caballero -- skilled horseman; gentleman; cavalier.

cabaret -- a restaurant with live entertainment.

cabbage -- steal, filch.

cachexia -- a non-purposeful loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite. Cachexia is seen in patients with cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, etc.

cacography -- bad spelling; bad handwriting.

cacomistle -- a raccoon.

cacophonous -- having a harsh, unpleasant sound; discordant; jarring.

cacophany -- harsh or discordant sound: dissonance; specifically harshness in the sound of words or phrases.

cadence -- rhythmic flow of the sounds of language; lilt.

cadenza -- musical or literary improvisation.

cadmium -- atomic number 48, symbol Cd; a soft, bluish white element occurring primarily in zinc, copper, and lead ores, used in low-friction, fatigue-resistant alloys, solders, dental
amalgams, batteries, nuclear reactor shields and rustproof electroplating; discovered in 1817 by
Fredrich Stromeyer.

caesious -- a type of bluish gray.

caesura -- a pause in a line of verse, usually in poetry.

cafe au lait spots -- pigmented areas on the skin or birthmarks. "Cafe au lait" means "coffee with milk" in French. The spots are usually a light-brown color. Birthmarks, or cafe au lait spots
are not dangerous themselves, but multiple spots are linked with
neurofibromatosis or other disorders. Having more than 6 cafe au lait spots greater than 5 mm in diameter before puberty
or greater than 15 mm after puberty indicates neurofibromatosis. Other syndromes may have cafe au lait spots as characteristics such as
tuberous sclerosis, ataxia telangiectasia,
Marfan syndrome, Hunter syndrome, and Bloom syndrome, among others.

caffeine -- a central nervous system stimulant found in coffee, tea, and cola.

cahoots -- questionable collaboration; secret partnership.

cainophobia, cainotophobia -- fear of novelty.

cairn -- a mound of stones erected as a memorial or marker.

cajole -- to persuade by flattery, gentle pleading, or insincere language.

calaboose -- jail, especially a local jail.

calcified -- hardened through laying down of calcium salts.

calcium -- mineral nutrient; a major component of bones and teeth. A silvery, moderately hard metallic element that constitutes ~3% of the earth's crust and is a basic component of most
animals and plants. Atomic number 20, symbol
Ca; discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphrey Davy.

calculus -- an abnormal collection of mineral salts on the tooth, predisposing it to decay; also called tartar.

calenture (KAL-un-chur) --
a fever formerly supposed to affect sailors in the tropics.

calico -- coarse, brightly painted cloth; a type of pattern.

californium -- atomic number 98, symbol Cf; a synthetic element produced in trace quantities by helium isotope bombardment of curium; radioactive, chiefly by emission of alpha particles;
half-lives vary from 25 minutes to 800 years; discovered in 1950 by
G. T. Seaborg.

caliginous -- misty; dim; obscure; dark; gloomy; tenebrous.

calliope -- a musical instrument that produces sound by sending a gas (originally steam) through large whistles, originally locomotive whistles.

callipygian -- having a beautiful, admirable, or sexy posterior.

Callooh Callay -- yay!

callow -- immature; green, lacking experience; naive.

callus -- a disorganized network of bone tissue formed around the edges of a fracture. (See pictures.)

calories --
units used to measure the energy value of foods.

calumet -- a highly ornamented pipe of the American Indians.

calypso -- a type of rare orchid; a tribal and fervid dance.

campanula -- a plant of the campanulaceous genus typically having blue or white bell-shaped flowers. See picture.

camptodactyly --
deformity of the fingers or toes in which they are permanently flexed.

canalization -- the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes.

canalized -- genetically limited phenotypic variation.

Canavan disease (spongy degeneration of central nervous system) -- progressive neurological disorder with characteristics of
macrocephaly, hypotonia progressing to spasticity with age, visual impairment, and early  death. Symptoms begin ~ 3 -- 6 months; children
don't develop ability to sit, walk, or talk. Associated complications: feeding difficulties with progressive swallowing problems,
reflux, severe intellectual disability, head lag. Caused by a deficiency in the enzyme aspartoacylase caused by a mutation in the ASPA gene on
chromosome 17pter--p13.
Autosomal recessive.

cancellus (tissue) --
referring to the lattice-like structure in long bones (e.g., the femur).

cancer -- The uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Also called malignant cells. Cancer grows out of normal cells. There are many
different kinds of cancer. The cause of cancer can be multifactorial, a
teratogen, or familial, among others including unknown. The most common
cause of cancer-related death is lung cancer. The most common cancers in men in the US are prostate, lung, and colon. The most common cancers
among women in the US are breast, lung, and colon.

Cancer -- one of the 12 constellations of the zodiac, lying between Gemini, Leo, Lynx, Canis Minor, and Hydra. It is very dim. Four of its stars have
See picture.

cancerous brain lesion --
an area of tissue in the brain that is damaged by cancer.

cancrizans -- backwards movement; crab walking; music moving backwards.

candelabra -- branched candlestick with several candles.

Canis Major -- one of the 88 modern constellations, included in the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy's 48 constellations. Its name is Latin for
greater dog. Canis Major contains Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, which is part of the asterism known as the Winter Triangle. Canis Major
has at least 6 stars with planetary systems. It is commonly represented as one of the dogs following Orion the hunter.
See picture.

Canis Minor --
a small constellation included in the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy's 48 constellations. Its name is Latin for smaller dog. It
contains only two bright stars, Procyon and Gomeisa. Procyon is the seventh brightest star in the night sky, as well as one of the closest. None of
its stars have planetary systems

canoodle --
to engage in amorous embracing, caressing, and kissing.

canthi -- the corners of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet (singular canthus).

canticle -- a song, poem, or hymn, usually of a church choir.

capacious -- having a lot of room inside, roomy.

capillaries -- the smallest of the blood vessels. They distribute oxygenated blood from the arteries to the tissues of the body. They also feed deoxygenated blood from the tissues back
into the

"Capital C" creativity -- creativity which involves bringing into existence something genuinely new that receives social validation enough to be added to the culture. An example of this is the
invention of the light bulb.

capriccio -- music, improvisation, without adherence to the rules.

capriccioso -- music, lively and free of restraint, restriction, or direction.

capricious -- subject to, led by, or indicative of caprice or whim; erratic; fanciful or witty; variable; flighty; mercurial; impulsive; fickle.

