ear canal -- tube between the outer ear and the eardrum. (See illustration.)

ear candy --
music that is pleasing to listen to but that lacks depth.

eardrum -- another name for the tympanic membrane, which is the boundary between the outer and middle ear that vibrates
to sound.
(See illustration.)

early childhood education --
education in the early years of life; the field of study that deals mainly with the learning and
experiences children have from infancy through the primary years (up to approximately 8 years old).

early basic forms stage -- the circle and oval are actually the first basic forms. It develops as children recognize the simple circle
in their scribbles and are able to repeat it.

early childhood educator -- a teacher at a preschool, day care, or early infant school program.

early childhood intervention programs -- preschool, daycare, and early infant school programs that include children with
developmental delays and their families.

early childhood special education -- The provision of customized services uniquely crafted to meet the individual needs of
youngsters with disabilities between birth and five years of age.

early childhood stage -- time from three to six years of age.

Early Head Start -- A federal program providing a variety of services to low-income families with infants and toddlers as well as services for women who are pregnant.

early intervention -- The provision of essential services and instruction during the critical early infancy, toddler, and preschool years; the delivery of a coordinated and comprehensive set
of specialized services of infants and toddlers (birth through age 2) with
developmental delays or at risk conditions and their families. IDEA 2004 definition: "Developmental services that
are provided under public supervision; are provided at no cost except where Federal or State law provides for a system of payments by families, including a schedule of sliding fees; are
designed to meet the developmental needs of an infant or toddler with a disability, as defined by the
individualized family service plan team; and (then it goes on to describe at great
length the things that are included ...)

early learning standards -- every state that funds prekindergarten programs has specified what children are expected to learn in those programs.

early literacy -- the child's early entrance into the comprehensive world of words, language, books, poetry, and stories.

early pictorial (first drawings) stage -- the stage in art development when a child works on making and perfecting one or many symbols.

early word recognition skills -- word recognition skills include two levels of operation. The basic operation is the ability to decode the written word. In other words, the beginning reader
should be able to convert the written word into its corresponding speech sounds. The second level of operation is commonly referred to as "sight word reading." Sight word reading is the
ability to identify the written word quickly and automatically without sounding out a word letter by letter.

earmold -- The part of an amplification device (hearing aid) that is fitted into the individual's ear. (See illustration.)

Earned Income Tax Credit --  A US government program established in the mid 1970s that provides individuals with a tax refund if the amount of the tax credit exceeds
the taxes that the worker owes.

ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) -- medical doctor who specializes in the functioning of the ears, nose, and throat and may be called an otolaryngologist or

earth --
the planet we live on; the 3rd closest to the sun (after Mercury and Venus); revolves around the sun in 365.26 days; axial rotation period of 23 hours 56.07 minutes; radius of 3,963
miles; only planet in the solar system on which life is known to exist; atmosphere of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and water vapor; 149.6 million kilometers from the sun; thin outer crust,
intermediate mantle, dense inner core; covered by water over 70% of surface; a single, relatively large satellite: the Moon.

earwig -- to annoy or attempt to influence by private talk.

easing in -- a schedule of gradually increasing the amount of time a child spends in a classroom so the child does not spend a full period at the beginning.

easy child -- a child whose temperament is characterized by establishment of regular routines in infancy, general cheerfulness, and easy adaptation to new experiences.

eating disorders -- anorexia (self-starvation), bulimia (binge-eating/purging), pica (eating non-nutritive materials), rumination disorders.

eating disturbances -- mild versions of eating disorders.

EBD -- see emotional behavior disorder.

ebon --
black; made of ebony.

Ecbatana -- the place of gathering.

eccentric -- deviating from an established or usual pattern or style; deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct; deviating from a circular path, especially elliptical; located
elsewhere than at the geometrical center or having the axis or support so located.

ecclesiophobia -- fear of church.

ECG -- see electrocardiogram.

echelon --
tier; level; rank in job; formation of soldiers.

echinoderm -- a phylum of marine animals, including sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers.

echo -- a repetition of sound produced by the reflection of sound.

echocardiography -- an ultrasonic method of imaging the heart; can be used to detect congenital heart defects.

echodensities -- changes on ultrasound that reflect damage to brain tissue, seen in periventricular leukomalacia in premature infants.

echolalia -- Behavior of some individuals with disabilities in which they repeat words or phrases that have been uttered by someone else with little or no understanding of their conventional
meaning; characteristic of some children with delayed cognitive development,
autism, or communication disorders. Echolalia may occur immediately after hearing the word or phrase, or
much later.

eclectic -- choosing what appears to be the best in various doctrines, methods, styles, comprising elements drawn from various sources.

eclipsareon -- a device for illustrating and demonstrating eclipses.

eclipse -- any obscuration of light; reduction or loss of splendor, status, or reputation.

ECMO -- see extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

ecocultural --
a term referring to cultural and environmental factors that influence family functioning, such as unemployment, the primary language spoken in the home, the country of origin,
traditions, parental illness, number of children in the home, and educational background.

E. coli -- bacteria that can cause infections ranging from diarrhea and urinary tract infections to sepsis (Escherichia coli). (See illustration.)

ecological --
dealing with the relationship of the individual to the environment.

ecological assessment -- evaluation that considers all dimensions of the individual's environment.

ecological context -- sociocultural view of development that ranges from direct interactions with social agents to indirect impact of the culture.

ecological functional curriculum -- a curriculum that stresses meaningful learning and considers the environments in which children live and learn.

ecological inventories -- identify the sub-environments in which students function, the activities involved in them, and the skills needed in them.

ecologically based approach to family services -- an approach in which services arise out of the perspective of viewing the family from its center (the child) out through the family system
and then the community.

ecological model -- Bronfenbrenner's model of the different spheres of influence for a child.

ecological perspective (ecological approach) -- viewpoint that incorporates the impact of environmental influences on the pattern of human development; an approach in psychology
that ascribes abnormal behavior more to the interaction of an individual with the environment than to disease.

ecological pressure -- aspects of the environment that place pressure on the organism to change.

ecological systems theory -- Bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment,
from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs.

ecological view -- consideration of all aspects that influence a human being.

ecology -- the study of how all the organisms in a system relate to one another.

ecology of human development -- the study of the interaction between a growing organism and the changing immediate environment in which it lives.

ecology of the family -- the concept of viewing the child in the context of his or her impact on the family and the family's impact on the child; stresses the interrelationship of the various
family members with one another.

economic -- the satisfaction of the material needs of people.

economic divorce -- one of Bohannan's six different but overlapping experiences of divorce, involves the division of money and property and the establishment of two separate economic

economic maturity -- an individual's ability to support him- or herself and a partner.

ecophobia -- fear of home.

ecosystems -- a community of interacting organisms and their physical environment; a term in Bronfenbrenner's theory.

ecotone (EE-kuh-tohn) -- a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities.

ectoderm -- outer cell layer in the embryo. (See illustration.)

ectodermal dysplasia --
abnormal skin development.

ectodermal germ layer -- see ectoderm.

ectopias --
congenital displacement of a body organ or tissue.

ectopic pregnancy -- a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus,
usually the
fallopian tube; cause is usually multifactorial. (See

ectrodactyly --
congenital absence of all or parts of digits. (See illustration -->>.)

ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome --
ectrodactyly (split
hands or feet), ectodermal dysplasia  (abnormal skin development), sparse hair,
cleft lip
and palate, lacrimal (tear) duct abnormalities, intelligence is not usually affected,
renal or genital anomalies, hearing impairment, hypodontia
(underdeveloped teeth), lymphoma associated with EEC3 only. Caused by mutations in p63 gene at 3q27 which
cause EEC type 3; EEC type 1 has been linked to chromosome 7q21-q22;
autosomal dominant.

ecumenical -- general; universal; of or pertaining to a movement (especially religious); interreligious or

eczema -- a common skin problem, often occurring in childhood, marked by an itchy inflammatory reddening,
swelling, bumps, and crusting.

ED -- see emotionally disturbed.

edacious --
having a huge appetite; ravenous; excessively eager; insatiable.

EDC -- see estimated date of confinement.

EDD --
see estimated due date; also called estimated date of confinement.

eddy --
a current of water or air running contrary to the main current; especially a circular current or whirlpool; something moving similarly; a
contrary or circular current, as of thought or play.

edema -- an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body. (See illustration.)

educable --
in referring to intellectual disability, an IQ between about 55 to 75; second to fifth grade achievement in school academic areas;
social adjustment skills will result in independence with intermittent or limited support in the community; partial or total self-support in a paid
community job is a strong possibility.

educaring -- a concept of teaching as both educating and caregiving; coined by Magda Gerber in referring to people working with infants and

educational blindness -- disability in which the auditory and tactile senses are used for learning during the school years; often including the use of Braille.

educational environments -- the educational settings in which children are placed for instruction.

educational gymnastics -- a child-oriented, natural progression of the exploration of fundamental movement skills that teaches body management -- on the floor and with small and large
apparatus -- and develops strength, stamina, and flexibility through exploration and discovery. Educational gymnastics are not similar to Olympic gymnastics, where the student's ability to
execute stunts determines success or failure.

educational interpreter -- professional who translates spoken words into sign language for students who are deaf or significantly hard of hearing.

educational neglect -- chronic failure to send a child to school.

educational placement -- the location or type of classroom program in which the child receives educational services.

educational self-fulfilling prophecy -- the idea that children may adopt teachers' positive or negative attitudes toward them and start to live up to those views.

Education for All Handicapped Children's Act of 1975 -- see PL 94-142.

