standard; ; from the Latin word aurum and the Old English word
geolo; discovered circa 3000 BCE.
Golden Age -- A mythical age described by the Greek writer Hesiod who lived around 700 BCE. It was one of four (or five) ages, each succeeding one being worse than the previous.
During the Golden Age, humans were noble, their life span far exceeded anything known today, the season was always spring, and the earth gave forth its bounty without being forced by
humans. The concept of the Golden Age was similar to the concept of the biblical Garden of Eden.
Goldenhar syndrome -- a cause of deaf-blindness. Facial asymmetry, ocular findings (including anophthalmia and microphthalmia), auricular abnormalities (from malformed auricle to
microtia to anotia), cervical spine abnormalities and cranial base abnormalities. 50% of patients with this syndrome have conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss, caused by
anomalies of the outer and middle ear, eustachian tube malformations, skull malformations, etc. See oculoauriculovertebral spectrum.
golden parachute -- a generous severance agreement for a corporate executive in the event of a sudden dismissal (as because of a merger).
Golgi apparatus -- the intracellular organelle that packages proteins in a form that can be released through the cell membrane and carried throughout the body.
Golgotha -- a place or occasion of great suffering; a hill near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified.
gonadal dysgenesis -- the abnormal development of the gonads.
gonadotropins -- chemical messages that stimulate the production of hormones by the glands.
gonads -- reproductive glands that secrete sex hormones and produce germ cells; the testes in men, and the ovaries in women. (There is a big illustration of the different gonads,
goniotomy -- an operation to treat glaucoma that decreases pressure by providing an opening for the release of
fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye.
gonococcal -- see gonorrhea.
gonorrhea -- a sexually transmitted disease caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterium that can grow and
multiply easily in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract, including the uterus, cervix, and fallopian
tubes in women; and in the urethra in both men and women. It can also grow in the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus.
good behavior -- the most effective forms of discipline encourage this.
goodbye rituals -- established routines to help the child with separation.
good dads -- men who try, at least minimally, to be caring and supportive, and active fathers.
goodness of fit -- When the learning opportunities are appropriate to the child's developmental status.
good practices -- methods considered developmentally appropriate and effective.
good provider role -- traditional role whereby the man is the principal or sole economic provider for the family.
googol -- the figure 1 followed by 100 zeros.
googolplex -- the figure 1 followed by a googol of zeros.
gorse -- any of several spiny shrubs of the genus Ulex, native to Europe and having fragrant yellow flowers
and black pods.
gourmand -- one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking; one who is heartily interested in good food and drink; gourmandize (to eat guttonously or ravenously).
gossamer -- delicate; light; flimsy; transparent and thin, like a spider's silk.
gout -- a kind of arthritis that occurs when uric acid builds up in the joints.
government -- according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA; PL 101-336, 1990), state and local government agencies may not discriminate against qualified individuals with
disabilities. All government facilities, services, and communications must be available to people with disabilities.
gracile -- gracefully slender or thin; graceful.
grade equivalent -- derived developmental score reported in years and tenths of years.
grade skipping -- process in which students advance to a grade ahead of their classmates of the same age.
grading -- assigning a numeric or letter index based on a student's performance during a specified academic calendar period, usually a semester.
graduated guidance -- a behavior management technique in which only the level of assistance (guidance) necessary for the child to complete the task is provided.
graft vs. host disease -- a mechanism of the body's immune system that destroys foreign proteins. When it occurs in an immunosuppressed child who has received a bone marrow or
other organ transplant, it can be life-threatening (10% -- 20% mortality rate). Symptoms include diarrhea, skin breakdown, and shock.
gram -- a metric unit of weight; approximately 1/28 of an ounce. (click HERE for a chart to change grams to pounds).
gramercy -- used to express surprise or gratitude; many thanks; an expression of surprise, wonder, etc.
grammar -- a set of rules that determines how sounds are combined to make words and how words are combined to make sentences.
grandee -- a man of elevated rank or station.
grandeur -- splendor; magnificence; quality or state of being grand.
grandiloquent -- a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality especially in language.
grand mal seizure -- a severe seizure resulting in loss of consciousness and convulsions.
granny dumping -- abandoning an elderly person at a hospital entrance with no identification.
granules -- small particles or grains. There are about a thousand different kinds of granules as far as the human body is concerned -- acidophil, acrosomal, alpha, azurophil, basal, basophil,
beta, Birbeck, chromaffin, elementary, eosinophil, iodophil, keratohyalin, lamellar, Langerhans, membrane-coating, metachromatic, Nissl's, oxyphil, pigment, proacrosomal, Schuffner's,
seminal, specific atrial. If you are in one of my classes, and you give me a report on any five of these, with pictures, and without copying from a website, you can miss one assignment.
