|fables -- usually brief folktales told with the express purpose of teaching a lesson or moral, frequently employing animals as characters.
façade -- affected aura or mannerisms to beguile or deceive.
facial bones -- 2 inferior nasal conchae, 2 lacrimal bones, 1 mandible, 1 maxilla, 2 nasal bones, 2 vomer bones, 2 zygomatic bones.
facial (cranial nerve) -- either of the seventh pair of cranial nerves that control facial expression, glands of the palate and nose, and relay sensation from the taste buds of the front part of
facilitate -- to help along, to guide, to provide opportunities, and to be sensitive and caring without interfering.
facilitated communication -- a form of augmentative communication that involves supporting an individual's arm and hand while typing messages.
facility -- building made or used for convenience; ease of moving or doing; aptitude.
facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum -- see oculoauriculovertebral spectrum.
faciodigitogenital dysplasia (FGDY) -- see Aarskog-Scott syndrome.
facsimile -- an exact copy; a system of transmitting and reproducing graphic matter (as printing or still pictures) by means of signals sent over telephone lines.
fact -- an objective, provable statement.
factitious -- produced by humans rather than natural forces; not natural or genuine; artificial.
factoid -- an invented fact believed to be true because of its appearance in print; a briefly stated and usually trivial fact.
factual knowledge -- information that is based on facts and is memorized, retained, and recalled as part of learning.
fading -- Gradually reducing prompts, cues, and physical assistance when teaching a particular skill.
fading away - an indirect relationship-ending strategy in which both partners know the relationship has ended but do not discuss it.
FAE -- see Fetal Alcohol Effects.
failure to thrive (FTT) -- Failure to gain weight or develop at a normal rate for no apparent reason; (perinatal; multifactorial).
failure to treat a child's psychological problems -- a type of child abuse in which there is indifference to a child's severe emotional or behavioral problems or parental rejections of
appropriate offers of help.
fainéant -- sluggard; do-nothing; ne'er-do-well; idle and ineffectual.
fairy -- a very small human-like creature with insect wings Fairies are very vain and quarrelsome. They like nothing better than to serve as decoration. Their magic is basically used to avoid
being eaten by predators. They do not speak, but communicate through buzzing. Fairies are sometimes referred to as supernatural, preternatural, or metaphysical. In alchemy, they are
referred to as elemental. They are noted for their mischief and magic. A group of fairies is a twinkling. A fairy baby is a twinkie.
fairy tales -- frequently also called wonder tales or Marchen, these tales involve magic or enchantment. They can be folktales or literary tales (i.e., created by a known author).
fait accompli -- a relationship-ending strategy in which one person announces to the other that the relationship is over.
falciform -- falcate; curved; convex; sickle-shaped.
fallacies -- patterns of incorrect reasoning.
fallopian tubes -- At the top of the uterus, two tubes that run from the uterus to the ovaries, where they pick up an ovum monthly in a healthy
adult woman. (See illustration; also scroll down to the end of the page for another picture.)
false cause (irrelevant reasoning) -- fallacy whereby the conclusion does not follow logically from the supposed reasons stated earlier.
false labor -- moderately intense, rhythmic contractions late in pregnancy.
false negative -- Designation of a child who needs special services but was not referred by a screening.
false positive -- Designation of a child who has been referred by a screening but does not need special services.
familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) -- absent or sparse tears, absence of fungiform papillae (knob-like projections) on tongue, diminished pain and temperature sensation,
postural hypotension, abnormal sweating, episodic vomiting, swallowing disorder, ataxia, decreased reflexes, feeding difficulties, scoliosis, joint abnormalities, hypertension, aseptic
necrosis of bones (damage to bony tissue unassociated with infection or injury). Caused by a mutation of IKBKAP gene (stands for inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in
B-cells, kinase complex associated protein) localized to chromosome 9q31 -- q33; autosomal recessive.
familiarity -- considerable acquaintance with; established friendship; intimacy.
familism -- the decision making philosophy of the traditional family as an economic unit before the Industrial Revolution, when decisions were made, family collective concerns took priority
over individual concerns.
family -- group of related or non-related adults and children who live together and act toward a common goal. Any sexual, intimate, or parent-child
relationship in which people live together, at least some of the time, with personal commitments to each other, who identify themselves as an intimate group
and who are regarded by others as an intimate group and who are regarded by others as an enduring group, and are economically inter-dependent to some
degree. (See illustration.)
family and child allowances -- government payments, typically awarded on a monthly basis, to help parents care for dependent children.
Family and Medical Leave (FMLA) Act -- Requires US companies employing 50 or more workers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year to
employees with a newborn, a newly adopted child, serious personal illness, or a seriously ill family member.
family archetype -- Jung: an archetype that represents the idea of blood relationships and ties that run deeper than those based on conscious reasons.
family assessment -- process by which family members and case coordinator define the characteristics, source, progression, and possible consequences of and solutions for a problem.
family-based practices -- Those practices used in early intervention/education designed to have child, parent, and family strengthening and competency enhancing consequences.
family bed -- sleeping arrangement in which the baby sleeps in the same bed as the parents.
family boundaries -- rules about who is a member of the family and the extent to which each member is allowed to participate.
family-centered approach -- focus on the family as a unit that benefits the individual members and assumes a family is competent and has strengths.
family-centered practices -- Focus on the family as a unit that benefits the individual members and assumes a family is competent and has strengths.
family centered programming -- includes families as decision, policy, and program participants, as well as recipients of support.
family centered support -- families who have a child with a disability are encouraged to take the lead in establishing and pursuing their priorities. Professionals focus on the family's
strengths and capabilities instead of only deficits. Services are directed to the entire family.
family characteristics -- According to family systems theory, this is the component that refers to the dimensions that make each family unique such as its socioeconomic status, cultural
heritage, number of family members, as well as other distinguishing characteristics.
family child care -- care for children in a small, homelike setting; usually six or fewer children in a family residence.
family cohesion -- the togetherness or closeness of a family; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map.
family communication -- interaction, sharing of thoughts and feelings; the facilitating dimension of the Couple and Family Map.
family coping -- a family's ability to manage stressful events or situations as a unit with minimal or no detrimental effects on any individual members.
family coping resources -- resources of a healthy family system on which the family can draw in times of stress, including cohesion, adaptability, and a willingness to adopt nontraditional
family roles in the face of changing economic circumstances.
family counseling -- procedure used by social workers and other therapists to help family members learn to communicate and respond to different members of the family.
family development framework -- a conceptual framework that focuses on how family members deal with roles and developmental tasks within the family unit as they move through the
stages of the life cycle.
family flexibility -- a family's ability to change and adapt in the face of stress or crisis; one of the three dimensions of the Couple and Family Map.
family functions -- One of the components of family systems theory that refers to a variety of interrelated activities considered necessary to fulfill the collective needs of a family (e.g.,
affection, economics, recreation, and education).
family hardiness -- a constellation of three dimensions: 1) control: the ability to influence events; 2) commitment: active involvement in events; and 3) challenge: viewing changes as
opportunities for growth and development.