Education for All Handicapped Children Amendments of 1986 -- see PL 99-457, Part H, now referred to as Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

Edwards syndrome -- see Trisomy 18. (See karyotype right there--------------------->.)

EEC syndrome --
see ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.

EEG --
see electroencephalogram.

effacement -- thinning of the cervix during the first stage of labor.

effect -- use this word instead of affect when: 1) If you are talking about a result (What effect did the loss have on the team?); 2) If any of
these words is used immediately before the word: into, no, take, the, any, an, or and (The prescribed medication had no effect on the
patient's symptoms.); 3) If you want to describe something that was caused or brought about (The new manager effected some positive
changes in the office.). Most of the time, effect is a noun. Compare with

effective motivation -- according to White, children's sense of being able to master the environment and their joy at this mastery.
Together, these two aspects of motivation promote competence.

effective strategy use -- consistent use of a mental strategy that leads to improvement in performance.

efferent -- impulse that goes to a nerve or muscle from the central nervous system.

effervesce -- to bubble over; to boil with frothy bubbles; to excite.

efficacy -- the power to produce an effect or desired result; effectiveness.

effleurage -- a light, stroking movement used in massage; a soft caress.

effluvium -- foul discharge or emanation; emission.

efflux -- something that flows out or forth; effluence; passing or an expiration, as of time.

effrontery -- shameless or impudent boldness; barefaced audacity.

effulgent -- marked as if by brightly shining light; coruscating; shimmering.

effusion -- fluid escaping from blood vessels or lymphatics that collects in body cavities (e.g., a pleural, or lung, effusion).

effusive -- marked by the expression of great or excessive emotion or enthusiasm; pouring freely; characterized or formed by a nonexplosive outpouring of lava.

egalitarian beliefs -- cultural beliefs that promote equality between men and women.

egg -- the female reproductive germ cell produced by the ovaries. Also called ovum.

eglantine --
a type of plant, European rose; sweetbrier.

ego -- the part of the psyche that is the source of reason and operates within the conditions and demands of the real world. According to Freud, a rational, organized agency that distills
gradually out of a passionate
id that rubs up against reality. Emerging from an undifferentiated mass of sensations (chiefly those emanating from the surface of the body), formed by
identifications and abandoned
id cathexes, and strengthened by speech, which links auditory and visual memory traces with the conscious life, the ego strives to harmonize inner and out,
drives (which it keeps at bay mainly via
repression, sublimation, and anticathexes), inhibition, and reality. Unlike Jung's conception of ego, it is not entirely conscious, though it is the
bearer of consciousness. Topographically, it extends down to the
id. Jung: one of three parts of the psyche, along with personal unconscious and collective unconscious. The ego is
the conscious mind.

ego cathexes -- Freud: investments of libido into ego activities like ideas that the ego knows represent objects. You think about what you want instead of blindly leaping for it because of
the energy investment remaining with your thoughts.

egocentric -- Term Piaget used to describe a young child's inability to distinguish viewpoints of others from one's own; self-centered; regarding the self as the center of all things.

egocentric speech -- Piaget's term for speech directed toward the self.

egocentrism -- preoperational child's inability to understand that others do not share his or her perspective (Piaget).

ego ideal -- what the child thinks is right or wrong. Freud: the sector of the superego that consists of internalized standards of what is "good." Shoulds and oughts for Freud represent the
higher human nature, whereas for most of us they represent the highest accomplishment of Sunday School.

ego instincts -- Freud: an early concept denoting the ego's self-preservative drives (as opposed to the other-directed sexual drives). The concept came about from the notion of conflicts
between ego and sexuality. The duality of Eros and the death drive replaced this old duality.

egotism -- an excessive use of the first person singular personal pronoun; the practice of talking about oneself too much; an exaggerated sense of self-importance.

egregious -- conspicuously bad or offensive; flagrant; reprehensible.

egress -- the act or an instance of going, especially from an enclosed place; a means or place of going out; an exit; the right or permission to go out.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome -- At least 10 different forms have been described. All include aspects of skin fragility, easy bruisability, joint hyperextensibility, and hyperelastic skin. Types I
and III are most commonly described and have similar clinical presentations with the previously mentioned features; type IV is characterized by severe
blood vessel involvement with risk of
arterial rupture; type VI is characterized by eye involvement, including corneal fragility; type VIII includes periodontal disease; type IX has bladder diverticula (pouches or
sacs in the bladder wall), and chronic
diarrhea. Occasional intellectual disability, premature loss of teeth, mitral valve prolapse, intestinal hernias, premature delivery from
premature rupture of membranes, scoliosis, abnormalities of the thymus are also seen. Caused by an abnormality in the formation in collagen. Types I and II are caused by mutations
in the COL5A1 and A2 genes; type III is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene as well as the tenascin XB gene (TNXB); type IV is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene; mutations in
the lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD) cause some cases of EDS VI; EDS VII may be caused by mutations in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 ADAMTS2 gene. The genes for types V, VIII, IX, or X are
yet to be identified. Types I, II, III, IV, VII, and VIII are
autosomal dominant; types VI and X are autosomal recessive; types V, VII, and IX are X-linked recessive.

eiderdown --
the down of a duck used as stuffing for quilts or pillows.

eidetic -- marked by or involving extraordinarily accurate and vivid recall especially of visual images.

eidolon -- ghost, specter; reappearing; continuously visiting or persisting image.

eighty-six -- to refuse to serve (a customer); to get rid of; throw out.

einsteinium -- atomic number 99, symbol Es; a synthetic transuranic element first produced by neutron irradiation of uranium in a thermonuclear explosion; now usually produced in the
laboratory by irradiating plutonium and other elements; most stable isotope's half-life 276 days; discovered in 1952 by Argonne, Los Alamos, University of California; named for

eisoptrophobia --
fear of mirrors.

eisteddfod (eye-STETH-vawd) -- a usually Welsh competitive festival of the arts especially in poetry and singing.

EKG -- see electrocardiogram.

ekphrasis (EK-fruh-sis) --
a literary description of or commentary on a visual work of art.

elaboration -- the act of expanding language; developing language by building complex structures from simple ones and adding details. Creating a relationship, or a shared meaning,
between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category (

élan -- esprit; brio; gusto; ardor; vivacity.

elapse -- to pass or go by; to happen.

elasticity -- quality or state of being elastic; the tendency to keep shape after stretching.

elastin -- a protein found in the skin and tissue of the body. It helps keep skin flexible but tight, providing a bounce-back reaction if skin is pulled. Enough elastin means that the skin will
return to its normal shape after a pull. It also keeps skin smooth as it stretches to accommodate normal activities. Elastin depletes with age, resulting in wrinkles.

elastic fibers -- a thick, yellow connective-tissue fiber composed primarily of elastin (a protein found in the skin and tissue of the body that helps keep skin flexible but tight) and
characterized by great elasticity; elastic connective tissue.

elation -- quality or state of being elated; feeling or state of great joy or pride.

ELBW -- see extremely low birth weight.

elder abuse --
acts of aggression against the elderly -- physical assaults, emotional humiliation, verbal abuse, financial exploitation, isolation from friends

elder neglect -- consists of acts of omission in the care and treatment of the elderly.

elective abortion -- see induced abortion.

elective mutism -- refraining from speaking that is not the result of physical problems with the muscles or organs of speech production and is believed to be due to emotional causes. See
selective mutism.

Electra complex --
in Freudian theory, the group of feelings and unconscious desires that occurs in females during the development of the superego, when daughters experience
uncomfortable feelings toward their fathers. The female equivalent of the male
Oedipal Complex. A chief difference is that the girl isn't required to shift her identification from her mother to
her father. Also, because of
penis envy, she wants to have a baby with her father; this desire later gets acted out by her choice of a fatherly man to have a baby with. The term "Electra
complex" may have been proposed by

electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) --
a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail. Interpretation may
reveal a  wide range of heart conditions.
(See illustration.)

electroencephalogram (EEG) --
a procedure that measures electrical potentials on the scalp to produce an analysis of brain activity. Most commonly,
it is used to show the location and activity of the brain during a seizure. It is also used to evaluate problems with brain function, such as confusion, coma,
tumors, trouble with thinking or memory, stroke, and may be used to determine brain death.

electrolarynx -- a vibrator/amplifier that permits the production of artificial speech sounds in an individual whose larynx is blocked by a tracheostomy
tube or has been removed because of cancer. (See illustration.)

electrolyte --
mineral contained in the blood.

electromagnetic radiation -- all the different kinds of energies released into space by stars such as the sun. They include radio waves, TV waves, radar
waves, heat (infrared radiation), light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, short waves, microwaves, and gamma rays.

electromyography -- a technique for measuring muscle activity and function.

electron -- an elementary particle consisting of a charge of negative electricity.

electronic travel aid -- portable devices that emit sonar and laser signals that are reflected back to the user during travel, and are converted to auditory
and/or tactile signals. They are hand held, or chest, head, wheelchair, or cane mounted, and provide supplementary information during travel (walking or

electrophobia -- fear of electricity.

electroretinogram (ERG) -- a graphic record of the electrical activity of the retinas.

eleemosynary -- of, relating to, or dependent on charity; contributed as an act of charity.

elegiac -- of, relating to, or consisting of two dactylic hexameter lines the second of which lacks the arsis in the third and sixth feet; of, relating to, or comprising elegy or an elegy. Got it???

element --  a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which indicates the number of protons in its nucleus. In total, 118 elements
have been observed as of March 2010, of which 92 occur naturally on earth. As of June 9, 2011, only 114 have made the cut as actual elements. On that day, 114 and 116 were granted
element status. 113 and 115 remain unrecognized so far.
See table and list at end of E definitions and see table HERE.