Capricornus -- a constellation, one of the 88 modern constellations, and among Ptolemy's 48 constellations from the 2nd century. It is bordered by
Aquila, Sagittarius, Microscopium, Piscis Austrinus, and Aquarius. It is the second faintest constellation after cancer. Only 4 of its stars have planets.
See picture.

captious --
apt to notice and make much of trivial faults or defects; faultfinding; difficult to please; apt or designed to ensnare or perplex; carping; nitpicking; niggling; picky; testy.

caravansary -- an inn surrounding a court in eastern countries where caravans rest at night; hotel; inn.

carbamazepine (Tegretol) -- an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is also used to treat ADD, ADHD,
schizophrenia, and trigeminal neuralgia.

carbohydrate --
one of the main dietary components. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to the body, especially
the brain and the nervous system. An
enzyme called amylase helps break down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar) which is used for energy by the body.

carbon -- atomic number 6, symbol C, an element of prehistoric discovery, found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets. Carbon is nonmetallic and
tetravalent. Carbon is found free in nature (amorphous, diamond, graphite). Carbon was known to the ancients; unknown discoverer.

carbon dioxide -- a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO₂, formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition. It is used in refrigeration, carbonated beverages, inert
atmospheres, fire extinguishers, and aerosols. Also called carbonic acid gas. It is about 1.5 times as heavy as air.  

carbon monoxide -- (CO; also called carbonic oxide) a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is lighter than air. It is toxic in higher quantities, though produced in normal animal
metabolism in low quantities.

carboxyhemoglobinemia -- carbon monoxide from the environment is inhaled into the lungs, absorbed through the alveoli, and bound to hemoglobin in the blood, blocking the sites for
oxygen transport. Oxygen levels decrease,
hypoxia and anoxia may result.

carceral (KAHR-suh-rul) -- of, relating to, or suggesting a jail or prison.

carcinophobia, carcinomatophobia, cancerphobia, cancerophobia -- fear of cancer.

cardiac arrest -- the heart stops beating. Symptoms are loss of consciousness, normal breathing stops, loss of pulse, loss of blood pressure. The most common cause is coronary heart
disease. Other causes include
respiratory arrest, electrocution, drowning, choking, and trauma. It can cause brain death and death in just a few minutes.

cardiac muscles -- muscles found in the heart. The walls of the heart are composed almost entirely of muscle fibers. These muscles are involuntary. The rhythmic, powerful contractions of
these muscles force blood out of the heart and through the body.

cardiac problems -- Damage to the heart, or poor functioning of the heart.

cardiac sphincter -- the valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach.

cardiac valve --
a valve that controls the one-way flow of blood in the heart.

cardinal numbers --
number names.

cardiogenic shock -- an abnormal condition characterized by critically low cardiac output with heart failure. Cardiogenic shock can also occur with normal output. It is fatal in 80% of cases,
and immediate therapy is necessary,  including
diuretics, vasoactive drugs, etc.

cardiomyopathy -- a weakening of the heart muscle or a change in heart muscle structure.

cardiophobia -- fear of heart disease.

cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) -- bypass of the heart and lungs. Blood returning  to the heart is diverted through a
heart-lung machine before returning it to the arterial circulation.  

cardiorespiratory monitor -- a device used to monitor heart and respiratory rate.

cardiovascular event -- heart attack, stroke, or cardiovascular death.  

cardiovascular system -- organ system including the heart, veins, and arteries. (See illustration.)  

caress --
touch or stroke lightly in a loving or endearing manner.

caring cluster -- one of two groups of characteristics that distinguish romantic relationships from friendships; includes
being an advocate for one's partner and giving the utmost.  

carnophobia -- fear of meat.

carpal tunnel syndrome -- pressure on the median nerve -- the nerve in the wrist that supplies feeling and movement to parts of the hand. It can lead to numbness, tingling, weakness, or
muscle damage in the hands and fingers. Symptoms are  numbness, pain, problems with fine finger movements, wasting away of the muscle under the thumb, weak grip, weakness. It is
caused by repetitive motions of the hand and wrist, possibly from such activities as typing on a computer keyboard, sewing, driving, assembly line work, painting, writing, using tools,
racquetball or handball, playing musical instruments.

Carpenter syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly, type II) -- craniosynostosis, flat nasal bridge, malformed and low set ears, short digits, syndactyly and/or polydactyly, obesity,
and/or cryptorchidism, congenital heart defects, hearing loss, mild intellectual disability. Cause unknown, assumed autosomal recessive.

carrier -- a heterozygous individual who can pass a recessive trait to his or her children.

cartesian -- of or relating to the philosophy of Descartes.

cartilage -- a flexible, rubbery substance that fills joints. It protects the two bones when they rub against each other.

cartographer -- one that makes maps.

cascarilla -- West Indian shrub with aromatic bark, typically used in incense or tonics.

case coordinator (case manager) -- see service coordinator.

case control study -- an observational epidemiological study of people with a specific disease (or other outcome) of interest and a suitable control (e.g., comparison, reference) group of
people without the disease.   

case finding -- Locating children in need of special services.   

case history -- background information on a child that may include educational and psychological testing and family history.  

case laws -- the body of available writings explaining the verdicts in a case. It is most often created by judges in their rulings, when they write their decisions and give the reasoning behind
them, as well as citing precedents in other cases and statutes that had a bearing on their decision. Collected decisions and opinions in lower-circuit courts, as they work their way to the
Supreme Court can be referred to in the future by other judges when they make their rulings on similar cases, allowing the law to remain relatively consistent.  

case manager -- service coordinator.  

case method instruction --
instruction in which the students are asked to solve realistic family issues.

case study (child study) -- a comprehensive written overview of a child; it may be documented by written evidence and the child's work; a detailed description of a person or a family that
illustrates a specific idea, concept, or principle of family science.

Cassandra -- a daughter of Priam endowed with the gift of prophecy but fated never to be believed; one that predicts
misfortune or disaster.

Cassiopeia -- a constellation in the northern sky, named after the vain queen Cassiopeia in Greek mythology who
boasted about her unrivaled beauty. It is one of the 48 constellations listed by 2nd century Greek astronomer
It is easily recognizable due to its distinctive W shape, formed by 5 bright stars. It is bordered by Andromeda to the south,
Perseus to the southeast, and Cepheus to the north. She is opposite the Big Dipper. The four brightest stars are Shedir
(orange giant) (binary), Caph, Gamma Cassiopeiae, and Delta Cassiopeiae. Four of the stars in the constellation have
planetary systems.
See picture.

castration -- Freud: what boys fear from their fathers, a fear reinforced by the boy's eventual knowledge that women
have no penis and are therefore "castrated." Castration anxiety forces the boy to repress his sexual desire for his mother
and identify with his father, a formal rival for mother's love, and grow up and smoke a lot of cigars by way of defensive
compensation. See
Oedipal complex.

castration anxiety -- the anxiety associated with the castration complex.

castration complex -- within Freudian theory, the fear on the part of a young male that his father will punish him (through castration) for having incestuous feelings about his mother.
Castration fear (boys) and
penis envy (girls) together make up the castration complex. Because women feel less intense castration anxiety (being "castrated" already by being a girl, of all
the nerve), they develop less of a

catabolism --
in a living organism, the breakdown of substances into simpler structures that can be excreted or converted into energy.

catachresis (kat-uh-KREE-sis) -- use of the wrong word for the context; use of a forced and especially paradoxical figure of speech.