family hardship -- a demand on a family that accompanies a stressor event. For example, the family hardship of reduced income accompanies the stressor event of losing one's job.
family history -- social history devoted to the study of marriage and family life.
family household -- a householder and one or more people living together in the same household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption.
family interactions -- According to family systems theory, these are the relationships and interactions that occur among and between various family subsystems like the marital subsystem.
family life cycle -- According to family systems theory, the changes that occur in families that influence their resources, interactions, and functions.
family life-cycle stage -- a period of family growth and development that is determined by the presence and age of children, and to a lesser extent, by the age and employment of the
family life-cycle theory -- posits that families have a fairly predictable life cycle governing their growth, development, and functioning.
family nutrition programs -- nutrition programs that focus on the family unit. Examples are Food Stamps, WIC, and the Food Distribution Program.
family of origin -- also called family of orientation; the family in which a person is raised during childhood.
family of procreation -- also called family of cohabitation; family one begins if and when one gets married and has children.
family partnerships -- a partnership between the family and the early interventionist or educator.
family policies -- government or work-place policies designed to help employees reconcile employment demands with family responsibilities.
family power -- the ability of one family member to change the behavior of the other family members.
family professional partnerships -- partnerships in which families and professionals collaborate, capitalizing on each other's judgments and expertise in order to increase the benefits of
education for students, families, and professionals.
family quality of life -- the extent to which the family's needs are met, family members enjoy their life together, and family members have the chance to do things that are important to them.
family romance -- Freud: the tendency to defensively glamorize one's family of origin in order to avoid hating them.
family science -- an interdisciplinary field whose primary focus is to better understand families in order to enhance the quality of family life. Professionals whose main focus of applied or
action research is the family tend to call themselves family scientists; those who develop educational programs for families sometimes call themselves family life educators or family educators;
those who work clinically with troubled families are called marriage (or marital) and family therapists.
family sociology -- universally enduring observable dimensions of family life.
family strengths framework -- a conceptual framework proposing that if researchers study only family problems, they will find only problems in families, but that if they are interested in
family strengths, they must study strong families; identifies six qualities that strong families commonly demonstrate: commitment, appreciation and affection, positive communication, enjoyable
time together, spiritual well-being, and the ability to manage stress and crises effectively.
Family Support Act -- US legislation passed in 1988 that authorizes judges to use their discretion when support agreements cannot be met and require periodic reviews of award levels to
keep up with the rate of inflation.
family system -- one of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; focuses on the interconnectedness of family members.
family-systems oriented -- child-centered and parent-centered services where the entire family system is provided intervention services.
family systems theory (or family systems framework) -- a conceptual framework that views everything that happens to any family member as having an impact on everyone else in the
family, because family members are interconnected and operate as a group, or family system.
family therapy -- an approach to helping families, based on the belief that the roots of an individual's problems may be traced to troubled family dynamics, and solutions can come by
working with the whole family.
family uniqueness -- Perspective that recognizes that every family is different.
family violence -- includes family members' acts of omission or commission resulting in physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or other forms of maltreatment that hamper
individuals' healthy development.
famished -- extremely hungry; ravenous; starved.
famulus -- sorcerer's apprentice or assistant.
FAPE -- see free appropriate public education.
farcical -- of or relating to farce, ludicrous, ridiculously clumsy, absurd.
farouche -- unruly or disorderly; wild; marked by shyness and lack of social graces.
farraginous -- consisting of a confused mixture; formed of various materials in no fixed order or arrangement.
farrago -- a confused mixture; hodgepodge.
FAS -- see Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
fascicle -- a small or slender bundle (as of pine needles or nerve fibers); one of the divisions of a book published in parts.
fasciculations -- a muscle twitch; a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation visible under the skin arising from the spontaneous discharge of a bundle of skeletal muscle
fibers. They can be due to a number of reasons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dehydration, fatigue, Lyme disease, myasthenia gravis, rabies, drug use, caffeine; but most
causes are benign.
fast mapping -- connecting a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter.
fatal -- causing death.
fat cells -- used by the body to store excess calories (energy) for future use, sometimes for several months at a time. Every excess calorie that the body does not utilize for energy is stored
in fat cells. They are very dynamic and interact with the body via thousands of neurochemical and neurohormonal messengers. The average human body has about 40 billion fat cells and
can be as high as 100 billion fat cells in an obese person.
fat fold measurement -- see skin fold measurement.
father archetype -- Jung: an archetype that is often symbolized by a guide or an authority figure.
father's rights movement -- movement that urges that divorced male parents have equal treatment with divorced female parents in matters of child custody, visitation, and support.
fats -- the major kinds of edible fat are saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fatty acids. Saturated fats and trans fats raise blood cholesterol. These kinds of fats
can be found in whole milk dairy products, fatty meats, tropical oils, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and eggs. Polyunsaturated fats come from safflower, sesame, soy, corn, and
sunflower seed oils, nuts and seeds. Monounsaturated fats come from olive, canola, and peanut oils, and avocados.
fatty acids -- acids produced when fats are broken down. They are considered "good fats." These acids are not highly soluble in water, and they can be used for energy by most types of
cells. They may be monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, or saturated. They are organic (contain both carbon and hydrogen molecules). Fatty acids are found in oils and fats of
different foods. Fatty acids move oxygen through the bloodstream to all parts of the body. They aid cell membrane development, strength, and function, and they are necessary for
strong organs and tissue.
fatty acid oxidation disorders -- inborn errors of metabolism involving enzyme deficiencies in the breakdown of fatty acids.
fatuous -- complacently or inanely foolish; silly, simple.
fatuous love -- a type of love relationship in which commitment is based on passion but in which there has not yet been time to develop true intimacy.
Fausse Reconnaissance -- Freud: a false memory of having told the analyst something previously. Prompted by a fantasy of wanting to tell something but not following through, perhaps
due to resistance.
Fe -- atomic number 26, symbol for iron.
fealty -- the fidelity of a vassal or feudal tenant to his lord or the obligation of such fidelity; intense fidelity.
fears -- feelings of alarm caused by the expectation of pain, danger, disaster, or apprehension.
febrile -- term referring to an individual who has an elevated body temperature. Normal temperature is 98.6 degrees. A child is considered febrile with a fever above 100.4 degrees.
febriphobia -- fear of fever.
fecal incontinence -- see encopresis.
fecal-oral transmission -- when germs are transferred to the mouth via hands contaminated with fecal material.
feckless -- weak, ineffective, worthless, irresponsible.
fecund -- fruitful in offspring or vegetation, prolific; intellectually productive or inventive to a marked degree; fertile.
feedback -- positive or negative reaction to one person's behavior by another.
feedback loop -- in terms of evaluation, used to describe the process whereby an evaluator gives information to the teacher, who in turn uses this information to improve teaching skills.
feeding disorders -- anorexia (self-starvation), bulimia (binge eating/purging); pica (eating non-nutritive materials); rumination disorders. Also called eating disorders.
feeding oral motor skills -- abilities needed to allow children to chew and swallow properly.
feeding tube -- method to provide nourishment that bypasses the esophagus --------------------->.