elements of movement --
describe how a movement is performed. If we liken movement education to the study of grammar, the skills themselves can be considered verbs, while the six
movement elements (space, shape, time, force, flow, and rhythm) are the adverbs modifying them.

eleutherophobia -- fear of freedom.

elevate -- to raise to a higher position.

eleven -- 11.

elf -- a part of a race of divine or semi-divine beings, endowed with magical powers which they use for the benefit and injury of mankind. Elves are youthful-seeming men and women of great
beauty. They tend to be wiser and more beautiful than humans, with sharper senses  and perceptions, stronger mentally, but not physically. They have long, pointed ears. A group of elves is
a laconian. An elf baby is an elfin.

elicit -- to bring or draw out (something latent); educe; summon; to provoke a reaction.

eligibility -- A comprehensive diagnostic process to determine if a child meets the criteria to be eligible for special services. This is the second step in the assessment process (screening,
eligibility, program planning).

elimination disorders -- disorders that concern the elimination of feces or urine from the body. The causes of these disorders may be medial or psychiatric. Elimination disorders may be
caused by a physical condition, a side effect of a drug, or a psychiatric disorder. It is much more common for an elimination disorder to be caused by medical conditions than psychiatric
conditions. In most cases in which the cause is medical, soiling is unintentional. When the causes are psychiatric, the soiling may also be unintentional, but it may also be intentional.

elision -- omission of a vowel, consonant, or syllable in pronunciation.

elixer -- solution of alcohol and water; substance believed to maintain life indefinitely.

ellipsis -- the omission of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically complete; a sudden leap from one topic to
another; the mark [...] which indicates an omission of words or a pause.

elliptical -- of, relating to, or having the shape of an ellipse; with a word or words omitted.

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (Chondroectodermal dysplasia) -- disproportionately short stature (final height, 43 -- 60 inches), small thorax, extra fingers, neonatal teeth, missing teeth,
delayed eruption of teeth, underdeveloped fingernails, heart defect, occasional
intellectual disability. Cause is unknown, autosomal recessive. Associated complications are severe
problems in infancy, which can be fatal; hydrocephalus; severe leg deformities; in the 66% that survive the first 6 months of life, intellectual disability has been seen
occasionally, though majority normal intelligence. Prenatal diagnosis possible with
ultrasound and/or fetoscopy. Incidence: rare, recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25%.

elocution -- the art of public speaking in which gesture, vocal production, and delivery are emphasized; a style or manner of speaking, especially in public.

eloign -- to move away a distance; to move a distance with something concealed.

elope -- to run away and be married somewhere away from the partners' families.

eloquence -- well-stated speech; flowing language; articulated speech and proper execution.

eloquent cortex -- the area of the cortex involved in the production of speech.

elucidate -- to explain further; clarify; to elaborate upon.

elurophobia -- fear of cats.

elusive -- difficult to find, catch, or achieve; avoiding or having a tendency to avoid or evade.

elysian -- blissful, delightful; pertaining to the Elysian Fields or Elysium.

Elysium -- a section of the underworld, the resting place of heroes and the virtuous.

emaciate -- to make abnormally thin or weak; typically due to illness.

emanation -- emission, something that is issued by a source.

emancipated minor -- a teenager who is free of parental control for giving informed consent to any medical treatment. Status is based on legal statutes that vary among states but use
relatively objective criteria (e.g., marriage, pregnancy, parenthood, independent living, military service, high school graduation, parents have surrendered their parental rights).

emancipation -- a type of cohabiting relationship based on the desire to break free of parental values and influence rather than on love.

embarcadero -- a landing place, especially a landing place on an island waterway.

embarrass -- to confuse or disconcert; to involve in financial difficulties; to cause to experience self-conscious distress; to hinder or impede.

embedded learning opportunities (EMO) -- The intentional incorporation of specific learning objectives into play and routine classroom activities.

embedding -- a process in which children add clauses internally to sentences (develops at 4 to
13 years of age).

embellish -- to make beautiful with ornamentation; decorate; to heighten the attractiveness of by
adding decorative or fanciful details; enhance.

ember -- small, glowing fleck of burning wood or coal.

emblazon -- to inscribe or adorn with or as if with heraldic bearings or devices; to inscribe (as
logos or lettering) on a surface; celebrate; extol.

embolism -- the obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign substance or blood clot. Foreign
substances that can cause embolism include an air bubble,
amniotic fluid, a globule of fat,
a clump of
bacteria, chemicals, and drugs.

embryo -- the prenatal organism from 2 to 8 weeks after conception, during which time the
foundation of all body structures and internal organs are laid down.
(See illustration.)

embryogenesis --
up until full term at 37--40 weeks' human gestation. The major organs
become larger and more complex as they begin to differentiate and establish physiologic function.

embryo loss -- Pregnancy loss during the embryonic stage of development which, in humans,
comprises the second through eighth week after

embryonic disk -- a small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new
organism will develop.
(See illustration below embryo picture.)

embryonic stage --
the second stage of prenatal development, which begins at implantation and lasts until about  8 weeks.

embryopathy -- any anomaly occurring in the embryo or fetus as a result of interference with normal intrauterine development.       

embryotic period -- the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

embryo transfer -- fertilization procedure whereby the sperm of a male partner of an infertile woman is placed in another woman's uterus during
ovulation. Five days later, the embryo is transferred to the uterus of the infertile woman, who carries the embryo and delivers the baby.

emerald -- deep, dark green; dark green gemstone.

emergency contact -- the person or persons to notify in case of emergency.

emergency safety plan -- an emergency plan for leaving or getting help for domestic violence victims of any age who may be abused by, or
afraid of, their spouse or partner, girlfriend or boyfriend, adult child, or other family member. Safety planning helps develop tools in advance of
potentially dangerous situations. For a safety plan, go

emergent curriculum -- a process for curriculum planning that draws on teachers' observations and children's interests. Plans emerge from daily life interests and issues. This approach
takes advantage of the children's spontaneity and teachers' planning.

emergent literacy -- The diverse skills that help children become successful in reading, writing, and other academic tasks. A child's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through
informal experiences with such things as storybooks, calendars, lists, environmental print, etc.

emergent reading -- see pretend reading.

emergent writing -- children learn to write as they explore different tools and materials. Adult encouragement makes a difference. Other strategies to aid emergent writing are well-stocked
writing centers (variety of paper and writing tools), lists, chalk and chalkboards, magnetic boards and letters, flannel boards, letter tiles and blocks, alphabet charts, stamps and ink pads,
scissors, staples, tape, paint, fingerpaints, crayons, items for collage, play dough, grocery lists, journals, prescription pads, waiter' pads, and computers, among millions more. Go
here for a
great description of the stages of children's writing by Elizabeth Sulsby, University of Michigan.

emetophobia -- fear of vomiting.

emic perspective -- the analysis of a society from the inside.

emigrate -- to leave one country or region to settle in another. Compare to immigrate, which means to enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native.

eminence -- adult achievement of a high level in a particular field after years of productivity.

eminently -- to a high degree; very.

emissary -- an agent sent on a mission to represent or advance the interests of another.

emission -- discharge; emanation; chemical release.

emollient -- substance that softens and soothes the skin; lotion.

emotional abuse -- A type of child maltreatment distinguished by caregiver actions that are designed to be psychologically harmful to the youngster. Physical or emotional assaults (such
as torture and close confinement) that cause or could cause serious psychological injury.
Tennessee definition: verbal assaults, ignoring and indifference or constant family conflict. If a
child is degraded enough, the child will begin to live up tot he image communicated by the abusing parent or caretaker.

emotional abuse (adult) -- includes verbal and psychological abuse -- intimidation, inducing fear, playing mind games, secretiveness, verbal threats, name calling, yelling, sarcasm or
criticism, degrading, brainwashing, overly expressing jealousy, lying, falsely accusing, withholding sex, accusations, fault-finding, double standards, threats of hurting children or friends or
family or pets, etc. It is not limited to the behaviors listed here.

emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) -- term preferred by professionals to describe emotional disabilities.

emotional autonomy --
the ability to understand oneself as a person who is emotionally distinct from one's parents.

emotional behavior disorder (EBD) -- see emotional disturbance.

emotional disorders --
term preferred by professionals to describe emotional disturbances; see behavioral disorders.

emotional disturbance -- The inability to maintain satisfactory relationships with peers that interferes with educational performance for an extended length of time; one of the categories of
IDEA; includes lack of control, difficulty in interpersonal relationships, depression, lack of contact with reality, and unexplained physical problems. The IDEA definition of emotional
or emotional disorder or behavioral disorder is a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which
adversely affects educational performance: an inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory relationships
with peers or teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or a tendency to develop symptoms
or fears associated with personal and school problems. This term does not include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are seriously emotionally disturbed.
behavioral disorders.

emotional divorce -- one of Bohannan's six different but overlapping experiences of divorce; involves the deterioration of the marriage and the breakdown of bonding and communication,
which are replaced by feelings of alienation.

emotional framework -- the basic "feeling" structure of a classroom that determines the tone and underlying sensibilities that affect how people feel and behave in a class.

emotional intelligence -- type of intelligence that motivates oneself, persists in frustration, controls impulses, delays gratification, and empathizes with others.

emotional intensity -- capacity to focus emotions for long periods on a single subject or idea.

emotionally disturbed (ED) -- the inability to maintain satisfactory relationships with peers that interferes with educational performance for an extended length of time.