catagelophobia -- fear of ridicule.

catalectic -- lacking one or more syllables, especially in the final foot; used of verse.

catalyst -- a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but is not itself used up in the reaction.

catalyze -- to stimulate a chemical reaction via a compound that is not used up.

catapedaphobia -- fear of jumping (from high or low places).

cataracts -- clouding of the lenses of the eyes. (See picture--->.)

catarrh --
inflammation of a mucous membrane; one chronically affecting the human nose or air passages.

catastrophe -- a momentous tragic event: disaster; a violent and sudden change in a feature of the earth; a violent, usually destructive natural event; utter failure; fiasco.

catatonic -- of, relating to, being, resembling, or affected by schizophrenia, characterized especially by marked psychomotor disturbance that may involve stupor or mutism, negativism,
rigidity, purposeless excitement, and inappropriate or bizarre posturing; characterized by a marked lack of movement, activity, or expression.

cat cry syndrome -- see Cri-du-chat syndrome.

categorical funding --
public or private money assigned on the basis of type of disability.

categorization -- the storing of information in an orderly fashion; babies tend to categorize on the basis of shape, size, and other physical properties at a very early age.

catena -- closely linked series; connected series of related things, especially of writing.

catercorner -- in a diagonal or oblique position; kitty-corner.

caterwaul -- to make a cat's howling cry.

catharsis conflict -- the false belief that venting anger verbally prevents physical violence. Researchers who study family violence have found that verbal and physical violence are related.

cathartic method -- Freud: the name that Freud and Joseph Breuer gave to their method of allowing patients to get relief by talking out their previously repressed emotions. Freud quickly
realized that this relief was only temporary and did not produce lasting personality changes.
Breuer ran away when a patient fell in love with him. Freud lit a cigar.

catheter -- a tube that is inserted into the urethra to drain urine from the bladder.

catheter (central venous) -- a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck, chest, or groin to administer medication or fluids, obtain blood tests, and directly obtain cardiovascular

catheterization -- the process of introducing a hollow tube (catheter) into a body cavity to drain fluid, such as introducing a tube into an individual's bladder to drain urine.

cathexis -- Freud: the investment of libido in objects. An example would be Freud's enormous cathexis of interest around sexuality. Cathexes correspond to ideas, whereas affects are
discharge products.

cathismata -- one of the 20 divisions in a Greek Psalter.

catholicon -- a universal remedy, panacea.

cation -- an ion with more protons than electrons, and therefore a positive charge.

cathisophobia -- fear of sitting.

cat-o'-nine-tails -- a multi-tailed whipping device, made up of nine knotted thongs of cotton cord.

catoptrophobia -- fear of mirrors.

caucus -- a closed meeting of a group of persons belonging to the same political party or faction usually to select candidates or to decide on policy; a group of people united to promote an
agreed-upon cause.

cause and effect -- ability to perceive the link between two events with one as a result of the other.

cavalier -- debonair; marked by or given to offhand and often disdainful dismissal of important matters.

cavil -- to object or criticize adversely for trivial reasons; flimsy objection or qualm.

CBF -- see cerebral blood flow.

C.E. --
common era. This is the international designation for A.D. (Anno Domini, or Year of the Lord).

c'ead mile fáilte (kaid mee-la fall-che) -- one hundred thousand welcomes.

cecostomy -- surgical formation of a permanent artificial opening into the cecum, the end of the colon.

cecum -- pouch or large tube-like structure in the lower abdominal cavity that receives undigested food from the small intestine. It is considered the first region of the large intestine.

cedilla -- a diacritic beneath a letter designed to alter pronunciation: façade.

ceilidh (KAY-lee) --
an Irish or Scottish social gathering with traditional music, dancing, and storytelling.

ceiling effects -- a restricted range of test questions or problems that does not permit academically gifted students to demonstrate their true capacity or achievement.  

celadon -- a type of pale green.

celeripedean -- quick-footed, swift, fast-running.

celerity -- speed, alacrity, briskness.

celesta -- ancient musical instrument.

celestial -- heavenly; of a higher plane; empyreal; pertaining to or of space.

Celiac disease -- congenital malabsorption syndrome that leads to failure to gain weight and passage of loose, foul-smelling stools. It is
caused by an intolerance of cereal products that contain gluten. Origination: unknown.
(See picture.)

cell --
functional basic unit of life. There are millions of different types of cells. All cells have a "skin" called the plasma membrane.
The membrane regulates the movement of water, nutrients, and wastes into and out of the cell. At the center of a cell is the cell
nucleus, containing the cell's
DNA. There are many organelles inside the cell, such as ribosomes, mitochondrion, and
lysosomes. Look at this great cell from Also look at this great poster of kinds of cells from The picture "cross section of an animal cell" is from there too.

cell cortex --
the cytoplasmic region under the cell membrane.

cell fragment -- see platelet.

cell membrane -- a structure that is the outer boundary of the cell and surrounds
the cytoplasm. It is a protective barrier against things trying to enter the cell; it only
allows certain materials in to keep the cell healthy and happy. It also lets in
materials needed to make products for the cell. It is made from
lipids and
proteins. Also called plasma membrane. See picture.

cello --
large, stringed instrument that generates deep tones.

cellophane -- thin, flexible, transparent cellulose material used as a moisture-
proof wrapping.

cellular -- pertaining to cells or their structure; containing cells.

cellulite -- fatty deposit causing a dimpled appearance, as around the thighs or buttocks.

celluloid -- transparent, colorless, synthetic plastic used to manufacture photographic film.

celtophobia -- fear of Celts.

cenophobia -- fear of open spaces.

cenotaph -- an unmarked grave.

censure -- to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy.

centaur -- a very mysterious creature. Centaurs are half man and half horse. They were fathered by Ixion or Centaurus. Centaurs watch and read the signs in the stars and planets and they
do not take sides in the events unfolding around them, which they have foreseen. The prefer to simply observe. Some centaurs are uncouth and savage. Others are friendly and teachers of
men. A group of centaurs is a sagittary. A centaur baby is a foal.

centennial -- of or relating to a period of 100 years; occurring once every 100 years.

center-based classrooms -- see center based programs.

center-based programs or services --
Intervention services provided in a segregated classroom or therapy room; a centralized location for services for young children with disabilities in
which comprehensive services from many specialists are available.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) -- Agency that monitors the incident rates of various diseases.

central auditory disorder -- a hearing loss that occurs in the cerebral cortex of the brain.

central auditory dysfunction -- a hearing impairment, sometimes called central hearing loss, that interferes with sound transmission; also known as auditory perceptual disorder.

central auditory processing -- involves the ability to track individual and group conversations that occur in both quiet and noisy backgrounds.

central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) -- condition in which the brain of a person who has normal hearing does not effectively interpret the auditory information that comes from the
ears; also called
auditory perceptual disorder.

central hearing loss -- see central auditory dysfunction.