feint -- a feigned attack designed to draw defensive action away from an intended target; a deceptive action calculated to divert attention from one's
real purpose; to make a deceptive show of.
feisty -- full of nervous energy; fidgety; touchy; quarrelsome; exuberantly frisky; having or showing a lively aggressiveness; spunky.
felicitious -- admirably suited; apt; exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style; marked by happiness or good fortune.
felicity -- state of happiness; joy; ecstasy.
female-demand/ male-withdraw pattern -- ongoing cycle in which the wife frequently expresses herself negatively, and the husband withdraws.
femininity -- a gender-linked constellation of personality traits and behavioral patterns traditionally associated with females in a society.
feminist framework (feminism) -- a conceptual framework that emphasizes the value of women's perspectives on society and the family, that recognizes women's subordination, and that
promotes change in that status.
feminist perspective (on families) -- a political and intellectual position which holds that contemporary families are stronger and more equitable than in the past because of changing
gender roles and expanded options.
feminization of love -- love defined in a feminized way, that is, in terms of nurturance, sensitivity, and verbal expression of emotions.
feminization of poverty -- the statistical fact that the percentage of female single parents in the total percentage of those who are poor in the United States has increased.
feminophobia -- fear of women.
femur -- long bone in the thigh connecting the hip to the knee. (See illustration------------>.)
fencer's response -- see asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR).
Fermi-Dirac statistics -- physics law obeyed by a system of particles whose wave function changes when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli
exclusion principle applies).
fermion -- a particle, such as an electron, proton, or neutron, having half-integral spin and obeying rules requiring that not more than one in a set of
identical particles may occupy a particular quantum state (Fermi-Dirac statistics).
fermium -- atomic number 100, symbol Fm; a synthetic, transuranic, rare earth metallic element; artificially produced by the neutron bombardment of
plutonium; discovered at Argonne, Los Alamos, University of California in 1953; named after Enrico Fermi, an Italian nuclear physicist.
ferrous -- of or relating to iron.
fertility -- the ability to reproduce biologically; a person's actual reproductive performance.
fertility enhancing drugs -- drugs that stimulate hormones to produce eggs.
fertility rates -- the number of births per year per thousand women of child-bearing age, 15 to 44.
fertilization -- the union of a sperm cell and an ovum (egg); also known as conception.
fertilized egg -- see zygote.
fester -- to generate pus; putrefy; rot; to cause increasing poisoning, irritation, or bitterness; rankle; to undergo or exist in a state of progressive deterioration.
festoon -- a string or garland, as of leaves or flowers, suspended in a loop or curve between two points; a representation of such a string or garland, as in painting or sculpture; to decorate
with or as with festoons; hang festoons on; to form or make into festoons; the scalloped appearance of the gums where they meet the teeth; an ochreous brown moth.
Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) -- Congenital conditions caused by the mother's drinking alcohol during pregnancy and resulting in reduced intellectual functioning, behavior problems, and
sometimes physical differences. A mild form of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) -- a spectrum of disorders resulting from maternal use of alcohol prenatally. Includes fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, alcohol
related birth defects (ARBD), and alcohol related neurological disorders (ARND).
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -- First described in 1973. Prenatal, preventable cause of mild to moderate intellectual disability resulting from maternal alcohol consumption. FAS is
considered the leading cause of intellectual disability. Pre- and postnatal growth retardation, mild to moderate intellectual disability, microcephaly, small eyes with droopy eyelids,
maxillary hypoplasia, long philtrum, joint abnormalities, congenital heart disease. Associated complications are joint contractures, cardiac abnormalities, myopia, strabismus, hearing
loss, dental malocclusion, eustachian tube dysfunction, intellectual disability, fine motor dysfunction, poor eye-hand coordination, hyperactivity, distractibility, short attention span,
speech delays. Prenatal diagnosis is unavailable. Incidence: 1% of newborns in western countries. Approximately 1/3 of infants exposed to chronic alcohol intake prenatally have the
disorder. Recurrence risk depends upon maternal ingestion of alcohol during subsequent pregnancies; teratogenic.
Fetal Aminopterin Syndrome (Fetal Methotrexate Syndrome) -- prenatal growth deficiency, cranial dysplasia, broad nasal bridge, low-set ears, cleft palate, intellectual disability.
Caused by maternal ingestion of the chemotherapeutic drug aminopterin or methotrexate during pregnancy. Associated complications are hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, cleft lip
and palate, club hands and feet. Prenatal diagnosis is unavailable. Incidence: related to maternal exposure; recurrence risk, related to maternal ingestion of aminopterin; teratogenic.
fetal blood sampling -- a blood sample withdrawn from the umbilical cord to determine if the fetus carries a genetic anomaly.
Fetal Cocaine Syndrome (controversial) -- low birth weight, prematurity, irritability, microcephaly, large fontanelles, prominent glabella, periorbital and eyelid edema, low nasal
bridge, short nose, small toenails; teratogenic.
Fetal Dilantin Syndrome -- growth deficiency, microcephaly, borderline-to mild intellectual disability, widely spaced eyes, depressed nasal bridge, cleft lip/palate, small or missing
fingernails and/or toenails, rib anomalies, congenital heart disease. Caused by maternal ingestion of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin (Dilantin) during pregnancy. Associated complications
cardiac abnormalities, abnormalities of genitourinary tract and central nervous system, of children with full effects, average IQ is 71. Prenatal diagnosis is unavailable. Incidence: full
expression of syndrome: 10% of exposed infants; partial expression of syndrome: 33% of exposed infants; recurrence risk, related to maternal ingestion; teratogenic.
fetal face syndrome -- see Robinow syndrome.
fetal heart rate (FHR) -- normally 120 -- 140 beats per minute and routinely monitored by ultrasound throughout labor to indicate fetal well-being verses fetal distress (less than 100 bpm
or also greater than 140 or something thereabout).
fetal hydantoin syndrome -- see Phenytoin syndrome.
fetal monitor -- electronic instruments that track the baby's heart rate during labor.
fetal period -- the period of pregnancy following the eighth week of gestation.
fetal resorption -- Death and resorption of the fetus at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of gestation. It does not include embryo
fetal stage -- the third and final stage of prenatal development, which begins at about eight weeks and lasts until birth.
Fetal Warfarin Syndrome -- also called Warfarin embryopathy; usually from maternal use of Warfarin (anti-coagulant) early in pregnancy; central nervous system disorders occur
usually from use later in pregnancy. Characteristics: laryngomalacia, hypoplastic nose, eye abnormalities, intellectual disability, brachydactyly, scoliosis, central nervous system
defects, skull defects, congenital heart disease, deafness, microcephaly, skeletal deformities, miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, seizures; teratogenic.
fetid -- having a heavy offensive smell; malodorous.
fetishism -- behavior in which a person experiences sexual arousal or pleasure from focusing on a nonsexual object or part of the body; Freud: based on the (usually) male fetishist wanting
to avoid his own castration fears by insisting that women have a penis -- namely, the fetish!
fetoscopy -- a prenatal procedure to evaluate a fetus for birth defects. It is done with the aid of a thin, flexible
instrument called a fetoscope, which is inserted into the uterus through a small incision in the stomach wall.