emotional liability -- a common characteristic in a child with a learning disability. The child may be moody, isolated or rejected by peers. He may have low self-esteem, and is more likely to
violate social norms. He may exhibit inappropriate ways of getting attention, elicit more negative reactions from others, and be lacking in social cognition skills. Also he may have difficulty with
reading nonverbal social cues and with motivation. He may be a passive, rather than active, learner.

emotional maturity -- an individual's ability to respond appropriately to a full range of situations.

emotional maltreatment -- psychological damage from blaming, belittling, or rejecting a child.

emotional neglect -- failure to provide the emotional nurturing and physical and cognitive stimulation needed to prevent serious developmental deficits. Also called developmental

emotions -- the feelings of affective component of human behavior; also called affect.

emotional brain -- what happens in our brains to make us feel fear, love, hate, anger, joy ... and how brain mechanisms are involved ...

emotional security -- quality of an enduring, close emotional relationship.

emotional self-regulation -- the ability to control one's own expression of emotions.

emotional violence -- also called emotional abuse, verbal and psychological abuse that inflicts or threatens to inflict emotional distress.

emotion centered coping -- an approach to coping with stress that is internal, private, and aimed at controlling negative emotion when little can be done about an outcome.

emotion focused coping strategies -- efforts to manage or reduce the emotional distress that is aroused in a stressful situation.

emotion regulation -- ability to alter emotional responses to a situation.

emotion work -- an intense process of evaluating a relationship and then controlling one's feelings about the relationships.

empathic -- identifying with feelings of another.

empathy -- a sympathetic response to the thoughts and feelings of another person. Empathy differs from sympathy in the ability to feel as the other person feels. Rogers: the ability to feel
what the client feels.

empirical -- Information based on observation and/or experimentation.

empirically based -- based on observation and experimentation.

empiricism -- the practice of relying on observation and experiment especially in the natural sciences; a theory that all knowledge originates in experience; a tenet arrived at empirically.

employer sponsored child care -- child care supported in some way by the parents' employers. Support may be financial (as an employee benefit or subsidy) or physical (offering on-site

employment -- according to the American with Disabilities Act (ADA, PL 101-336, 1990), employers may not discriminate against people with disabilities in any employment practices,
including job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. Applies to any business with 15 or more

empowering families -- encouraging and enabling families to take an active role in decisions affecting their child's welfare. They have an important role in decision making and their
competencies are valued.

empowerment -- The process of applying strategies whereby individuals gain a sense of control over their future as a result of their own efforts and activities.

emprise -- an adventurous, daring, or chivalric enterprise.

empty calories -- Refers to foods in which there is high caloric content and low nutritional value.

empty love -- a type of love relationship involving commitment but no passion or intimacy.

empty nest syndrome -- feelings of malaise, emptiness, and lack of purpose that some parents experience when their  last child leaves home.

empyreal -- related to the empyrean; celestial.

emulate -- to strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation.

emulsify -- to pour liquid into another non-soluble; creating visible density.

enabler -- a person, often a spouse, whose actions permit an alcoholic to continue to drink; also called a co-dependent.

enabling environment -- Environment that supports a child's optimal development.

enabling families -- the help-giver creates opportunities for competencies to be acquired or displayed by families, which leads to their empowerment.

enactive mode of representation -- a stage in Bruner's theory of intellectual growth that is characterized by action.

enamel -- the calcified outer layer of the tooth. (See illustration-------------------------------------------->.)

encapsulate --
to enclose in or as in a capsule; to completely cover; to show or express in a brief way; epitomize, summarize; to become enclosed in a capsule.

encephalitis -- inflammation or infection of the brain, usually viral in origin, that may damage the central nervous system.
Can cause
deaf-blindness. The cause of encephalitis is usually multifactorial. (See illustration.)

encephalocele --
congenital cystic malformation of the brain associated with severe disabilities. (See illustration.)

encephalopathy --
an acute or chronic disturbance of brain function. If caused by an infection, it is called encephalitis.

enceinte -- pregnant, carrying a baby, gravid; line of fortification enclosing a town or castle.

encode -- the conversion of information into a system capable of being conveyed in a communication channel.

encoding information -- attending to and forming internal relationships of certain features of the environment.

encomium -- formal, enthusiastic praise; abundant, exuberant expression of admiration.

encopresis -- an elimination disorder that involves repeatedly having bowel movements in inappropriate places after the age when bowel control is normally expected. Also called fecal

enculturated lens theory --
an explanation of the acquisition of gender which proposes that individuals view the world through lenses, or assumptions, especially a belief that males and
females are fundamentally different, and males are superior.

enculturation -- Maslow: social pressures to be "well-adjusted" or to "fit in."

endangerment standard -- a standard used in defining child abuse and neglect that includes situations in which children are not yet harmed by maltreatment but have experienced
maltreatment that puts them in danger of being harmed.

endocardial cushion defect -- any cardiac defect resulting from the failure of thickened tissue sections – the endocardial cushions – in the embryonic heart to fuse and form the atrial

endocardium -- the inner lining of the heart.

endocarditis -- inflammation of the lining of the heart.

endochondral ossification -- formation of bone from cartilage.

endocrine (glands) -- refers to glands within the body that produce and secrete substances called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

endocrine abnormalities -- children with Down syndrome have an increased risk of developing hypothyroidism, and are at great risk for obesity.

endocrine gland -- a gland that secretes a hormone into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands are glands of internal secretion. Endocrine glands are the hypothalamus, pituitary
gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid glands, heart, stomach, intestines, islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, adrenal glands, kidney, fat cells, testes, ovarian follicle
and the
corpus luteum in the ovaries.

endoderm -- the inner cell layer of the embryo.

endogamy -- the practice of choosing a mate from within one's own ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, or general age group.

endogenous -- growing or produced by growth from deep tissue; caused by factors inside the organism or system.

endogenous smile -- smile that is triggered by changes in nervous system activity and involves only the lower face muscles.

endometrial tissue -- the tissue lining the uterus that is sloughed off during a woman's menstrual period.

endometriosis -- abnormality of the uterus in which some cells of the inner lining grow in the pelvic and abdominal cavities.
(See illustration------------------------------------------------------------->.)

endoplasmic reticulum --
an organelle in an eukaryotic cell that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and
cisternae within the cells. The endoplasmic riticulum synthesizes proteins, lipids, and steroids; metabolize carbohydrates and
steroids, regulates calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment  of receptors on cell membrane proteins.

endopsychic conflict -- Freud: the opposition of a cathexis by an anti-cathexis (or: being torn between a desire to satisfy a
wish and a fear of doing so). Two types: id-ego conflicts and superego-ego conflicts.

endorphins -- the body's natural opiates, probably involved in the perception of pain and pleasure. It is produced in the pituitary gland. Endorphins protect against excessive pain and is
released with
ACTH and enkephalins into the brain.

endoscopy -- a procedure in which a viewing tube is inserted into the body.

energy -- power to perform work.

enervate -- lacking physical, mental, or moral vigor.

enetophobia -- fear of pins and needles.

enfant terrible -- a child whose inopportune remarks cause embarrassment; a person known for shocking remarks or outrageous behavior; a usually young and successful person who is
strikingly unorthodox, innovative, or avant-garde.

engagement -- Consistent, active involvement with the people (i.e., teachers, parents, classmates), activities (i.e., snack time, play time, group time participation, center selecton/
participation), and materials (i.e., use of toys, art supplies, water play materials), through the child's day.

engagement, parental -- the amount of time parents spend in one on one interaction with a child.

English as a second language (ESL) -- practice of directly teaching English to individuals who speak another language.

English language learners (ELL) -- students who are learning English as a second language.

enhalo -- to affix with a halo; to cause to wear a halo; to encircle; surround.

enigmatic -- of, relating to, or resembling an enigma; mysterious; puzzling.

enissophobia, enosiophobia -- fear of sin or sinning.

enjoin -- to direct or impose by authoritative order or with urgent admonition; forbid, prohibit; to prohibit by judicial order; command.

enjoyable time together -- one of the six major qualities commonly found in emotionally healthy families, identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework.

enkephalin -- this morphine-like substance consists of five opiate-type amino acids. Released into the brain with ACTH and endorphins to combat pain.

enlightenment -- in Buddhism, the state a person reaches after following an eightfold path of correct attitudes, ethical behavior, and meditation.

ennui -- a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction.

enochlophobia -- fear of crowds.

ENRICH -- a comprehensive marital inventory containing 125 questions in categories that are relevant to married couples and their satisfaction with their relationship. ENRICH stands for
ENriching Relationship Issues, Communication, and Happiness.

enriched -- adding nutrients to grain products to replace those lose during refinement; thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, and iron are nutrients most commonly added.

enrichment -- extending normal curriculum with different examples and associations that build complex ideas on the basis of the general curriculum.

enrichment programs -- educational programs that encourage problem solving and creative activities through independent study or individualized instruction and mentoring.

ensconce -- to place or hide securely; to establish or settle firmly, comfortably, or snugly.

enshrinement -- the result of focusing only on the positive memories of a deceased loved one, the term for excessively building emotional memorials to the deceased.