central nervous system (CNS) --
the portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It is primarily involved in
voluntary movement and thought processes.
(See illustration.)

central venous line --
a catheter that is advanced through a neck vein to a position directly above the opening to the right atrium of the heart.
It is used to provide long term medication or nutrition.

central vision -- straight ahead vision. It is the work of the macula, a small center area of the retina that contains a rich collection of cones.
Central vision permits a person to read, drive, and other activities that require fine, sharp, straight ahead vision. Compare to
peripheral vision.

centration -- focus of attention on one attribute, ignoring other variables.  

centrioles -- tiny organelles that migrate to the opposite poles of a cell during cell division and align the spindles.

centrist perspective (on families) -- a political and intellectual position about the state of the family which attributes decline and deterioration to the decreasing participation of fathers.

centromere -- the constricted area of the chromosome that usually marks the point of attachment of the sister chromatids to the spindle during cell division.

cephalic -- of or relating to the head.

cephalic index -- a measure of the shape of the human skull obtained by expressing the maximum breadth of the skull as a percentage of the maximum length measured from a point just
below the eyebrow ridges. A figure below 75 is considered
dolichocephalic, between 75 and 80 is mesocephalic, and above 80 is brachycephalic.  

cephalin --
a phospholipid, similar to lecithin, found especially in brain and nerve tissue.

cephalocaudal -- sequence of the development of muscle control from head to toe.

cephalochordate -- any of various primitive chordate animals of the subphylum Cephalochordata, such as the lancet, that lack a true vertebral column. Lancelets are the only living

cephalohematoma -- a swelling of the scalp containing blood; often found in  newborn infants. It is usually not harmful.

Cepheus -- a constellation of the northern sky, named after Cepheus, King of Aethiopia in Greek mythology. It was one of the 48 constellations listed by 2nd century

ceraunophobia --
fear of thunder and lightning.

cerebellar ataxia -- ataxia that is due to dysfunction of the cerebellum.

cerebellar cortex -- the thin gray surface layer of the cerebellum.

cerebellar malformations -- disorders caused by problems in the cerebellum. The main problems with cerebellar malformations are incoordination,
imbalance, and trouble stabilizing eye movements.

cerebellar vermis -- a narrow, worm-like structure between the hemispheres of the cerebellum. See Dandy- Walker syndrome.

cerebellum --
a brain structure that aids in balance and control of body movement. It is located right below the large main sections of the brain. A
cauliflower-shaped structure located below the
occipital area and next to the brain stem. The word in Latin for "little brain."  Traditionally, research
linked it to balance, posture, coordination, and muscle movements. Newer research has linked it to cognition, novelty, and emotions.
(See illustration.)

cerebral --
of or relating to the brain or cerebrum.

cerebral atrophy -- a loss of neurons and the connections in the brain which results in a decrease of the functions of the affected area.  Cerebral atrophy can be caused by stroke,
traumatic brain injury,
Alzheimer's disease, cerebral palsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, infections, etc. Symptoms are dementia, seizures, and aphasia, among others.

cerebral blood flow (CBF) -- poorly autoregulated blood flow within the early developing brain, making the newborn particularly vulnerable to any changes in blood pressure.

cerebral calcification -- abnormal deposits of calcium in certain areas of the brain, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. Symptoms include motor function deterioration,
, intellectual disability, spastic paralysis, dysarthria, spasticity, ocular problems, and athetosis.

cerebral contusion --
a bruise on the cerebrum.

cerebral cortex -- the largest, most complex structure of the human brain, and the one responsible for the highly developed intelligence of
the human species. Surrounds the rest of the brain, much like a half-shelled walnut. This is the newspaper-sized, 1/4-inch thick, outermost
layer of the cerebrum. Its wrinkled, six-layers deep, and packed with brain cells (
neurons). Cortex is the Latin word for "bark" or "rind". The
surface of the cerebrum -- the cerebral cortex -- is composed of six thin layers of neurons, which sit on top of a large collection of white
matter pathways. The cortex is heavily convoluted, so that if you were to spread it out, it would actually take up about 2 1/2 square feet
(2500 sq cm). It includes about 10 billion neurons, with about 50 trillion synapses!
(See illustration.)

cerebral hemisphere --
either of the two halves of brain substance.

cerebral hypoxia -- a lack of oxygen supply to the outer part of the brain, or the cerebral hemisphere, but the term is also used to refer to
a lack of oxygen supply to the entire brain. Symptoms are coma, no breathing, and no response to light. It can be caused by many things,
asphyxiation, carbon monoxide poisoning, cardiac arrest, chocking, compression of the trachea, paralysis of breathing muscles, drowning, drug overdose, high altitudes, cerebral
palsy, strangulation, stroke, very low
blood pressure. Brain cells start dying less than 5 minutes after oxygen supply disappears. Brain hypoxia can cause death or severe brain damage
very quickly.

cerebral palsy (CP) -- A group of non-progressive conditions involving muscle control, posture, and movement; literally means brain paralysis; motor impairment caused by brain damage
usually occurring during the prenatal period or the birth process that is not curable nor progressive. Can be perinatal.

cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (cerebrovascular event) -- a thrombotic (clot) or hemorrhagic (bleed) stroke that can damage large regions of the brain in the location of a
particular blood vessel (artery or vein);

cerebral ventricle -- one of a system of four communicating cavities within the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. There are 2 lateral ventricles (in the
cerebral hemispheres; consist of a triangular central body and four horns), the third ventricle (a midline cavity bounded by the
thalamus and hypothalamus), and the fourth  (the lowest).

cerebrate -- to use the mind; think.

cerebrohepatorenal syndrome -- see Zellweger syndrome.

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) -- a clear, colorless, odorless fluid that resembles water, is produced from blood through secretion and diffusion between the vascular system and the choroid
plexuses in the brain, and protects the nervous system from injury by acting as a shock absorber.

cerebrum -- this is the largest part of the brain, composed of the left and right hemisphere. It has frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. (See illustration above.)

cerise --
a deep to vivid purplish red.

cerium -- atomic number 58, symbol Ce; a lustrous, iron-gray, malleable metallic rare-earth element that occurs chiefly in the minerals monazite and bastnaesite, exists in four allotropic
states, is a constituent of lighter flint alloys, used in various metallurgical and nuclear applications; discovered in 1893 by
W. von Hisinger.

certified occupational assistant (COTA) -- individual who has an associate's degree and occupational therapy field work experience.

ceruloplasmin -- the major copper-carrying protein in the blood, and plays a role in iron metabolism. Lower than normal ceruloplasmin levels may indicate Menkes disease, or Wilson's
disease. A greater than normal amount of ceruloplasmin may indicate pregnancy, lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, or acute and chronic infections.

cerulean -- azure, sky-blue, lazuline, sapphire.

cerumen -- ear wax.

cervical -- pertaining to the neck or to the cervix.