This is done with the aid of ultrasound. Fetoscopy allows the collection of samples of blood from the
umbilical cord, or skin tissues from the fetus. See illustration.
fettle -- proper or sound condition; mental or emotional state; spirits; loose sand or ore used to line the hearth
of a reverberatory furnace in preparation for pouring molten metal.
fetus -- the prenatal organism from the beginning of the third month to the end of the pregnancy, during
which time completion of body structures and dramatic growth in size take place. (See illustration->.)
fever -- an elevation of body temperature above normal; a temperature of over 99.4 degrees F or 37.4 degrees C orally is usually considered
fey -- marked by a foreboding of death or calamity; marked by an otherworldly air or attitude; crazy; excessively refined; precious; quaintly
unconventional; campy; Tina.
FGDY faciogenital dysplasia -- see Aarskog-Scott syndrome.
FHR -- see fetal heart rate.
fibroblast -- cell of connective tissue that produces and secretes fibers and other ground substance in order to maintain the extracellular matrix and to provide a structural framework
for many tissues. Fibroblasts occur in various shapes, such as stellate, fusiform, and spindle-shaped.
fibrocartilage connective tissue -- a transitional tissue between dense regular connective tissue and cartilage or bone. It consists of rows or lines of rounded chondrocytes in
lacunae between parallel bundles of collagenous fibers.
fibroma -- a tumor composed mainly of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue.
fibromuscular dysplasia -- a condition in which at least one artery has an abnormal cluster of cells growing in the artery wall. It causes the artery to narrow, which can cause damage to the
organs that receive blood through this narrowed artery. It can cause high blood pressure or aneurysms. Symptoms depend on the site of the fibromuscular dysplasia.
fibrous dysplasia -- a chronic disorder of the skeleton that causes expansion of one or more bones due to abnormal development of the fibrous, or connective, tissue within the bone. The
abnormality causes uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity of affected bones.
fibrous tissue -- tissue composed of bundles of collagenous white fibers between which are rows of connective tissue cells.
fiduciary -- of, relating to, or involving a confidence or trust; holding in trust; depending on public confidence for value or currency.
field experiments -- studies conducted under natural, not laboratory conditions.
field independent -- inclination to be analytical in processing information, such that consideration of surrounding context is not requisite to understanding.
field observation -- researchers making observations in a real, and thus more valid setting, over which they have little or no control of events.
field of eligibles -- the people who are available to be chosen as a partner.
field of vision (visual field) -- the entire area of which an individual is visually aware when directing his/her gaze straight ahead; the visual field is typically 160 degrees.
field sensitive -- inclination to take a holistic approach to processing information, such that consideration of contextual variables become paramount to developing understanding.
Fiendfyre -- a type of fire made from Dark Magic in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). It is very powerful, unable to be put out with water, and hard to control. It was conjured by Vincent
Crabbe in the Room of Requirement to kill Harry, Ron, and Hermione. Instead, they escaped and the fire killed Crabbe, as well as destroying the diadem of Rowena Ravenclaw (a Horcrux).
fifth level of inclusion -- this level of inclusion is not considered inclusive. Fewer children are in this level than are in level four. In this level, the child is placed in a full-time special
education classroom in a general education school.
figurative language -- words or phrases that exaggerate or alter their literal definitions. Figurative language or figures of speech add layers of meaning. The most common figures of
speech are simile, metaphor, and alliteration. Also imagery, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, and idioms are figures of speech.
figure-ground discrimination -- the process of distinguishing an object from its background.
filaments -- protein fibers in the cytoskeleton. There are three kinds of protein filaments: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
filé -- powdered sassafras leaves used to thicken and season soups, stews, and gumbos.
file access log -- a form in a portfolio that records the name, purpose, and date of each person who views the file.
fillip -- to strike by holding the nail of a finger against the ball of the thumb and then suddenly releasing it from that position; to make a filliping motion with; to project quickly by or as if by a
fillip; snap; to urge on; stimulate.
filtering process -- the social process through which ineligible or incompatible individuals are eliminated from further consideration as partners.
finagle -- to obtain or achieve by indirect, usually deceitful methods; to cheat; swindle; to use crafty methods; wangle, manage, achieve, attain, accomplish, reach.
final report -- a reflection on the accomplishments, difficulties, and resolutions for each child over the school year.
financial abuse -- a kind of spousal or partner abuse; withholding, diverting, embezzling, or controlling funds. Financial abuse is not limited to the behaviors listed here.
fine motor development -- Small muscle development used for activities such as drawing, cutting, and writing.
fine motor skills -- the ability to use small muscle groups such as those in the hands, face, and feet.
fine pincer grasp -- grasp using the tips of the thumb and index finger in opposition.
fingerspelling -- a hand representation for all 26 letters of the alphabet.
fingerplays -- poems or songs recited with hand movements, such as counting.
finicky -- extremely or excessively particular, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards; requiring much care, precision, or attentive effort.
finicky eater -- person who eats very limited types of foods.
fire rainbow -- iridescent clouds -- a rare phenomenon caused by cirrus clouds of water droplets of nearly uniform size. These clouds refract, or
bend, light in a similar manner, which separates out light into different wavelengths or colors. The clouds are formed when the sun is higher than
58º above the horizon. See picture.
firewhiskey -- In the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), an alcoholic drink consumed by wizards and witches. Popular brands are Ogden's Old
Firewhiskey and Blishen's Firewhiskey. Muggles can make firewhiskey by adding Tabasco sauce to a shot glass of whiskey.
First-In-First-Out (FIFO) -- a method of storage in which the items stored for the longest time will be retrieved first.
first level of inclusion -- this level of inclusion is the MOST inclusive, and students in this level spend their entire school day in the general education classroom with no additional or
specialized services. Most children who have disabilities are on this level.
First People -- the creatures populating the earth before the establishment of the world as we know it in Native American myths. The first people had attributes like today's humans and
animals but were more powerful and larger. All the animals spoke like humans and many, such as coyote, were instrumental in helping to establish the order of the present world.
first words -- these are usually uttered sometime near the end of the first year.
FISH -- see fluorescent in situ hybridization.
Fisher syndrome -- a rare, acute neurological disorder characterized by ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and absence of reflexes. It is also known as Miller Fisher syndrome. It is considered to
be a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Both can be acquired after a viral illness. Fisher syndrome is very rare. It is an autoimmune disease. Other symptoms are headache, fever,
pneumonia, and generalized weakness.
fishnet -- netting used to catch fish; a mesh fabric resembling such netting.
fish odor syndrome -- (also called trimethylaminuria) a nonfatal but incurable genetic disorder caused by the liver's inability to break down trimethylamine, an ordinary by-product of
digesting foods high in protein. People with trimethylaminuria lack the enzyme needed to turn trimethylamine into a nonodorous molecule. Trimethylaminuria is caused by a mutated
flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene on chromosome 1, autosomal recessive, an inborn error of metabolism; occurs more often in females.
fissure -- long narrow opening; a crack or cleft; process of splitting or separating; division.
fistula -- an abnormal connection or passageway between two organs or vessels that ordinarily do not connect.
fixation -- Freud: when something libidinal is arrested in development even though the rest of the personality keeps on growing up.
fixed action pattern -- a series of connected behaviors that form a pattern as a response to an individual stimulus or a set of stimuli.
fixed responses question -- a type of question used in social research in which respondents are asked to indicate which of a range of possible answers is the most applicable to them.
fixed schedule of reinforcement -- a schedule of support in which reinforcements are delivered based on the number or frequency of behaviors.