However, that seems like a lot of work for just one assignment. On the other hand, no one has ever taken this offer.
granulocyte -- a type of white blood cell filled with microscopic granules that are little sacs containing enzymes, compounds that digest microorganisms. They are a part of the immune
system. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are all types of granulocytes.
granuloma -- a small area of inflammation in tissue due to injury, such as an infection. They most often occur in the lungs, but can occur other places as well. They are benign.
grapeshot -- a cluster of small iron balls formerly used as a cannon charge.
grapheme -- a unit, such as a letter, of a writing system.
graphic organizers -- visual aids to help students organized, understand, see relationships, and remember important information.
graphics -- the smallest units in writing or text (for example, 'b', 'B', 'f', 'F').
graphophobia -- fear of writing.
grasp reflex -- flexion of the hand in response to stimulation of the palm (----------->).
grauypel (GROU-pul; ou as in cloud) -- granular snow.
Grave's disease -- an autoimmune disease where the thyroid is overactive, producing an excessive amount of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism). Symptoms are goiter, protrusion of
the eyes, lumpy reddish skin of the lower legs, hypertension, heart palpitations, congestive heart failure, angina, hyperreflexia, excessive reaction to stimuli, hyperactivity, fatigue,
tremor, weight loss, increased appetite, muscle weakness, muscular degeneration, shortness of breath, increased sweating, heat intolerance, warm and moist skin, thin and fine hair, redness
of the elbows, chronic sinus infections, brittle nails, mild or severe liver disease, seizures.
gravida -- the medical term for a pregnant woman; often used with a number to indicate the number of pregnancies a woman has had (a 3-gravida, for example).
gray matter -- brain tissue that consists largely of neurons and supportive material.
grazioso -- a direction in music, graceful, smooth, or elegant in style.
greasy spoon -- a dingy small cheap restaurant.
grecophobia -- fear of Greece or Greek people.
gridiron -- a grate for broiling food; something consisting of or covered with a network; a football field.
grief -- a reaction to a major loss (including the loss of having a child who is not "normal, or has a disability). It is most often an unhappy and painful emotion. There are considered to be five
stages of grief: 1) denial, disbelief, numbness; 2) anger, blaming others; 3) bargaining; 4) depression, sadness, crying; 5) acceptance and coming to terms. The stages do not have to
happen in order, may occur at the same time, and a grieving person may cycle through the stages many times. Other emotions of grief are shock, guilt, numbness, confusion, helplessness,
despair, detachment, bewilderment, bereavement.
griffin -- a fabled monster, usually having the head and wings of an eagle, but the body of a lion. They are used to guard treasure. It is thought to be a symbol of protection, strength, and
vigilance. A griffin's claw is thought to have medicinal qualities and its feathers thought to be able to restore sight. A group of griffins is a pride. A griffin baby is a cub.
grimalkin -- a domestic cat, especially an old female cat.
grindylow -- a pale green creature that lives in the weed beds at the bottom of lakes in England. They are also called water demons. Grindylows have long, brittle fingers with which they grip
their prey; sharp little horns; and green teeth. They frighten children away from lakes; but if a grindylow can catch a child, he will devour it. A group of grindylows is a merrow. A grindylow
baby is a tadpole.
Griot -- An oral singing poet in West African countries, frequently the official court genealogist and historian. (See picture.)
grok -- to understand profoundly and intuitively.
gross brain lesion -- see brain lesion, except BIGGER or YUKKIER.
gross motor -- Large muscle development of the arms, legs, and torso needed for activities such as running or climbing; physical activities that require the
voluntary use of large muscles, such as running, sitting, and pulling up pants. (See picture.)
gross motor development -- large-muscle development of the arms, legs, and torso needed for activities such as running or climbing. (See picture.)
gross motor skills -- the type of skills that involve the movement and control of large muscle groups used to function in the environment. (See picture.)
grotesque -- fanciful; bizarre; absurdly incongruous; departing markedly from the natural, the expected, or the typical.
grotto -- a small cave or cavern; an artificial structure or excavation made to resemble a cave or cavern.
group B streptococcus -- a group of bacteria from the streptococcus family.
group home -- a supported living arrangement for people with disabilities, in which professionals provide ongoing training and support in a community home setting.
group marriage -- type of marriage in which each member of the group is married to all other group members of the opposite sex.
group processing -- reflection by a group to determine what actions should be continued and what group behaviors should be changed in order to make collaborative efforts more effective.
group time -- that part of the program in which the whole class or group is together during one activity, such as music, movement, fingerplays, or stories.
group psychology -- Freud distrusted groups, particularly large ones, almost as much as Jung did. Two key components of mass process: regressive identification with a powerful leader
or idea, and replacement of one's ego ideal with that leader or idea.
growler of beer -- half a gallon of beer.
growth (or development) -- quantitative change that can be measured in numbers; changes in emotional stability, intellectual maturity, social competence, and physical growth.
growth hormone (GH) -- a pituitary hormone that affects the development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals.