cervical cancer -- a cancer that starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus, and the top of the vagina. Symptoms are continuous vaginal discharge; abnormal bleeding between periods,
after intercourse, or after menopause; heavier and lengthier periods; any bleeding after menopause; loss of appetite; weight loss; fatigue; pelvic pain; back pain; leg pain; single swollen leg;
bone fractures. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by
HPV (human papilloma virus), a common sexually
transmitted disease.    

cervical cerclage -- surgical procedure done to prevent the cervix from opening prematurely. (See illustration.)

cervical spine --
the part of the spine that begins at the skull, including 7 vertebrae and eight pairs of cervical nerves. The cervical spine contains
and protects the spinal cord, supports the skull, and enables diverse head movement.

cervical vertebral fusion -- see Klippel-Feil syndrome.

cervix --
the narrow lower end of the uterus that adjoins the vagina. (See illustration.)

cesarean delivery; cesarean section; C-section --
a surgical delivery in which the doctor makes an
incision in the mother's abdomen and subsequent viscera and etc. and finally into the
uterus to extract the
(See illustration.)

cesium --
atomic number 55, symbol Cs; a soft, silvery white ductile metal, liquid at room temperature, the
most electropositive and alkaline of the  elements, used in photoelectric cells and to catalyze hydrogenation of some organic compounds; discovered in
1860 by
Fustov Kirchoff.

cessation -- pause; interruption; ceasing; ending.

chaetognath -- any of the various marine worms of the phylum chaetognatha, which includes the arrow worms; their bodies are transparent or
translucent and are pointed at one end; their heads have small hooks for grasping prey, and it contains a large cerebral ganglion of sensory nerves.

chaetophobia -- fear of hair.

chaffer -- haggle, exchange; barter; to bargain for; to exchange small talk; chatter.

chafouin (shah-fwa) -- a mix between cat (chat) and weasel (fouin) which looks like the cat that just ate the canary, but in a funny way; sly.

chained responses of adaptive behaviors -- the linking of simple skills to perform more complex skills.

chaining -- the process through which a stimulus that acts as a reinforcer for one event becomes a discriminative stimulus for the next.

chain structure -- an example of a formula tale.

chalice -- cup for consecrated wine; goblet.

chameleon -- a small lizard whose skin changes color especially according to its surroundings; a person given to often expedient or facile change in ideas or character; one that is subject to
quick or frequent change especially in appearance.

chamois -- goatlike antelope; type of cloth for cleaning.

champagne -- a type of bubbling alcohol with fruity taste.  

chancre -- a lesion at the site of contact with an infected person. (See illustration.)    

chandelier --
ceiling-mounted light fixture or glass structure.

chant/chanting -- any group of words that are recited together with a lively beat; a short simple series of syllables or words that are sung or intoned to the same note or a limited range of
notes; a simple song or melody.

chantpleure -- to cry while singing; to cry and sing simultaneously.

chaotic style family -- one of two broad family system types in which incest occurs. These families often have a multitude of problems, many of which are heightened by socioeconomic,
educational, and vocational conditions. Substance abuse and trouble with the law are common in these families.  

chaphooks -- inexpensive books containing ballads, poems, tales, and religious tracts.  

character education -- curriculum and instruction focused on students' conduct and models of traditional values and behavior.  

characterization --
a graphic or vivid verbal description; the act of describing distinctive characteristics or essential features.

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease -- the most common inherited neurological disorder; causes damage to the covering (myelin sheath) around nerve fibers. The damage causes slow loss of
feet/legs and hands/arms, and muscles in the extremities become weakened. It is also called
Peroneal Muscular Atrophy (PMA) and Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy (HMSN).
foot-drop walking gait, balance problems, gradual loss of hand functioning, muscle cramping, loss of some normal reflexes, scoliosis, breathing difficulties. Types of the
disorder are inherited different ways: Types 1 and 2:
autosomal dominant, Types 3, 4, and subtypes 2B1 and 2K: autosomal recessive (least common). Type X: some sources say X-
linked dominant and others X-linked recessive. Which is correct? It's a mystery. Additionally, this disorder occurs as a new mutation.

CHARGE association -- Coloboma (i.e., failure of normal fusion of ocular structures), Heart defect, Atresia choanae (i.e., membranes or bony blockage of nasal passage), Retarded growth
and development,
Genital anomalies, and Ear anomalies and/or deafness. Associated complications (as if that isn't enough ...) hypoplastic genitalia, cryptorchidism, cleft lip/palate, facial
asymmetry, variable degrees of
intellectual disability, potentially severe visual and auditory impairments. Cause: mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein-7 (CHD7)
and semaphorin-3E gene (SEMA3E) have been shown to cause CHARGE. Inheritance is mostly new mutation, with evidence of
autosomal dominant, though usually sporadic; prenatal
diagnosis unavailable. Incidence unknown; recurrent risk rare. More common in females than males. A cause of

chariot --
two or four-wheeled, horse-drawn war or procession vehicle.

chartreuse -- a type of swampy green.

chasten -- to correct by punishment or suffering; discipline; purify; to prune (as a work or style of art) of excess, pretense, or falsity; refine; to cause to be more humble or restrained; subdue.

chatelaine -- the mistress or lady of a castle or a large household.

chatoyant -- like or resembling a cat's eye.

chauffeur -- a designated paid driver.

checklist -- a method of documenting the presence or absence of a skill or behavior in a developmental sequence.    

Chediak-Higashi syndrome -- a rare, genetic disease of the immune and nervous systems characterized by pale colored hair, eyes and skin. Symptoms are albinism; increased infections
in the lungs, skin, and
mucous membranes; nystagmus; decreased vision; intellectual disability; muscle weakness; peripheral neuropathy; nosebleeds or easy bruising; numbness;
; seizures; photophobia; ataxia. It is caused by mutations in the CHS1 (also called LYST) gene on chromosome 1, autosomal recessive.  

cheeky gibs --
"cheeky" means impertinently bold; impudent and saucy; "gib" is a tom cat. Hmmm.

cheilognathopalatoschisis -- cleft lip with a cleft in the jaw & palate.

cheilion -- the corner of the mouth or oral cavity.

cheilitis -- an inflammation of the lips.

cheimaphobia, cheimatophobia -- fear of cold.

chemical event -- an environmental stimulus that acts at a distance from the organism.

chemical messenger system -- the pathway a neurotransmitter travels to transmit information between neurons.

chemistry -- the science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, especially of atomic and molecular systems.

chemotaxis -- the characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from the chemical stimulus.    

chemotherapy -- use of chemicals in the treatment of disease.    

cherophobia -- fear of gaiety.  

chevelure -- head of hair, hair on the head; tresses; a nebulous aura (as around a comet).

chiaroscuro -- composition of strong contrasts in light and dark.

chiasmus -- a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed. Example:" "You forget what you want to remember, and you
remember what you want to forget." (
Cormac McCarthy, The Road, 2006).  