Fizzing Whizbees -- In the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a popular magical sweet. They are large sherbet balls that will cause the person who sucks on them to float a few inches off
the ground. Dried billywig stings are rumored to be one of the ingredients.
flabbergasted -- to cause to be overcome with astonishment; astounded; amazed; struck dumb.
flaccid dysarthria -- see dysarthria.
flaccid dysarthria -- dysarthria (slurred speech) that involves muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone. Speech is breathy, weak, lacking in intonation, and has imprecise consonants.
Reflexes are absent.
flagellum -- whip-like projection of a cell that gives it mobility. The sperm is one example of a cell having a flagellum; plural: flagella.
flagrant -- conspicuously offensive, especially, so obviously inconsistent with what is right or proper as to appear to be a flouting of law or morality.
flat bones -- bones composed of two thin layers of compact tissue enclosing between them a variable quantity of cancellous tissue, which is the location of red bone marrow. In adults,
most red blood cells are formed in flat bones. Flat bones are in the cranium, pelvis, sternum, rib cage, sacrum, and scapula.
flatfoot -- a condition in which the arch of the instep is flattened so that the entire sole rests upon the ground; slang: police officer or patrolman walking a regular beat; slang: a sailor.
flat-hat -- to fly low in an airplane in a reckless manner: hedgehop.
fleer -- to laugh or grimace in a coarse derisive manner; sneer, scoff.
flerovium -- atomic number 114, symbol Fl, previously called ununquadium (Uuq); made by smashing calcium ions into plutonium targets, combining to form element 116, Livermorium
(116 protons), decaying almost immediately into Flerovium, with 114 protons; radioactive, transuranic; created in 1998 at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for
Nuclear Research in Russia, which is named for Georgiy N. Flerov, a Russian nuclear physicist.
fleur-de-lys -- stylized insignia of a lily.
flexibility -- capable of modification or change; willing or easily moved from one idea to another. During middle childhood, this grows tremendously, so that the child is
physically pliable and elastic, leading to the ability to swing bats, kick balls, jump over hurdles, do gymnastics, etc. (See picture of gymnast.)
flexible grouping practices -- same-ability groups and mixed-ability groups for instructional purposes.
flexible marriages -- marriages in which the partners change over time and grow as individuals and in the relationship.
flexible thinking -- the ability to think of things in many ways; to think of things in the context of change, that not all things are permanent.
flexion -- the bending of a joint; the opposite of extension. (See illustration of gymnast.)
flexion contracture -- the lack of normal active and passive extension of a joint, usually measured in degrees. (See picture.)
flexor -- a muscle with the primary function of flexion of a joint.
flex time -- flexible time; flexible working hours or any schedule that gives one some choices in working hours. A family-friendly policy in the
workplace which allows employees flexibility in the times they arrive at work and the times they leave work to return home.
flibbertigibbet -- a chattering of flighty, light-headed person; a gossip; an irresponsible, silly, or gossipy person.
flippant -- lacking proper respect or seriousness.
flivver -- a small, cheap, usually old, automobile.
flobberworm -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a ten-inch, toothless brown worm that eats vegetation such as lettuce and cabbage. Both ends of a flobberworm are the same.
They are pretty boring.
florid -- flushed with rosy color; ruddy; very ornate; flowery; healthy.
flotilla -- a fleet of ships or boats; especially a navy organizational unit consisting of 2 or more squadrons or small warships; an indefinite large number.
flounce -- to move with exaggerated jerky or bouncy motions; to go with sudden determination; flounder, struggle.
flounder -- to struggle to move or obtain footing; thrash about wildly; to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually; a fishie.
flout -- to treat with contemptuous disregard; scorn; to indulge in scornful behavior; scoff, flaunt.
fluctuating hearing loss -- hearing loss that varies from day to day. Some days a student may hear better or worse depending on a variety of factors (e.g., colds and allergies).
fluency -- the ability to produce many ideas; an easy and ready flow of ideas.
fluency disorder -- speech disorder in which hesitations during speech interfere with communication.
fluency problems -- delays related to oral speech.
fluent -- spoken or written with ease.
fluent aphasia -- see Wernicke's aphasia or sensory aphasia.
flummoxed -- confused; perplexed.
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) -- a technique to identify small chromosomal defects such as those found in Prader-Willi syndrome.
fluorine -- atomic number 9, symbol F; a pale yellow, highly corrosive, poisonous, gaseous halogen element, the most electronegative and most reactive of all the elements; used in a wide
variety of industrially important compounds; occurs principally in fluorspar and cryolite; used in production of uranium, fluoroicarbons, and other chemicals; discovered in 1886 by Joseph
flux -- a flowing fluid from the body; a continuous moving on or passing by; a continued flow; influx, change, fluctuation, a substance used to promote fusion; the rate of transfer of fluid,
particles, or energy across a given surface.
Flynn Effect -- the steady increase in IQ that has occurred from generation to the next.
fMRI -- see functional magnetic resonance imaging.
FM system -- see frequency modulated transmission devices.
FM transmission devices -- see frequency modulated transmission devices.
foam cells -- cells in an atheroma derived from both macrophages and smooth muscle cells which have accumulated low density lipoproteins (LDLs); a cell containing lipids in small
vacuoles, as seen in leprosy and xanthoma.
fob -- watch pocket; a short strap, ribbon, or chain attached especially to a pocket watch; an ornament attached to a fob chain.
focal -- localized.
focal neurological changes -- findings on neurological exams that are abnormal and indicative of a lesion in a particular part of the brain, also called focal neurological impairments.
focal seizures -- see partial seizures.
focused time -- a type of parent child interaction in which parents devote their full attention to their children.
folate -- see folic acid.
foliage -- a representation of leaves, flowers, and branches for architectural ornamentation; the aggregate of leaves of one or more plants; a cluster of leaves, flowers, and branches.
folic acid -- one of the B-vitamins which, when taken prior to and during pregnancy, has been found to reduce the incidence of spina bifida and other neural tube defects.
folk concept of the family -- societal attitude that emphasizes support, understanding, happiness, and warm holiday rituals.
folk literature -- literature created by anonymous author(s) and transmitted orally by other members of the community.
folktales -- imaginative tales that are transmitted mainly orally, with various tellers over time shaping the story. In this anthology folktales are limited to stories about humans and animals
acting like humans, as distinct from both myths, which involve sacred stories of cosmic nature, and legends, which purport to be nonfictional. Folktales include many genres, such as animal
tales, fairy tales, and pourquoi tales.