ENT -- see ear, nose, and throat specialist.

enteral nutrition --
feeding directly into the stomach through the nose or mouth to ensure that nutrition requirements are met. (See
illustration ------------------------------------------------------------>.)

enterovirus --
virus that causes gastroenteritis (i.e., infection of the stomach and small intestine).

entitlement -- one's attitudes about what he or she feels he or she has a right to expect.

entomophobia -- fear of insects

entropy -- a term used in thermodynamics; a measure of the loss of information in a transmitted signal or message; a hypothetical
tendency for the universe to attain a state of maximum homogeneity in which all matter is at a uniform temperature (heat death); a doctrine
of inevitable social decline and degeneration; lack of pattern, disorder;

entry level -- the level of development or behavior that a child shows on beginning a program or group experience; usually an
observation-based informal assessment after the first few weeks of school.

enuresis -- more commonly called bed-wetting, an elimination disorder that involves release of urine into bedding, clothing, or other
inappropriate places. Enuresis can occur during the day (diurnal) or at night (nocturnal). It may be voluntary or involuntary. Encopresis
and enuresis may occur together, although they mostly do not.

environmental arrangements -- Any changes in the environment that are used to facilitate child engagement such as altering the physical space, selection and use of materials, and
altering the structure of an activity.

environment -- all those conditions that affect children's surroundings and the people in them; the physical, interpersonal, and temporal aspects of an early childhood setting.

environmental -- forces that are not innate or hereditary aspects of development; in early childhood terms, environmental aspects of growth are all those influences of physical conditions,
interpersonal relationships, and world experiences that interact with a person to change the way he or she behaves, feels, and lives.

environmental arrangements -- any changes in the environment that are used to facilitate child engagement such as altering the physical space, selection and use of materials, and
altering the structure of an activity.

environmental factors -- a possible cause of learning disabilities; this refers to dietary inadequacies, food additives, radiation stress, fluorescent lighting, unshielded television tubes,
drinking, drug consumption, inappropriate school instruction, irradiation, lead ingestion, maternal smoking, illicit drugs, family stress ... on and on ...

environmental hazards -- chance for risk resulting from environmental conditions.

environmental influences -- factors from a person's experiences that contribute to behavior.

environmentalist -- person who believes that behavior is based primarily on a person's environment and learning

environmental print -- the signs and labels that appear on everyday objects in homes, media, and the neighborhood. Also the country, world,
and universe.

environmental risk --
conditions in an environment that may inhibit the normal growth and development of a child. Children from families with low
income in which the parent is unable to perform essential parenting functions consistently may experience environmental risk.

environmental supports -- changes to students' surroundings that help them function successfully.

enzyme -- Complex protein that produces specific biological-chemical reactions in the body.

Enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) -- a laboratory test performed on blood or urine to detect the recent use of cocaine or other abused substances.

eosinophils -- a type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that accumulates wherever allergic reactions take place. Their natural role is to defend against parasites. In normal blood, eosinophils
amount to about 0% to 3% of the white blood cells.

eosophobia -- fear of dawn.

epée -- fencing sword or blade without a cutting edge.

epergne -- table centerpiece; object designated as a centerpiece.

ephebe -- young man; swain, young suitor.

ephemeral -- lasting one day only; lasting a very short time; brief; transient; evanescent.

epicanthal folds -- a vertical fold of skin over the angle of the inner corner of the eye. (See illustration.)

epicede --
dirge, requiem; funeral song or ode.

epics -- long, narrative poem that tells of the deeds of a hero or heroes.

epicure -- one with sensitive and discriminating tastes, especially in food or wine; one who takes pleasure in eating and drinking; one devoted to  sensual pleasure.

epicurean -- hedonistic; gastronomical; pertaining to good taste.

epidemic -- affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time.

epidemiological -- pertaining to the study of factors determining the frequency and distribution of diseases -- for example an outbreak of food poisoning.

epidermal -- pertaining to the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin.

epidermolysis bullosa -- a rare genetic disorder characterized by extremely fragile skin and recurrent blister formation, resulting from minor mechanical friction or trauma. Symptoms can
be: a hoarse cry, cough, or other respiratory difficulty;
alopecia; blistering around the eyes and nose; blistering in or around the mouth and throat, causing feeding and swallowing difficulty;  
blistering of the skin as a result of minor trauma or temperature change; blistering present at birth; dental abnormalities;
milia (tiny white bumps or pimples); nail loss or deformed nails.
Cause seems to be inherited, and depends on the type.    

epididymis -- a structure within the scrotum attached to the backside of the testes. It is a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature, and transport spermatozoa
between the testes and the  
vas deferens.

epidural anesthesia -- a common method for controlling the pain of labor, in which a local anesthetic is delivered to block pain in
the region of the waist to the feet.
(See illustration.)

epidural hematoma --
localized collections of clotted blood lying between the skull and the other (dural) membrane of the brain,
resulting from the
hemorrhage of a blood vessel resting in  the dura. This most commonly results from traumatic brain injury. (See

epigenesis --
development of the individual resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the

epigenetic -- a term coined by Waddington (1977) to describe the development of a differentiated organism from a fertilized ovum. The developing embryo proceeds along a number of
possible developmental pathways depending on environmental conditions. Epigenesis may be contrasted with a
homuncular (from homunculus or little man) model of development in which
all the stages of development are already pre-formed.
Bowlby applied this distinction to psychological development, and contrasted his own approach in which there are many possible
pathways which an individual may take through infancy depending on their  caregivers, with the classical
Freudian approach which sees development in terms of a number of fixed stages
through which a person must pass, irrespective of environmental influence. He felt that his approach was more consistent with modern biological thinking, and allowed for a more subtle view
of the complexity of interaction between an individual and their environment. Thus, "anxious" attachment, rather than being a stage, like the so-called "
oral stage" of development, becomes
a possible epigenetic compromise between a child's
attachment needs and a parent who is unable to fully meet them. Like Klein's "positions", but unlike Freud's "stages", Bowlby's
attachment patterns persist throughout life, unless modified by good experiences (which could include successful therapy).

epiglottis -- a lidlike structure that hangs over the entrance to the windpipe and prevents aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs during swallowing.
(See illustration.)

epigone --
inferior imitator; disciple; second-rate replica; counterfeit.

epilepsy -- a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. Clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes
signal abnormally, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior; also convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. The cause of
epilepsy is sometimes unknown, caused by an illness or disorder, may be
teratogenic, also abuse or brain injury. Epilepsy is one of the associated
complications of
autism; this is reported in about 1/4 of all people with autism; and there is an increased likelihood of having an abnormal EEG
(electroencephalogram) without seizures. See
seizures or seizure disorder.

epilogue -- a concluding part added to a literary work, as a novel.

epinephrine -- see adrenaline.

epiphany -- Maslow: a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace experience.
Maslow also called this "peak experience."

epiphora -- an overflow of tears resulting from obstruction of the lacrimal ducts of the eye; a rhetorical term for the repetition of a word or phrase at the
end of successive clauses. "I’m a Pepper, he’s a Pepper, she’s a Pepper, we’re a Pepper. Wouldn’t you like to be a Pepper, too? Dr. Pepper." Epiphora as
a grammatical tool is also called epistrophe. Contrast with

epiphyses -- growth centers in the bones where new cartilage cells are produced and gradually harden. They are located at the ends of the long bones of
the body, at each end. As growth continues, they get thinner and then disappear when the bones are fully grown. Epiphyses are the best indication of a
child's physical age, measured by x-ray.
(See illustration.)

epiphyseal line --
a plate or plane on a long bone, visible as a line, marking the junction of the epiphysis and the

episiotomy -- a surgical incision from the vagina toward the anus, performed to prevent tearing of the perineum
during childbirth. (See illustration.)

episodic condition --
medical disorder that periodically occurs with intensity but that at other times is dormant; an
example of an episodic condition is

episodic memory -- memory for everyday experiences.

epistle -- a formal letter; a letter with a cachet.

epistrophe -- see epiphora.

epitaph --
an inscription on a tombstone.

epithelial tissue -- pertaining to the skin; specialized cells that form the skin and mucus linings of all body cavities such as the lungs, nose, and throat; epithelium; epithelial cells.

epithet --
a characterizing word or phrase accompanying or occurring in place of the name of a person or thing; a disparaging or abusive word or phrase; the part of a taxonomic name
identifying a subordinate unit within a genus.

epitome -- a perfect example of a particular quality or type.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -- a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. In the US, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 have been
infected. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes
infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time. Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are
fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Sometimes there may be a swollen spleen or liver involvement.  Although infectious mononucleosis resolves after 1 or 2 months, EBV remains
dormant in a few cells in the throat and
blood for the rest of the person's life. It also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the immune system.

equal-distribution states -- eight US states in which the property acquired by either spouse during the marriage (except gifts from third parties) belongs equally to the husband or wife.

equilibrium -- a condition in which all acting influences are canceled by others, resulting in a stable, balanced, or unchanging system; mental or emotional balance; poise.

equalitarian group -- structured on the ideals of democracy, a group believing that the rights and perspectives of both sexes and of all generations ought to be respected. The societal
norms of the United States are considered to be equalitarian.

equalitarian roles -- social equality between the sexes; equal sharing of practical responsibilities and decision making by men and women. Also called egalitarian roles.

equality --
situation in which partners have equal status and are equally responsible for domestic, financial, and emotional tasks. As far as distributive justice is concerned, younger children
are intent that each person gets the same amount of a treasured resource, such as money, turns in a game, or a delicious treat.

equal protection under the law -- In actions by the government, an individual should enjoy the same rights and receive the same benefits or burdens as all other citizens unless there is a
valid reason why the person should not.

equestrian -- of, relating to, or featuring horseback riding.

equilibration -- to balance equally; in Piaget's theory, the thinking process by which a person "makes sense" and puts into balance new information with what is already known.

equilibrium -- a sensory system located in the structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head.

equinox -- the time or date (twice each year) at which the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length: vernal equinox (spring) and autumnal equinox.

equinus -- involuntary extension of the foot. This position is often found in spastic cerebral palsy. (See illustration.)

equipoise --
equal distribution of weight or balance; balanced.

equitable-distribution states -- US states in which the court determines a fair and reasonable distribution that may be more than or less than 50% of
any asset to either of the divorcing parties.

equity -- partners give in proportion to what they receive.

erbium -- atomic number 68, symbol Er; a soft, malleable, silvery rare-earth element, used in metallurgy and nuclear research and to color glass and
porcelain; of the lanthanide series of metals; occurs with yttrium; discovered in 1843 by
Carl Mosander.

eremiophobia, eremophobia, ermitophobia -- fear of solitude.