chicken pox -- a disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. Symptoms are an itchy rash of spots that look like blisters, possible fever, pain, sore throat, headache, malaise.

child abduction -- see child stealing.

child abuse -- the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, or negligent treatment of a child under the age of 18 by a person who is responsible for the child's welfare. The specific types are
physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, physical endangerment, abandonment, medical and psychological neglect,
educational neglect, and improper ethical guidance.

child archetype -- Jung: represented in mythology and art by children, infants most especially, as well as other small creatures.

child care center -- a place for care of children for a large portion of their waking day; includes basic care taking activities such as eating, dressing, resting, toileting, as well as playing and
learning time.

child care services -- these are not a provision of IDEA.

child centered preschool and kindergarten programs --
educational programs in which teachers provide activities from which young children select, and most of the day is devoted to
play. Distinguished from academic preschool and kindergarten programs.    

child custody -- the charge and control of a child mandated by the court; decision as to which parent will be primarily responsible for the upbringing and welfare of the child.    

child development -- a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence and emerging adulthood; changes in physical, social,
emotional, and intellectual functioning over time, from conception through adolescence.   

child-directed (-initiated) activities -- play or work events a child chooses or develops.   

child-directed instruction -- flexible instruction that follows a child's lead in terms of interests and motivation.

child-directed speech -- a form of language that adults use to speak to young children that consists of short sentences with high-pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation,
distinct pauses between speech segments, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.

Child Find -- a system within a state or local area that attempts to identify all children who have disabilities or who are at risk in order to refer them for appropriate support services. This is a
screening system
. It was established in the 1960s, but was not mandated by law until 1986. The process of finding and identifying children who have a delay or disability. The assessments
made at this stage are screening, not diagnostic testing.

child-free marriage -- a marriage that is voluntarily without children.

childhood apraxia of speech -- expressive language disorder in which a child is unable to use the tongue, lips, and other speech structures to easily produce the sounds for language.

childhood chants -- the teasing chants sung by children -- and most often heard on the playground -- using the words, "you can't catch me!"

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder -- one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders; relatively rare; children with this disorder develop a condition that resembles autism, but only after several
years of seemingly normal development. The central feature of this disorder is a marked regression in multiple functioning following a period of at least two years of apparently normal
development. After the first two years of life, the child has a clinically significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least two of the following areas:
expressive or receptive language,
social skills or adaptive behavior, bladder or bowel control, or play or motor skills. Individuals with this disorder exhibit the social and communication deficits and behavioral features generally
observed in
Autistic disorder, as there is a qualitative impairment in social interaction, communication, and restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, and activities.

childhood muscular dystrophy -- another name for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

childhood psychosis --
a pervasive developmental disorder, social-communicative problem, which emerges later in childhood. Also called childhood schizophrenia.

child maltreatment -- involves neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.

child neglect -- the act or situation of parents' or other adults' inattention to a child's basic health needs of adequate food, clothing, shelter, and health care; child neglect may also include
not noticing a child or not paying enough attention in general.

childhood schizophrenia -- A pervasive developmental disorder, a social-communicative problem, which emerges later in childhood. Children with schizophrenia often see or hear
things that don't really exist, and harbor
paranoid and bizarre beliefs. For example, they may think people are plotting against them or can read their minds. Other symptoms of the disorder
include problems decreased attention, impaired memory and reasoning,
speech impairments, inappropriate or flattened expression of emotion, and show little body language or facial
expression. Misdiagnosis of schizophrenia in children is all too common. It is distinguished from
autism by the persistence of hallucinations and delusions for at least 6 months and a later
age of onset -- 7 or older. Autism is generally diagnosed by age 3. Schizophrenia is also distinguished from a type of brief
psychosis sometimes seen in affective, personality, and
dissociative disorders in children. Adolescents with
bipolar disorder sometimes have acute onset of manic episodes that may be mistaken for schizophrenia. Children who have been victims
abuse may sometimes claim to hear voices of -- or see visions of -- the abuser. Symptoms characteristically pervade the child's life, and are not limited to just certain situations, such as
school. If children show any interest in friendships, even if they fail at maintaining them, it is unlikely that they have schizophrenia.

child-rearing styles -- combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-bearing climate.

children at risk -- The at-risk population of young children that has three subgroups: 1) environmental risk; 2) biological risk; and 3) established risk.

children's allowance -- practice in industrialized countries other that the US whereby the government provides a grant of child support to all families based on the number of children they

children with disabilities -- children with identified disabilities -- such as physical, behavioral, cognitive, language, or learning disabilities -- that require early intervention and special
support strategies.

children with special needs (children with special health needs) -- a general term referring to youngsters with a wide variety of serious, and oftentimes unique, health care concerns.

child stealing -- also called child abduction or child snatching; the act in which one parent kidnaps his or her children from the other parent.

child support -- the ongoing financial assistance for child-care expenses that the separated or divorced parent with custody of the child receives from the noncustodial parent.

Child Support Enforcement Amendments -- US act passed in 1984 that requires states to deduct from fathers' paychecks and tax returns delinquent child support payments.

child-to-parent abuse -- violence directed at a parent by a child.

chimera -- a mythological, fire-breathing monster, commonly represented with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail. Homer described a chimera as "a thing of immortal make, not
human, lion fronted and snake behind, a goat in the middle, and snorting out the breath of the terrible flame of bright fire."
Hesiod said, "Chimera, who breathed raging fire, a creature
fearful, great, swift-footed and strong, who had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion; in her hinderpart, a dragon; and in her middle a goat, breathing forth a fearful blast of blazing fire. Her
Pegasus and noble Bellerophon slay." A group of chimera is called a blending. A chimera baby is a polyploid.

chinook -- a group of Native American people; a moist warm wind blowing from the sea in coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest; a kind of salmon (also called king salmon).

chionophobia -- fear of snow.

chipper -- to chirp or twitter; to babble; in lively spirits; cheerful; debonair; jaunty; self-confident.

chiromancy -- palmistry.

chitchat -- casual conversation; small talk; gossip.

chlamydia -- a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. Signs of chlamydia are usually
mild, but the disease can cause irreversible damage, such as infertility.

chlamydia trachomatis -- a microorganism that causes various genital, eye, and lymph node infections. (See picture.)

chloride --
the major anion (negatively charged substance) in the blood and extracellular fluid (the body fluid that lies outside cells). Blood and other body
fluids have almost the same concentration of chloride as sea water. The balance of chloride ion (CI) is closely regulated by the body.

chlorine -- atomic number 17, symbol Cl; gaseous element of the halogen group that can combine with most other elements. It is highly irritating and
poisonous. It is used in purifying water, as a disinfectant and bleach, and in the manufacture of numerous chemical compounds; discovered 1774 by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele.

chloroplasts -- a membrane-bound organelle in an eukaryotic cell.

choanal atresia -- congenital closure of the nasal passage; part of the CHARGE association.