follow up -- later monitoring, evaluation, diagnosis, or treatment after the initial diagnosis or treatment of a condition.
foment -- to promote the growth or development of; rouse, incite.
fontanels -- six soft spots that separate the bones of the skull at birth. (See illustration-------->.)
food borne illness -- a food infection due to ingestion of food contaminated with bacteria, viruses, some molds, or parasites.
food borne illness outbreak -- two or more persons become ill after ingesting the same food. Laboratory analysis must confirm that food is the
source of the illness.
food infections -- illnesses resulting from ingestion of live bacteria in food.
food insecurity -- uncertain or limited access to a reliable source of food.
food intoxications -- illnesses resulting from ingestion of food containing residual bacterial toxins in the absence of viable bacteria.
food pyramid -- a guide to daily food choices developed by the USDA. Scroll to the bottom of the page to see the illustration. Now called My Plate -- see illustrations.
foot alignment -- the foot's position in relation to other parts of the body.
foot drop walking gait -- an abnormal neuromuscular disorder that affects the ability to raise the foot at the ankle. It is also characterized by an inability to point the toes toward the body
(dorsiflexion) or to move the foot at the ankle inward or outward. Pain, weakness, and numbness may accompany loss of function.
foramen ovale -- in the fetal heart, the foramen ovale allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. It is one of two fetal cardiac shunts (the other the ductus arteriosus which
allows blood that still escapes to the right ventricle to bypass pulmonary circulation.) In most cases, the foramen ovale closes at birth.
force -- during middle childhood, this basic motor capability has tremendous growth. Children of this age can throw and kick a ball harder and propel themselves farther off the ground when
jumping and running than they ever could before. Freud: necessary to the preservation of a society because people have innate aggressiveness, incestuous, and cannibalistic tendencies
and won't work unless coerced. Freud regarded the conflict between person and culture to be, at worst, unresolvable; at best, society's dictates and codes become internalized into a
superego that acts as an internal agent of society.
forceps -- metal clamps placed around a baby's head and used to pull the infant from the birth canal. (See??->)
forebear -- ancestor, forefather; precursor.
forebrain -- the front portion of the brain during fetal development.
foreclosure -- identity status of those adolescents who have not explored alternatives but nonetheless have made a definite commitment to a
forefoot adductus -- see clubfoot.
form -- in writing, the type of written product (such as a letter, story, essay, shopping list, poem, etc.).
formal assessments -- see standardized tests or standardized assessments.
formal operations -- Piagetian term describing a stage of development for children from ages 11 to 15 years. It reflects a major transition in the thinking processes. The child now has the
capacity to work with abstractions, theories, and logical relationships without having to refer to the concrete. The formal operations period provides a generalized orientation toward problem-
formal operational stage -- Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development (begins around the age of 11) in which individuals are capable of applying logical principles to hypothetical and
formal separation -- type of separation in which married partners use a lawyer to draw up a legal agreement enabling them to live separately but specifying financial, child-custody, child
support, and visitation arrangements.
formal supports -- educational supports provided by, and funded through, the public school system. They include qualified teachers, paraprofessionals, and access to instructional
materials designed for, and adapted to, individual needs.
formal tests -- evaluation instruments that are administered in a conventional, "test-like" atmosphere for use with groups of children and that may or may not be developed commercially;
also called standardized tests.
formative -- Assessments that are ongoing and used to shape programs and interventions.
formative assessment -- gathering information that is then used to shape and improve -- to help the formation of -- an instructional program.
formative evaluation -- Evaluation that takes place while a program is in progress. This type of evaluation provides necessary information to facilitate children's progress toward identified
goals and objectives. It is concerned both with student learning and with the curriculum's responsiveness to children's needs. Also called formative analysis.
formulaic -- being of no special quality or type; average; routine; undistinguished.
formula tales -- in folk narratives, tales with a repeating plot structure. Two of the most common types are cumulative and chain structures.
fornix -- a circular arrangement of fibers connecting the hippocampus to the hypothalamus. (See illustration there, the fornix is below the
forrad -- at or to or toward the front; forward.
forte -- niche in which a person excels.
fortified food -- food with vitamins and/or minerals added that were not found in the food originally, or that are added in amounts greater than
occur naturally in the food.
forward chaining -- Breaking a task down into a series of small steps and teaching the first step first, in contrast to reverse chaining.
fossick -- Australia and New Zealand: to search for gold or gemstones typically by picking over abandoned workings; to search about, rummage;
to search for by or as if by rummaging; ferret out.
foster family care -- a supported living arrangement for persons with disabilities, whereby an individual lives in a family setting, learns adaptive skills, and works in a community job.
foster home -- a living arrangement in which a family shares its home with a person who is not a relative. Long used with children who for some reason cannot live with their parents
temporarily, foster homes are now being used with adults with disabilities as well.
foster parent -- adult who raises a child not his or her own for a short period of time but does not formally adopt that child.
foudroyant -- dazzling; scintillating; sudden and overwhelming.
founder effect -- the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population. If the population is further
isolated due to geographic location or social customs, the frequency of certain alleles depend entirely upon the genetic makeup of founders of the group. Whatever alleles, beneficial or
deleterious, are present among the founders will be enriched in frequency among the descendants.
foundlings -- abandoned babies who are found on the street by strangers; common in London in the late 19th century; gave rise to the term "foundling home."
four day work week -- a workplace policy that allows workers to fit a full 40-hour week into four days rather than 5.
four horsemen of the apocalypse -- intimate communication, both verbal and nonverbal, that includes criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and/or stonewalling, and which can signal the
end of a relationship.
Four "I"s -- the four components (I, Initiative, Independence, and Interaction) of early childhood curriculum for building self-esteem.
fourth force in psychology -- Maslow: inaugurated by Maslow, includes transpersonal psychologies (meditation, higher levels of consciousness, parapsychological phenomena) and his
hierarchy of needs. The first force in psychology is Freudian psychology, second is Behaviorism, third is Existentialism or Humanism.
four-thirds solution -- a proposed strategy for balancing work and family in which each parent cuts back their work schedules to
two-thirds time and devotes the extra time to the children.
fourth level of inclusion -- this level of inclusion is the fourth most inclusive. Fewer children are in this level than level three. In this
level, the child spends the majority of the school day in the special education classroom, but attends the general education classroom
for subjects which are consonant with his/her capabilities.
fovea centralis -- the small pit in the center of the macula; the area of clearest vision, containing only cones. In this part of the eye,
the sharpest images are detected. (See illustration----------------->.)
foxglove -- any of several herbs of the genus Digitalis having a long cluster of large, tubular, pinkish-purple flowers and leaves that
are the source of the drug digitalis.
frabjous -- from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll; wonderful, elegant, superb, or delicious; possibly a combination of fabulous and
fractious -- tending to be troublesome, unruly, quarrelsome, irritable.
fracture -- when a bone breaks, it may crack, snap, or shatter. After a fracture, new bone fills in the gap to repair the break. Applying
a strong plaster case, which keeps the bone in the correct position until it heals, is the most common treatment. If a fracture is complicated, metal pins and plates can be placed to better
stabilize the bone until it heals.