ERG -- see electroretinogram.

ergasiophobia, ergophobia --
fear of work.

eristic -- characterized by disputatious, often subtle and specious reasoning.

erkling -- a small, elf-like creature native to Germany. Its high-pitched laugh is particularly enchanting to children, whom erklings like to eat. A group of erklings is an irksome. An erkling baby
is an inkling.

erogenous zones -- Freud: (also called Erotogenic Zones); those areas of the body most liable to sexual stimulation, mainly the mouth, anus, penis, although Freud regarded the entire
body as an erogenous zone.

eros -- According to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of six basic styles of loving; the love of beauty, characterized by intense emotional attachment and powerful
sexual feelings.
Freud: one of the two basic sources of all the drives. Eros, whose name comes from the Greek god of love, is the principle of life; it binds together and is most clearly seen in
love. Its drives tend to be more plastic and displaceable that those of its opponent, Thanatos, the death drive.
Freud saw psychic life as an interplay between these
two ever-interpenetrating forces, Life and Death.

erotogenicity -- Freud: the activity of a bodily area that conveys sexually exciting stimuli to the mind.

erotophobia -- fear of sexual intercourse.

errata -- plural of erratum; an error in printing or writing, especially such an error noted in a list of corrections and bound in a book.

errorless learning -- refers to a procedure that presents the discriminative stimuli and arranges the delivery of prompts in a learning situation in such a way to ensure that the student gives
only correct responses.

erstwhile -- in the past; formerly.

erudite -- possessing or displaying erudition: learned.

erumpent -- a huge African magical beast resembling a rhinoceros. It has a thick hide, capable of repelling most curses and charms; a thick long tail; and a single horn. Its horn, which can
pierce almost anything, contains a fluid which explodes, destroying what it has hit. Because male erumpents frequently blow each other up during mating season, the species is somewhat
endangered. A group of erumpents is a detonation. A baby erumpent is a poppy or bugle.

erysipelas -- an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the skin, most common among the elderly, infants, and children. People with immune deficiency, diabetes, alcoholism, skin
ulceration, fungal infections, and impaired lymphatic drainage are at increased risk.

erythophobia, ereuthophobia -- fear of blushing.

erythroblasts -- any of the nucleated cells normally found in bone marrow that develop into red blood cells.

erythrocytes -- see red blood cells.

erythrocytosis -- an abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells.

erythrophobia, ereuthrophobia -- fear of relatives.

erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) -- a rare, largely autosomal dominant condition (sometimes autosomal recessive) that is part of the seven conditions known as porphyrias that
hamper the body's ability to synthesize
heme, a molecule that delivers oxygen to the body. People with EPP are extremely sensitive to sun-light.  

escadrille --
a small squadron, usually of six; a small team, typically of six airplanes.

escalade -- the act of scaling a wall, usually with a ladder or a rope.

escarole -- type of green chicory.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) -- bacteria that can cause infections ranging from diarrhea to urinary tract infections to sepsis. (See illustration--------------->>.)

esclavage --
a necklace having several rows of chains, beads, or jewels.

escritoire -- writing desk; desk designed for studies.

esculent -- edible; able or safe to be eaten.

esdraelon -- a fertile plain of northern Israel extending from the coastal lowlands near Mount Carmel to the Jordan River valley.

esodophobia -- fear of losing one's virginity.

esophageal atresia -- a congenital defect in which there is a stricture in the esophagus preventing food from entering the stomach. (See illustration.)

esophageal dysmotility --
a disorder of the esophagus in which the muscles fail to transport food from the mouth to the stomach efficiently. Symptoms are
chest pain, pain when swallowing, or the feeling of a permanent lump in the throat. Some esophageal dysmotility disorders are
spastic esophageal
motility disorder, acid reflux (result), achalasia, scleroderma, cancer (result).

esophageal reflux -- see gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

esophageal spasm -- abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus. These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach. Symptoms are difficulty swallowing, heartburn,
and pain in the chest or upper abdomen.

esophageal transport stage -- phase of swallowing in which the rhythmic contraction of esophageal muscles transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.

esophagus -- tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. (See illustration.)

esoteric --
designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone; requiring or exhibiting knowledge that is restricted to a small group;
difficult to understand; limited to a small circle; private, confidential; of special, rare, or unusual interest.

esotropia -- a form of strabismus that causes the eyes to be pulled inward toward the nose. (See illustration.)

esper --
a being of advanced mentality or with psychic abilities.

esprit -- brio; wit; vivacity; joie de vivre.

essence -- intrinsic or indispensable properties that serve to typify or identify something.

essential amino acids -- amino acids that can only be obtained from protein food sources.

essential learnings -- what each state specifies as expectations for students' learning in kindergarten through
high school.

essential nutrient -- nutrient that must be provided in food because it cannot be synthesized by the body at a
rate sufficient to meet the body's needs.

esssse -- wood ash that is the residue powder left after combustion (archaic).

Essure procedure -- female nonsurgical sterilization procedure that involves a physician inserting a tiny metal implant into the fallopian tube using a thin tube that passes through the
vagina and the uterus. Once the tube (catheter) is removed, the implant expands, and scar tissue grows around it, completely blocking the tube.

established risk -- A child with a diagnosed medical disorder of known etiology and predictable prognosis or outcome.

esteem needs -- Maslow: the fourth level in Maslow's hierarchy of needs: in this level, there are two stages: the lower level (the need for respect of others, status, fame, glory,
recognition, attention, reputation, dignity, appreciation, dominance) and the higher level (self-esteem, confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, freedom).

estimated date of confinement (EDC) -- expected date of delivery (of an infant).

estivating -- spending the summer usually in one place; to pass the summer in a state of torpor.

estrogen -- although often called the female hormone, any of a group of hormones, produced primarily by the ovaries, that are significant in controlling female physiological functions and
directing the development of female secondary sex characteristics at

estuary -- inlet or arm of the sea; an open river that connects to the sea.

esurient -- hungry; greedy; hedonistic in pursuit of things.

eternize -- to make eternal; to prolong indefinitely; immortalize.

ethereal -- heavenly; airy in substance; spectral; insubstantial and light.

ethical dilemmas -- situations that arise in which there are questions about not only what the law requires in a given situation but what is the right thing to do under certain circumstances.

ethical standards -- accepted professional guidelines for conduct.

ethics -- the moral principles and practices under which an individual operates.

ethnic group -- a set of people who are embedded within a larger cultural group or society and who share beliefs, behaviors, values, and norms that are transmitted from generation to

ethnicity -- a group whose members share a common cultural heritage and a sense of belonging.

ethnic identity -- the geographic origin of a minority group within a country or culture; cultural identity transcends ethnic identity.

ethnocentrism -- the assumption that one's own culture is the standard by which to judge other cultures.

ethnography -- a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group by living with its members and taking
field notes for an extended period of time.

ethmoid bone -- a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. It is located at the roof of the nose,
between the two orbits. The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that make up the orbits of the eyes.
(See picture.)

ethnicity --
ethnic character, background, or affiliation; affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties; common and
distinctive racial, religious, linguistic, or cultural heritage.

ethogram -- an inventory or description created by an ethologist as he or she observes and tracks a subject's
behavior over time.

ethological theory -- explanation of development that focuses on the causes and adaptive value of behavior,
considering both the evolutionary history of the species and the social context.

ethological theory of attachment -- a theory, formulated by John Bowlby, that views the infant's emotional tie to
the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival.

ethology -- an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
Literally, the study of an individual's "ethos" or character. Ethology is a biological science which studies animal behavior in a particular way: the animal is considered as a whole; behavior is
usually studied in natural or wild conditions; there is great attention to the antecedents and consequences of behavior patterns; the function of any behavior is considered; and an
evolutionary perspective is always taken. An attempt is made to see how the animal views the world from its own perspective and to visualize the internal "maps" and rules which govern its
activities. Ethology is contrasted with behaviorism, which usually concentrates on particular bits of behavior and does not consider the organism as a whole and is unconcerned with
evolutionary considerations.
Bowlby saw the methods and theories of ethology as highly relevant to the study of human infants, and this led to a fruitful collaboration between him and the
leading ethologist
Robert Hinde.

etic perspective --
the analysis of a society from the outside.

etiolate -- to stunt growth; to deprive of strength; to whiten by blocking sunlight exposure.

etiology -- cause.

etiological tales -- tales that explain the origin of something. Pourquoi tales are often labeled as etiological, as are many myths.

etoliate -- to make pale through lack of light.

etude -- a piece of music designed for didactic purposes.