chocoballs -- sold on the Hogwarts Express or Honeydukes in Hogsmeade (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling). They are large chocolate sweets filled with a filling of strawberry mousse and
clotted cream.

cholera -- an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea. Symptoms are abdominal cramps, dry mucus membranes, dry skin, excessive thirst, glassy or
sunken eyes, lack of tears,
lethargy, low urine output, nausea, rapid dehydration, rapid pulse, unusual sleepiness or tiredness, vomiting. It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is
more common in places  with poor sanitation, crowding, war, or famine.

cholesteatoma -- a cyst-like mass lines with skin cells and filled with debris, including cholesterol. It is a complication of otitis media, in
which skin cells from the ear canal migrate through the perforated ear drum into the
middle ear, or mastoid region, forming a mass that
must be removed surgically.
(See diagram.)

cholesterol --
a fat-like substance found in animal-source foods, that is synthesized by humans and performs a variety of functions in the

choline -- a B-complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat.

chondrocytes -- any of the polymorphic cells that form the cartilage of the body. Each contains a nucleus, a relatively large amount of
clear cytoplasm, and the common

chondroectodermal dysplasia -- see Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

chondrosarcoma --
cancer of the cartilage.

CHOPKINS Cafe MgNaCl -- the most common elements in the body -- Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, potassium (K), Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfur, calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium
Mg), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl).

chordate -- any of numerous animals belonging to the phylum Chordata, having at some stage of development a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and gill slits and including all vertebrates
and certain marine animals such as the lancelets. Chordates probably evolved before the Cambrian Period and are related to the hemichordates, echinoderms, and chaetognaths. The
vertebrates, tunicates, and cephalochordates are the three main groups of chordates.

chorea -- a disorder marked by involuntary jerky movements of the extremities.  

choreoathetosis -- a form of extrapyramidal cerebral palsy marked by variable muscle tone and involuntary movements of the arms and legs.  

choreography -- the art of creating and arranging dances or ballets.

chorioamnionitis -- infection of the amniotic sac, which surrounds and contains the fetus and amniotic fluid.  

chorion --
The outermost of the two fetal membranes - the amnion is the innermost -- which together surround the embryo. The chorion
develops villi (vascular fingers) and gives rise to the
placenta. In Greek, the word "chorion" means "skin or leather." (See illustration.)

chorionic gonadotrophin --
the hormone secreted by the embryo that prevents its expulsion from the uterus. A pregnancy test measures
the presence of this hormone in the urine.

chorionic villi -- little vascular fingers which develop on the chorion.

chorionic villus sampling (CVS) -- A test for genetic abnormalities, can be done between the 9th and 11th week of pregnancy; a procedure
used to assess genetic material in fetal cells, in which cells are removed from the projections on the chorionic membrane.
(See illustration.)

chorioretinitis --
an inflammation of the retina and choroid that produces severe visual loss.

choroid --
the middle layer of the eyeball between the sclera and the retina. (See illustration below
chorion; also scroll down for a more intricate diagram of the eye.)

choroid plexus --
cells that line the ventricles of the brain and produce cerebrospinal fluid.

chorophobia -- fear of dancing.

chortle -- combination of chuckling and snorting; a weird laugh.

chrematophobia, chrometophobia -- fear of wealth.

chrestomathy (kreh-STAH-muh-thee) -- a selection of passages used to help learn a language; a volume of selected passages or stories of an author.

chromatid -- term given to chromosomes during cell division.

chromium -- a lustrous, hard, steel gray metallic element, used in the hardening of steel alloys and the production of stainless steels, in corrosion-resistant decorative platings, and as a
pigment in glass; atomic number 24, symbol
Cr; discovered 1797 by Louis Vauquelin.
chromophobia, chromatophobia -- fear of colors.

chromosomal abnormalities -- a defect in chromosome structure that may affect development. Chromosomes are the thread-like bodies that  carry the genes and therefore play a central
role in inherited characteristics.
chromosomal analysis -- a detailed look at an individual's chromosomes, or their genetic information. Missing, extra, or rearranged chromosomes can be the cause of several disabilities.
Chromosomes can be analyzed from less than 1 teaspoon of blood.
Red blood cells do not contain chromosomes, but white blood cells do. Chromosomal analysis can also be done with
fluid, bone marrow, or tissue.

chromosomal disorders -- developmental problems that come about at the time of conception.

chromosome 15 disorders -- two genetic disorders (Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome) associated with autism; both disorders have a chromosomal partial deletion on
the 15th pair of chromosomes. A subgroup of children with autism have been identified who also have a deletion or duplication on this chromosome pair.

chromosome 18 abnormalities -- may cause deaf-blindness.

chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndromes (DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome [VCFS]) --
microdeletions within the long arm of chromosome 22 have varying
presentations, including
DiGeorge syndrome, VCFS, and isolated outflow tract defects of the heart. Characteristic facial appearance includes: small open mouth, short palpebral fissures
(eyelid openings), flat nasal bridge, bulbous nasal tip, protuberant low-set ears, varying degrees of palatal abnormalities ranging from cleft to
veropharyngeal insufficiency. Classic
syndrome is associated with hypoplastic thymus, hypoparathyroidism, hypotonia, and congenital heart defect. Associated complications: feeding problems in infancy,
hypernasal speech, developmental disabilities ranging from learning disabilities to intellectual disability, gross and fine motor delays, language delays. Caused by a
deletion on chromosome 22q11.2, usually new mutation, with occasional
autosomal dominant inheritance.

chromosomes -- rod-like structures in the cell nucleus that store and transmit genetic information. The human body contains 46 chromosomes,
or 23 pairs.
(See illustration.)

chronic --
Term for a health problem of long duration or frequent recurrence; or is permanent.

chronic health problems -- prolonged or lingering medical conditions.

chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction -- see intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

chronic motor disorder or chronic tic disorder -- rapid, recurrent, uncontrollable movements but not vocal outbursts. It is more common
Tourette syndrome and transient tic disorder.

chronic mourning context -- orientation that uses stages of bereavement to describe the emotions of parents of children with special needs
may experience.

chronic sinusitis -- an inflammatory disease common in people who have asthma. Also people who have airborne allergies are at risk for
developing chronic sinusitis. It may be caused by an immune response to antigens in fungi. Damp weather or air pollution can also exacerbate the condition. People with
immune disorders
such as
AIDS or cystic fibrosis are also at risk.

chronic strain model -- one perspective of the divorce stress adjustment model that assumes that being divorced involves persistent strains to which former spouses and their children must

chronic stressors -- constant pressure or strain on a family caused by concerns related to a child's disability.

chronic user -- a person who uses drugs for an extended period of time, usually connoting an addiction, distinguished from someone who must have medicine for health-related conditions.

chronic vocal disorder -- rapid, recurrent, uncontrollable vocal outbursts but not movements. It is more common than Tourette syndrome and transient tic disorder.