Fragile X syndrome -- prominent jaw, macroorchidism (large testes), large ears, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, affected males (full mutation)
often have moderate to severe intellectual disability. Of females with a full mutation, 33% have average intelligence, 33% have average intelligence with significant learning disabilities,
and 33% have intellectual disability, occasional autism spectrum disorder, or psychiatric disorder. Associated complication: abnormalities of connective tissue with finger joint
hypermobility or joint instability, mitral valve prolapse. Caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on Xq27-q28, molecular analysis reveals an increase in cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG)
trinucleotide repeats in the coding sequence of the FMR1 gene; X-linked recessive.
frame of reference -- individual point of view influenced by many factors.
frame shift -- a type of gene mutation in which the insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide leads to the misreading of all subsequent codons.
frames of mind -- a theory of intelligence developed by Gardner that refers to intelligence as a host of different skills and abilities.
francium -- atomic number 87, symbol Fr; an extremely unstable radioactive alkali metal; obtained from the decay of actinium or thorium; it is the heaviest metal in the group; discovered in
1939 by Marguerite Derey.
francophobia -- fear of France or the French.
frankenstein -- a name always (mistakenly) given to the monster created by the scientist Victor Frankenstein. The monster was human, but larger than life and much more powerful. In the
book, Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley, Dr. Frankenstein refers to his monster as "monster," "demon," "fiend," "wretch," and "it." When he talks to the monster,
he calls him "vile insect," "abhorred monster," "fiend," "wretched devil," and "abhorred devil." The monster, implied in the novel, would respond, "Did I request thee, Maker from my clay To
mould Me man? Did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me?" (John Milton). For our purposes, however, we will (still mistakenly) call the monster "Frankenstein." Since there has only
ever been one monster made by Frankenstein, we will refer to a group (of which there isn't) of Frankensteins as a separation. Frankenstein babies always come in pairs (twins) and are called
frank 'n' furter. But there are never Frankenstein babies, because there is only one Frankenstein. And further, he was a boy. But theoretically, these are the names.
fraternal, or dizygotic twins -- twins resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova. They are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings.
fraternize -- to associate or mingle as brothers or on fraternal terms; to associate on close terms with members of a hostile group especially when contrary to military orders; to be friendly or
freck -- to move swiftly or nimbly.
free, appropriate public education (FAPE) -- Core principle in IDEA specifying that students with disabilities are entitled to receive an education designed to address their special needs,
at no cost to parents; a standard set forth in PL 94-142, IDEA, that entitles students with disabilities to a free, appropriate public education, including supportive services and highly
individualized educational programs.
free association -- Freud: you are talking about a particular image in a dream, or even an event that happened during the day that stuck with you, and your analyst asks, "What does that
bring to mind?" Your candid response consists of associations, "free" because freely experienced and shared. The more superficial and random the associations, the more one should
suspect that the censor is at work. A source of this technique began with "Emmy von N." (Baroness Fanny Moser), a wealthy widow patient who got tired of Freud's questions and said he
should stop asking her where this or that came from, but let her tell what she had to say. She was also the patient who convinced Freud of the uselessness of hypnosis for deep treatment.
free-floating single -- an unattached single who dates randomly.
free flow -- an uninterrupted movement, such as is visible in ice skating.
freeing statements -- habits of interaction that actually encourage expanded dialog.
free level -- in pharmacotherapy, the amount of active drug that is able to produce an effect on the body.
free morphemes -- morphemes that can stand alone in meaning (bottle, cup, etc.).
free play -- see spontaneous play.
free radicals -- chemical compounds, the abnormal accumulation of which has been linked to cancer and neurotoxicity.
free verse -- can be used to create an atmosphere or describe a feeling in a poem. Free verse usually refrains from meter patterns, rhyming, or other musical patterns.
free will -- the ability or discretion to choose; free choice; the power of making free choices that are unconstrained by external circumstances or by an agency such as fate or divine will.
frenetic -- frenzied; frantic.
frequency -- Cycles per second of sound, measured in hertz (Hz). Low-pitched sounds have a frequency of less than 500 Hz and a bass quality. High-pitched sounds have a frequency of
greater than 2000 Hz and have a tenor quality.
frequency count -- recording method to measure how often a specified event occurs.
frequency modulated (FM) transmission devices -- equipment used in many classrooms for students with severe hearing impairments that allows direct oral transmission from the
teacher to each student individually.
frequency of sound -- the number of vibrations per second of molecules through some medium such as air, water, or wires.
frescade -- a cool, breezy walk; a shady place; a relaxing place with ample shade.
fret -- to eat or gnaw into; wear; corrode; fray; to become vexed or worried; agitate.
Freudian slip -- Freud: a mistake, usually of speech, made due to the collision of conscious and unconscious conflicts. An example made famous by Freud: the reluctant official who opens
a meeting by accidentally declaring it closed, thereby revealing his true wish.
friable -- easily crumbled or pulverized.
Friday -- a day of the week named for Venus and associated with the Green goddess Aphrodite and the Roman goddess Veneris. The word Friday comes from the Old English Frijjo, an
analog to the Roman and Greek goddesses. These were goddesses of love. Friday is related to the color orange, the kidneys in the body, and the metal copper (cuprum), with the chemical
Friedrich ataxia -- slowly progressive neurological disorder characterized by limb and gait ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, pes cavus (high-arched feet), hearing loss,
kyphoscoliosis (backward curve of the spine). In rare cases, progression is rapid. Onset is before adolescence. Associated complications: delayed motor milestones, cardiomyopathy
(heart muscle weakness) and/or congestive heart failure, increased risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, impaired color vision. Cause: usually homozygous guanine-adenosine-
adenosine (GAA) expansions in the frataxin gene on chromosome 9q13; point mutations in the frataxin gene have also been identified; autosomal recessive.
friend of a friend -- a typical source for unverifiable urban legends.
friendship -- an attachment between people; the basis for a strong love relationship.
frigophobia -- fear of cold.
fripperies -- an elegant showy garment; something showy, frivolous, or nonessential; something foolish or affectedly
frisson -- a moment of intense excitement; a shudder; a shiver; thrill; tingle.
frolic -- to behave playfully and candidly; romp; to engage in flirting, joking, or teasing.
frontal bossing -- an unusually prominent forehead sometimes associated with a heavier than normal brow ridge. It is
only seen in a few rare syndromes, including acromegaly, a chronic disorder caused by too much growth hormone, which
leads to enlargement of the bones of the face, jaw, hands, feet, and skull. Other syndromes that may cause frontal
bossing are congenital syphilis, Crouzon syndrome, Hurler syndrome, Rubenstein-Taybi syndrome,
Russell-Silver syndrome, and use of the drug trimethadione (anticonvulsant) during pregnancy (teratogenic).
frontal bone -- the large bone that makes up the forehead and supplies the upper edge and roof of the orbit (eye
socket). It comes together with a number of other bones including the parietal, nasal, ethmoid, maxillary, and
zygomatic bones. See picture ------------------------------------------------->>>.