Eugenics movement -- look at this interactive website.

eukaryotic cell -- a type of complex cell which makes up all fungi, animals, plants, and protists such as amoeba. Along with prokaryotic cells (which include simplistic bacteria and
archaea), they make up all known terrestrial life. They are characterized by internal membranes and a strong
cytoskeleton. The word eukaryote means "true nut", referring to the internal
nucleus. In a eukaryote cell,
DNA is protected in a special nucleus, where it is organized into chromosomes. Eukaryote cells evolved between 1.6 and 2.1 billion years ago. Eukaryote cells
organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, flagella, vacuoles, lysosomes, and centrioles. All have special
functions and are enclosed in their own membranes.
(See illustration at bottom of page, copyrighted by Pearson Education, Inc.)

eunoia --
normal mental health; beautiful thinking.

euphemism -- the substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.

euphobia -- fear of good news.

euphonious -- nice-sounding; sounding pretty.

euphony -- pleasing or sweet sound; the acoustic effect produced by words so formed or combined as to please the ear.

euphoria -- a feeling of well-being or elation.

europium -- atomic number 63, symbol Eu; a silvery-white, soft, rare-earth element occurring in monazite and bastnaesite and used to dope lasers and to absorb neutrons in research; of
the lanthanide series of metals; discovered in 1901 by
Eugene Demarcy.

eurotophobia -- fear of female genitals.

eustachian tube -- connection between oral cavity and middle ear, allowing equilibration of pressure and drainage of fluid; a structure
that extends from the throat to the middle-ear cavity and controls air flow into the cavity.
(See illustration from

eustress -- a moderate to high level or a low to moderate level of stress that is energizing, motivating, positive, and healthy.

eustressor -- a positive event that is a source of stress.

euthenics -- a science that deals with development of human well-being by improvement of living conditions.

evacuation -- removal of persons from a site where a disaster or emergency exists.

evaluation -- the establishment of specific values by which to judge whatever is being considered.

evaluation of transitions -- the phase during which families and service providers evaluate the effectiveness of the transition.

evanescent -- tending to vanish like vapor; transient.

evaporation -- the act of liquid dissipating or drying due to humidity or exposure.

Event Related Potentials (ERP) -- a sharp increase in electrical activity in the brain that is created by exposure to a particular stimulus.

event sampling -- an observation technique that involves defining the event to be observed and coding the event to record what is important to remember about it.

eventuate -- to come out finally; result; come about.

everted -- turned outward.

everwhichway -- in all directions; all ways.

everyone -- should be a reporter of observed or suspected child abuse. In the state of Tennessee, everyone is a mandated reporter. Failure to report abuse (most common reporters are
doctors, mental health professionals, child care providers, dentists, family members, friends, teachers) is a violation of the law.

eviscerate -- to disembowel; exenterate; to remove the viscera of something.

evocative -- that which evokes; something that reminds, inspires, or impresses.

evocative G-E correlation -- situation in which the child's genotype draws response from others.

evoked-response audiometry -- a method of testing hearing by measuring the electrical activity generated by the auditory nerve in response to auditory stimulation. Often used to
measure the hearing of infants and children considered difficult to test.

evolution -- the process through which organisms change and adapt as a result of forces in the environment; also referred to as natural selection; Darwin.

evolutionary developmental psychology --
an approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those
competencies change with age.

evolutionary theories -- explanations of development that focus on how behaviors promote the survival of the individual and the species.

Ewing's sarcoma -- a malignant, round-cell tumor found in the bone or in soft tissue. Most common sites for Ewing's sarcoma are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, and the ribs. Ewing's
sarcoma occurs most frequently in male teenagers. Ewing's sarcoma results from a
translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22, which fuses the EWS gene of chromosome 22 to the
FLI1 gene of chromosome 11.

exacerbate -- to make more violent, bitter, or severe.

excelsior -- fine, curled wood shavings.

exceptional -- a term describing any individual whose physical, mental, or behavioral performance deviates so substantially from the average (higher or lower) that additional support is
required to meet the individual's needs.

exceptional children -- children who differ from society's view of normalcy; a term coined at the 1930 White House conference on Child Health and Protection to refer to all children
who are different from typically developing children.

excited -- activated to perform a function.

excitotoxic receptors -- receptors in the brain for excitotoxins, chemicals that can cause neuronal cell death and have been implicated in hypoxic brain damage and AIDS encephalopathy.

exclusion -- the act of excluding; the act of shutting out or preventing entrance.

exclusionary standard -- refers to embedding particular exemptions within a definition. For example, in the IDEA definition of learning disabilities, learning disabilities do not include
learning problems that primarily result from
visual impairment, hearing loss, intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantages.  

exculpate -- to clear from alleged fault or guild; absolve, exonerate, acquit, vindicate.

executive functioning -- includes being able to process information to make decisions, take actions, and solve problems.

exegetical -- of or relating to exegesis; critically explanatory; interpretive.

exemplary -- deserving imitation, especially because of excellence; commendable; serving as a warning; serving as an example, illustration, or instance.

exercised induced asthma -- asthma that is caused by exercise, characterized by wheeziness and shortness of breath after exercise. It is especially exacerbated by exercising in cold

exhibitionism -- behavior that consists of exposing one's genitals in public to an involuntary observer.

existential -- of, relating to, or dealing with existence; pertaining to existentialism.

existential intelligence -- one of Gardner's nine separate and unique intelligences; the proclivity to pose and ponder questions about life, death, and ultimate realities. The capacity to
locate oneself with respect to the furthest reaches of the cosmos -- the infinite and infinitesimal -- and the related capacity to locate oneself with respect to such existential features of the
human condition as the significance of life, the meaning of death, and the ultimate fate of the physical and the psychological worlds, and such profound experiences as love of another person
or total immersion in a work of God.

existentialism -- a really hard word to adequately describe, and there are several different ideas of what it really is. A website "The Existential Primer (A Guide to Nothing in
Particular)" had these words: "Existentialism, broadly defined, is a set of philosophical systems concerned with free will, choice, and personal responsibility." And, "Existentialism assumes we
are best when we struggle against our nature. Mankind is best challenging itself to improve, yet knowing perfection is not possible. Religions present rules, yet the believers know they cannot
live by all of those rules. The 'sin-free' life is beyond human nature. Is that any less reason to try to be good, generous, caring, and compassionate? Perfectionism is considered unhealthy by
psychiatrists for a reason." Some famous quotations: "If something worth living for is worth dying for, what about something not worth dying for?" (
Camus) "Did man create God to have a
reason to live?" (
Dostoevsky) "Does society make women and men different or do we choose our roles?" (Beauvoir) "Would living forever add meaning to life?" (Heidegger) "How do you
really act in private?" (
Sartre) "Without love, without people, what is a person?" (Kafka) "Existentialism is about being a saint without God; being your own hero, without all the sanction and
support of religion or society." (
Anita Brookner) This website is fascinating, read it.

existential living -- Rogers: Living in the here and now; future and past are dreams and memories.

exit response -- as a response to a deteriorating relationship, withdrawing or threatening to withdraw from the relationship.

exocrine glands -- glands that secrete substances onto an inner surface of an organ or outside the body, such as salivary or sweat glands.
(See illustration of salivary glands over there ---------------------->.)

exodus --
capitalized: the mainly narrative second book of the canonical Jewish and Christian scripture; otherwise: a mass departure,

exogamy -- the practice of choosing a mate from outside one's own group.

exogenous -- refers to a cause of a disability or impairment that stems from factors outside the body such as disease, toxicity, or injury.

exogenous smile -- smile that is triggered by external stimuli.

exon -- a sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis that is transcribed to messenger RNA.

exophthalmos -- abnormal protrusion of the eyeball; see proptosis.

exosystems -- According to Bronfenbrenner, the social systems that exert an influence on the development of the individual.

exoteric -- suitable to be imparted to the public; belonging to the outer or less initiate circle; relating to the outside; external

exotropia -- a form of strabismus in which the eyes are pulled outward toward the ears. (Scroll up to "esotropia" for illustration.)

expanded core curriculum --
curriculum encompassing the range of skills that address disability-specific needs of students' visual impairments, including communication skills, social
skills, daily living skills, and
orientation and mobility skills.

expansions -- adult responses that elaborate on a child's utterance, increasing its complexity.

expatiate -- to speak or write at length or in considerable detail; expound, elaborate.

expatriate -- a person who lives in a foreign country; also a person who has renounced his or her native country.

expectations -- behaviors or actions that are anticipated.

expedite -- to execute promptly; to accelerate the process or progress of; speed up; issue; dispatch.

experience-dependent brain growth -- new growth and refinement of brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. Follows
experience-expectant brain growth.

experience-dependent plasticity -- a shift in the wiring of the brain based on the type of environment the person is exposed to.

experience-expectant brain growth -- the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences -- opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear
language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment. Provide the foundation for experience-dependent brain growth.

experiential freedom -- Rogers: a feeling of freedom, but also responsibility for own choices.

experiment -- a test or trial in which factors or behaviors are measured or monitored under closely controlled circumstances.

experimental design -- a research design in which the investigator randomly assigns participants to two or more treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect.

experimental group -- group that receives the independent variable.

experimental study -- method in which scientists bring people into a laboratory where the situation is manipulated and the effects of the manipulation are noted.

expertise -- special skill or knowledge in a particular field.

expert power -- type of power based on a person's opinion that his or her partner has specialized knowledge.

explicate -- to give a detailed explanation of; to develop the implications of, analyze logically; explain.

exploratory play -- Play that uses discovery learning to help develop concepts and involves the use of trial and error.

expressive affect -- behaviors related to interacting or associating with others, for example, smiling.

expressive aphasia -- an inability to express one's own thoughts and desires verbally (also called motor aphasia).

expressive language -- An individual's ability to produce language; a child's ability to appropriately use language in conversations.