Growth needs -- conditions, as described by Abraham Maslow and other humanists, that are important to a person's well-
being; these needs, such as love and belonging, self-esteem and respect for others, playfulness, truth, beauty, etc., while not
critical to a person's survival, are necessary for growth (----------------------------->).
growing pains -- stiffness and aches in the legs, generally during rest, as a result of the muscles of the body adapting to a
G syndrome -- see Opitz syndrome.
guanine -- one of the four nucleotides (chemicals) that comprise DNA. It pairs with cytosine.
guaranteed child support -- system in France and Sweden whereby the government sends to the custodial parent the
amount of child- support awarded.
gubernatrix -- a powerful woman in government.
Gubraithian fire -- everlasting fire; a fire enchanted to burn forever. (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling.)
guided compliance -- a behavior management technique involving the use of graduated guidance to teach functional skills.
guided notes -- teacher-prepared handouts that provide background information and standard cues with specific spaces where students can write key facts, concepts, and/or relationships
during a lecture.
guide dog -- assistance animal trained to serve the individual needs of a particular person with disabilities.
guided participation -- a concept that calls attention to adult and child contributions to a cooperative dialog without specifying the precise features of communication, thereby allowing for
variations across situations and cultures. According to Barbara Rogoff, this term is preferred to "scaffolding," because this term doesn't imply expert and non-expert roles, but instead,
guided practice -- multiple opportunities to respond and practice provided by the teacher.
guided travel -- for a person with deaf-blindness; walking with another person as a guide. Using this technique, the child maintains a constant grip on the guide's arm. The child walks half
a step behind and to the side of the guide, allowing the guide to give cues about the environment though mutually understood arm movements or signing.
Guillain-Barre syndrome (GVS) -- an acute neuropathy. Pain and the development over one or two days of muscle weakness, with the inability to walk and a loss of deep tendon reflexes.
The weakness affects both sides of the body symmetrically, usually starting in the lower extremities. The arms are involved later, with maximum weakness occurring by 3 weeks. Most children
with GBS begin to recover 2 - 3 weeks after the symptoms began. About 85% of affected children are able to walk within 6 months; however, some have residual weakness. The mortality rate
is 3% and the chance of relapse has been reported as 7% in children. Cause: It can follow an upper respiratory infection or gastrointestinal viral infection. A specific type of GI infection
produced by the bacteris campylobacter jejuni has been particularly associated with GBS. It is considered an autoimmune disease. Also called Acute Inflammatory Peripheral
guilt -- psychosocial crisis involving feelings of failure and becoming anxious when trying new things. Freud: from either a dread of an external authority or dread of the demands and
punishments of the superego, an internalized authority. It is through drive-repressing guilt and the resulting sublimations that civilizations arose. Guilt also has a primeval source: the murder
of the primal father (see primal horde). A stage or emotion of grief.
gullible -- easily duped or cheated.
gulosity (goo-LAH-suh-tee) -- excessive appetite; greediness.
gumption -- chiefly dialect: common sense; horse sense; enterprise; initiative
gunny sacking -- an alienating ("dirty") fighting tactic in which a person saves up unresolved grievances until he or she explodes, resulting in a major
gustatory sense -- the sense of taste.
gymnophobia -- fear of nudity.
gynecomastia -- excessive breast growth in males.
gynephobia, gynophobia -- fear of women.
gyre -- to go round and round like a gyroscope; a circular or spiral motion or form, especially a giant circular oceanic surface current; verb, derived from 'gyaour'
or 'glaour', a dog; to scratch like a dog (from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll). "Hence, the literal English of the passage is: 'It was evening, and the smooth
active badgers were scratching and boring holes in the hill-side; all unhappy were the parrots; and the grave turtles squeaked out.'" "There were probably
sundials on the top of the hill, and the 'borogroves' were afraid that their nests would be undermined. The hill was probably full of the nests of 'raths', which ran
out, squeaking with fear, on hearing the 'toves' scratching outside. This is an obscure, but yet deeply-affecting, relic of ancient Poetry." (Lewis Carroll.)
gyri -- convolutions of the surface of the brain; singular gyrus ------------------------------------------->.
|Take the gentle