frontal lobes -- the front parts of the brain, which are nearest to the forehead. One of the four main areas of the
cerebrum, the upper brain area. Controls voluntary movement, verbal expression, problem solving, willpower, and planning. The other
three areas of the cerebrum are the occipital, parietal, and temporal. (See illustration.)
frost -- hoarfrost; degree or state of coldness; covering of minute ice needles.
fruit drinks -- a product that contains 10% fruit juice, added water, and sugar.
fruitfulness -- a theory's ability to generate new questions; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured.
frumious -- from Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll: (his words) "Take the two words 'fuming' and 'furious'. Make up your mind that you
will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first. Now open your mouth and speak. If your thoughts incline ever so little
towards 'fuming', you will say 'fuming-furious'; if they turn, by even a hair's breadth, towards 'furious', you will say 'furious-fuming'; but if
you have the rares of gifts, a perfectly balanced mind, you will say 'fruminous'."
frustration -- the feeling of being prevented from completing a task.
frustration reading level -- the level at which the student has less than 90% word recognition and less than 90% comprehension.
FTT -- see failure to thrive.
fuchsia -- any of various tropical shrubs or trees of the genus Fuchsia, widely cultivated for their showy, drooping purplish, reddish, or white flowers; a strong, vivid purplish red.
fuggy -- a stuffy atmosphere of a poorly ventilated space.
full divorce -- in English history, a divorce that allowed remarriage.
full inclusion -- A policy of placing all children with disabilities into normal or regular classes with their typically developing peers; the belief that all children with disabilities should be
educated in regular education classrooms in their neighborhood schools. Placements should be age-and grade-appropriate.
fully functioning person -- Rogers: the epitome, in Rogers' theory: Qualities of a fully functioning person are: 1) openness to experience (opposite of defensiveness) or the ability to
accept reality and one's own feelings; 2) existential living, or living in the here and now. Future and past are dreams and memories; 3) organismic trusting, or the ability to trust oneself, to do
what comes naturally and what feels right; 4) experiential freedom, or the feeling of freedom but also responsibility for choices; 5) creativity in a way that is sensible to you, i.e., in the arts or
sciences, through social concern or parental love, or simply doing one's best.
full-strength juice -- undiluted fruit or vegetable juice.
fulminate -- to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation; to explode or detonate.
fulvous (FULL-vus) -- of a dull brownish yellow; tawny.
funambulism -- tightrope walking; a show especially of mental agility.
function -- the positive or negative contributions of a structure to a society.
function words -- words such as on, in, and from that are relatively easy for most students to learn because their presence helps students make sense of sentences and because they
account for about half of the words seen in text.
functional academics -- the reading, writing, math, and other related skills needed for independent living.
functional articulation disorders -- articulation problems that are not due to structural defects or neurological problems but are likely to have resulted from environmental or psychological
influences. The child has problems hearing sounds properly and/or producing sounds to match adult speech. Children age 2 --3 can (on average) master p, m, h, n, w, b, k, g, d, t, and ng.
Ages 3 -- 4, f, y. Ages 4 -- 5, r, l, s. Ages 5 -- 6, ch, sh, z, j, v, th. Ages 6 -- 7, th. Ages 7 -- 8, zh. Also called developmental articulation disorder.
functional assessment -- assessment to determine the child's skills, the characteristics of the setting, and the family's needs, resources, expectations, and aspirations.
functional behavior assessment (FBA) -- Multidimensional problem-solving strategy required in IDEA for students experiencing serious behavior problems. It includes analyzing a
student's behavior within the context of the setting; evaluating the degree to which a child's behaviors work to get him/her what is wanted and needed.
functional behavior management -- Guidance techniques that are effective and specific to the child and the situation.
functional blindness -- disability in which the auditory and tactile senses generally are used for gathering information, often including the use of Braille.
functional capability -- student strengths related to specific tasks.
functional curriculum model -- a model in which the skills or behaviors are emphasized that have immediate relevance to a child.
functional disorders -- disorders with no identifiable organic or neurological cause.
functional dissonance -- conflict between what a student is being asked to do and what the student can do.
functional ecological assessment -- form of authentic assessment that analyzes the typical demands of the environment (what steps others typically engage in to complete activities),
identifies natural cues in the environment that exist to prompt expected behavior, documents student performance during meaningful activities, and specifies the discrepancy between
expected behavior and student performance. Supports provided to the student are documented and initial considerations are explored that would facilitate more competent performance in
functionalism -- an anthropological theory of the early twentieth century whose proponents considered all beliefs, myths, and customs to have a function in maintaining the social systems of
which they are a part.
functional isolation -- increased disengagement from social and physical environments that may result from a poor environment and inadequate nutrition.
functionality -- degree to which skills are needed to operate as independently as possible in daily activities.
functional life skills -- practical skills that facilitate a person's participation and involvement in family, school, and community life.
functionally illiterate -- Not possessing reading and writing skills used in day-to-day tasks.
functional physical movement -- movement which serves a practical purpose.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) -- a neuroimaging procedure that permits evaluation of the effects of activities, such as reading, on brain function.
functional play -- manipulation of objects with no particular goal other than to examine and practice repetitive motions.
functional skills - Skills that are useful in everyday living; those skills that will be useful to a child and will be used often by the child in his or her natural environment.
functional vision assessment -- evaluation process to determine whether a student with a visual impairment can use vision for accomplishing daily tasks and to ascertain the student's
potential to increase the use of vision.
fundoplication -- an operation in which the top of the stomach is wrapped around the opening of the esophagus to prevent gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).
fundus uteri -- the upper portion of the uterus where the fallopian tubes attach. (See illustration above food pyramid.)
fungal infections -- infections caused by fungi. Examples are ringworm, jock itch, athlete's foot, yeast infections, tinea, candida, thrush, diaper rash, etc.
fungus -- a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast and molds, as well as mushrooms. Fungi are classified as a kingdom that is separate from plants, animals, and
bacteria. Fungi can be single-celled or multicellular. They can be true pathogens that cause infections or may be opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in immunocompromised
fuscia -- bright pinkish-purple.
fuliginous -- having the color of soot; dark; dusky; charcoal-colored.
fumarole -- hole in an area of volcanic activity from which gases and hot smoke escape.
fumulus -- a thin cloud resembling a veil and forming at any level.
furrow -- to wrinkle; a wrinkle, a rut, groove, or trench.
fuselage -- central body of an aircraft, to which the wings and tail assembly are attached.
fusiform shaped -- side in the middle while narrowing or tapering at both ends.
fusillade -- salvo; rapid discharge of firearms.
fustian (FUSS-chun) -- a strong cotton and linen fabric; high-flown or affected writing or speech; broadly; anything high-flown or affected in style.
fwooper -- an African bird with brightly-colored feathers. The fwooper's son will drive the listener insane and so must therefore always be sond with a Silencing Charm on it. A group of
fwoopers is a spectrum. A fwooper baby is a huey.
FXS -- see Fragile X Syndrome.
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