expressive language disorders -- difficulties in producing language. The child is better able to understand language than to speak. It is often a component of a developmental
language delay
. This can also be acquired (occurring as a result of brain injury or damage), as in aphasia. The developmental type of expressive language disorder is more common in
children. They often do not talk much or at all, although they generally understand language that is addressed to them. They may have a lot to say, but are unable to retrieve the words
needed to speak.

expressive language style -- language style focused on using words to regulate social interaction with adults.

expressive role -- according to Parsons and Bales' model of the modern family, the mother-wife's role -- caring for the emotional well-being of the family, providing nurturing, and comfort.

expressive style -- a style of early learning in which toddlers use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs of themselves and other people. Initial vocabulary emphasizes social
formulas and pronouns.

expunge -- to strike out, obliterate, or mark for deletion; to efface completely, destroy; to eliminate from one's consciousness.

extended discourse -- denoting written or spoken communication that goes on for longer than most; in the case of language development, this is meant to be a conversation between a
child and adult that serves to extend the child's expressive language skills.

extended family -- family structure consisting of one or more parents, one or more of their children, and one or more other relatives living together in one household. Also refers to close
relatives who interact with their family on a regular basis. When a family has a stressor, such as a child with a disability, the extended family can be a tremendous support to them.

extended family household -- a household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives.

extended family system -- one of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live; focuses on the degree of importance relatives outside the nuclear family have
on the family's life.

extension -- the straightening of a joint that changes the angle between bones that meet in the joint; the opposite of flexion.

extenuate -- to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial excuses; mitigate; to lessen the strength or effect of.

exterminate -- to get rid of completely usually by killing off.

external acoustic meatus -- see auditory canal.

external auditory canal -- see outer ear. (See illustration.)

external ear --
the part of the ear responsible for collecting sound waves, consisting of the auricle, auditory canal, and
tympanic membrane, also called outer ear. (See illustration.)

externalizing behaviors --
behavior excesses displayed by students with emotional and behavior disorders in which actions
are directed at others (e.g., hitting, shouting).

externalizing problems -- psychological difficulties that involve acting out against society.

external ophthalmoplegia -- paralysis of the eye muscles.

external signs -- Vygotsky's third stage of development, formulated particularly as it applies to the development of language.

external stressors -- stressful events that begin with someone or something outside the family.

extinction -- reducing unwanted behavior by withholding all positive consequences; the state or process of a species, family, or larger group being or becoming extinct; ceasing to exist.

extinction burst -- a transient increase in the frequency and intensity of a challenging behavior before a subsequent reduction occurs.

extinction event -- also called mass extinction, extinction-level event (ELE) or biotic crisis: the extinction of a large number of species within a relatively short period of geological
time, thought to be due to factors such as a catastrophic global event or widespread environmental change that occurs too rapidly for most species to adapt. At least five mass extinctions
have been identified in the fossil record, coming at or toward the end of the Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, and Cretaceous Periods. The Permian extinction, which took place 245
million years ago, is the largest known mass extinction in the Earth's history, resulting in the extinction of an estimated 90% of marine species. In the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction (K-T
extinction or K-Pg extinction), 65 million years ago, an estimated 75% of species, including the dinosaurs, became extinct, possibly as the result of an asteroid. Extinction events occur over
thousands of years. Maybe we are in one now, right?

extirpate -- to remove or destroy totally; do away with; exterminate; to pull up by or as if by the roots; root up.

extracellular matrix -- a network of non-living tissue which provides support to cells. It provides other functions, depending on the type of cell is it associated with, and takes many forms.

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) -- an extreme and invasive life support technique that involves putting a patient onto a heart-lung bypass machine.

extract -- a concentrated preparation.

extrafamilial abuse -- sexual child abuse by nonrelated individuals.

extraneous movements -- movements of the mouth, lips, and tongue while concentrating on a movement activity such as coloring or building with blocks.

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) -- a treatment that uses a pump to circulate blood through an artificial lung back into the bloodstream of a very ill baby. This system
heart-lung bypass support outside of the baby's body. The most common conditions that require ECMO are congenital diaphragmatic hernia, heart malformations, meconium
aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, air leak problems, severe pulmonary hypertension. It may also be used during the recovery period after heart surgery.

extrapyramidal -- outside the pyramidal nerve group; used to refer to noncortical cerebral damage.

extrapyramidal cerebral palsy -- cerebral palsy that affects coordination of movement: athetoid (uncontrolled movements that are slow and writhing; affects any part of the body,
including the face, mouth, and tongue. 10% to 20% of cerebral palsy cases are this type); and
ataxic (balance and coordination, depth perception, unsteady gait, 5% to 10% of cerebral
palsy cases or of this type. Extrapyramidal cerebral palsy can be mixed (combination of athetoid and ataxic). See
dyskinetic cerebral palsy.

extremely low birth weight (ELBW)-- less than 750 grams (1 pound 10 ounces).

extrinsic -- originating from or on the outside; external, not derived from one's essential nature.

extrinsic asthma -- triggered by external agents such as pollen or chemicals.

extrinsic motivation -- reason to act on the basis of an incentive separate from the individual (e.g., money or a prize).

extrinsic rewards -- rewards created by external factors, teachers, and other students.

exudation -- a discharge of certain elements of the blood into the tissues.

exuviate -- to shed a shell; molt; unsheathe.

eye blinking -- a common tic.

eye blink reflex -- a permanent newborn reflex in which the infant closes his/her eyelids in response to bright lights or nearby loud noises. Serves to protect the infant from strong

eyelid -- the skin covering and protecting the eyeball.

eye-hand coordination -- the ability of the vision system to coordinate the information received through the eyes to control, guide, and direct the hands in the accomplishment of a given
task, such as handwriting or catching a ball.
A   B    C   D   F    G    H   I   JKL    M     NO   PQ   R   Sa--So    Sp--Sz    
T     U--Z     
I don't know much about
being a millionaire, but
I'll bet I'd be darling at it.
--D. Parker
The EUKARYOTIC CELL and all the
stuff therein, copyright Pearson
Education, Inc.
1.  HYDROGEN (H)                
2.  HELIUM (He)                      
3.  LITHIUM (Li)
5.  BORON (B)
6.  CARBON (C)
8.  OXYGEN (O)
10.  NEON (Ne)
11.  SODIUM (Na)
14.  SILICON (Si)
16.  SULFUR (S)
17.  CHLORINE (Cl)
18.  ARGON (Ar)
20.  CALCIUM (Ca)
21.  SCANDIUM (Sc)
22.  TITANIUM (Ti)
24.  CHROMIUM (Cr)
26.  IRON (Fe)
27.  COBALT (Co)
28.  NICKEL (Ni)
29.  COPPER (Cu)
30.  ZINC (Zn)
31.  GALLIUM (Ga)
33.  ARSENIC (As)
34.  SELENIUM (Se)
35.  BROMINE (Br)
36.  KRYPTON (Kr)
37.  RUBIDIUM (Rb)
39.  YTTRIUM (Y)
41.  NIOBIUM (Nb)
45.  RHODIUM (Rh)
47.  SILVER (Ag)
48.  CADMIUM(Cd)
49.  INDIUM (In)
50.  TIN (Sn)
51.  ANTIMONY (Sb)
53.  IODINE (I)
54.  XENON (Xe)
55.  CESIUM (Cs)
56.  BARIUM (Ba)
58.  CERIUM (Ce)
62.  SAMARIUM (Sm)
63.  EUROPIUM (Eu)
65.  TERBIUM (Tb)
67.  HOLMIUM (Ho)
68.  ERBIUM (Er)
69.  THULIUM (Tm)
71.  LUTETIUM (Lu)
72.  HAFNIUM (Hf)
73.  TANTALUM (Ta)
75.  RHENIUM (Re)
76.  OSMIUM (Os)
77.  IRIDIUM (Ir)
78.  PLATINUM (Pt)
79.  GOLD (Au)
80.  MERCURY (Hg)
82.  LEAD (Pb)
83.  BISMUTH (Bi)
84.  POLONIUM (Po)
85.  ASTATINE (At)
86.  RADON (Rn)
87.  FRANCIUM (Fr)
88.  RADIUM (Ra)
89.  ACTINIUM (Ac)
90.  THORIUM (Th)
92.  URANIUM (U)
96.  CURIUM (Cm)
100.  FERMIUM (Fm)
102.  NOBELIUM (No)
105.  DUBNIUM (Db)
107.  BOHRIUM (Bh)
108.  HASSIUM (Hs)
113.  UNUNTRIUM (Uut)
114.  FLEROVIUM (Fl) (Uuq
(Uuh above)
118.  UNUNOCTIUM (Uuo)
RED -- ALKALI METALS (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium)
GREEN -- NONMETALS (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur, selenium)
BROWN -- ALKALINE EARTH METALS (Beige on Periodic Table above) (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium)
LILAC -- LANTHANIDES (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium,
holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium) (
rare earth elements)
PINK -- ACTINIDES (actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium,
fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium) (
rare earth elements)
ORANGE -- TRANSITION METALS (scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, yttrium, zirconium,
niobium, molybdenum, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, cadmium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, osmium, iridium,
platinum, gold, mercury, rutherfordium, dubnium, seaborgium, bohrium, hassium, meitnerium, darmstadtium, roentgenium, copernicium)
GRAY -- OTHER METALS (aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth, ununtrium, flerovium, ununpentium, livermorium)
PURPLE -- METALLOIDS (Olive on Periodic Table above) (boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium)
TURQUOISE -- HALOGENS (Yellow on Periodic Table above) (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine, ununseptium)
BLUE -- NOBLE GASES (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, ununoctium)