chronological age -- how old a child is.

chronophobia -- fear of time.

chronosystem -- in ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner), temporal changes in children's environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes can
be imposed externally or arise from within the child (time).

chthonic -- of or relating to the underworld; in or under the earth; infernal.

chum -- an intimate friend or companion; to display good-natured friendliness; a kind of salmon (also called dog salmon).

church related schools -- educational programs affiliated with a church or religious organization; they may have a direct relationship with the church by including religious instruction, by
employing church members as teachers, or by being housed in a church building and using the facilities for a fee.

churl -- a rude boorish person.

cibophobia -- fear of food.

cicada -- a loud, locust-like insect that chirrups.

cilia -- hairlike projections attached to the surface of a cell. They beat regularly to move the cell.

ciliary body -- component of the middle layer of the eye that produces aqueous humor. (See eye illustration.)

ciliary muscles --
small muscles that affect the shape of the lens of the eye, permitting accommodation. (See eye illustration.)

cinder --
burned substance; one which is no longer capable of combustion.

cingulate gyrus -- this structure lies directly above the corpus callosum. It mediates communication between the cortex and the
mid-brain structures.
(See illustration below ciliary body illustration.)

cinnabar --
bright red, glowing red.

cinquain -- a 5-line poem that follows this pattern: Line one -- one word title -- a noun OR one word OR 2 syllables; Line 2 -- two
adjectives describing line one OR 2 words OR 4 syllables; Line 3 -- three -ing participles OR three words OR 6 syllables; Line 4-- a phrase OR 4 words
OR 8 syllables; Line 5 -- a synonym for the first line, another noun OR one word OR 2 syllables.

cold, creamy
eating, giggling, licking
cone with three scoops
ice cream

(That picture is a fake food creation from Aunt Bubbies []. It is amazing!)

cinquefoil --
five-leaf; plant with limbs that are five-leaved; five pointed leaves.

Circle of friends -- the individuals who surround a person with a disability with support that is consistent with the person's choices and that advances the person's self-determination, full
citizenship, relationships, positive contributions, strengths, and choices.

circlet -- ring-shaped ornament or piece of jewelry, especially for the head.

circle time -- time in which children gather to engage in large group activities such as singing, movement activity, or discussing the day's activities.

circuitous (ser-KYOO-uh-tus) -- having a circular or winding course; not being forthright or direct in language or action.

circular -- of, like, related to, or resembling a circle

circular reaction -- in Piaget's theory, a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity.

circular reasoning -- argumentation fallacy that rephrases the statement to be proven true. It then uses the new, similar statement as supposed proof that the original statement is in fact

circulatory system -- a system of blood vessels and muscles that help and control the flow of blood around the body. The main parts of the circulatory system are the heart, arteries,
capillaries, and

circumcision --
the surgical or ritualistic removal of the foreskin of the penis. (See illustration.)

circumvent --
to hem in; to make a circuit around; to manage to get around especially by ingenuity or strategem.

cirrhosis -- interstitial inflammation of an organ, particularly the liver.

cirrocumulus cloud -- a high-altitude cloud composed of a series of small, regularly arranged cloudlets in the form of ripples or grains.

cirrus cloud -- thin, wispy, high-level cloud; typically found at heights greater than 20,000 feet; composed of ice crystals; generally occur in fair weather
and point in the direction of air current at their elevation.

cirrostratus cloud -- sheet-like, high-level cloud composed of ice crystals; can cover the entire sky but are relatively transparent, as the sun or moon can easily be seen through them;
sometimes the only indication of their presence is an observable halo around the sun or moon.

cislunar -- of or relating to the space between earth and the moon or the moon's orbit.

cistern -- an underground reservoir.

cisterna -- a fluid filled (especially lymph or cerebrospinal fluid) sac or cavity in the body of an organism; one of the sac-like vesicles that comprise the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi
, or the two membranes of the nuclear envelope.

citadel --
bulwark; a fortress or stronghold; refuge.

cithara -- ancient Greek instrument; lyre.

civility -- formal or perfunctory politeness; state of being civil.

Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- legislation passed in the US that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin.  

civil union --
civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing gay couples access to the benefits enjoyed by heterosexual couples.

CK -- see creatine kinase.

clandestine --
kept secretly or done secretively.

clangor -- a clang or repeated clanging; loud racket; din.

clarion -- medieval trumpet with clear shrill tones; clear and shrill; loud burst of sound.

clarity of sound -- clearness of sound.

classical conditioning -- a form of learning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response.

classification -- matching or grouping similar data; organizing things, people, etc., into classes, or groups according to similarities and differences (Piaget).

classification and sorting -- putting together things that are alike or belong together. One of the processes necessary for developing the concept of numbers.  

class inclusion -- part-whole relations of categories.  

classist --
a biased or discriminating attitude based on distinctions made between social and economic classes.  

class list log -- method of gathering a specific piece of information on every child in the group.  

classroom assessment -- the innumerable and complex ways in which teachers appraise children's learning in a classroom.  

classroom centered intervention -- classroom based strategies to intervene against poor academic achievement and aggressive or shy behavior.  

classroom management -- manipulating the classroom environment to facilitate positive interactions.  

classroom museum -- a collection of items and artifacts on a specific theme.  

claustrophobia, cleisiophobia, cleithrophobia, clithrophobia -- fear of closed spaces.

clavicle -- a flat bone in the shoulder that connects the arm to the body. It keeps the scapula in position so that the arm can hang freely. See

clavilux --
an odd machine that generates light to the rhythm of music.

clean intermittent catheterization  (CIC) -- health service procedure that enables individuals to relieve their bladders.  

cleanse -- to free from dirt, defilement, or guilt; purge or clean.

cleanup -- time spent cleaning up at the close of an activity at home or in school, for example.

cleft lip -- a congenital condition characterized by incomplete closure of the upper lip that may affect speech and nutrition and can be closed with surgery. Cleft
lip and palate are both primary conditions that can cause secondary
hearing loss. (See--->>.)

cleft palate --
a congenital split in the palate that results in an excessive nasal quality of the voice and can affect speech and nutrition. It can be repaired by
surgery or a dental appliance.
(See picture below cleft lip.)

clemency --
mercy, an act of mercy, showing mercy.

cleptophobia -- fear of thieves.

clerihew -- a whimsical four-line biographical poem (invented by Edmund Clerihew Bentley). The lines are comically irregular in length, and
the rhymes are often contrived and structured AABB.

Did Descartes
With the thought
"Therefore I'm not"?

clerisy -- the well-educated or learned class; intelligentsia; cognoscenti.

clew -- a ball of thread, yarn, or cord; clue; a lower corner or only the after corer of a sail; a metal loop attached.
to the lower corner of a sail.

cliché -- a trite or overused expression or idea; a person or character whose behavior is predictable or superficial.

client-centered therapy -- Rogers: The therapist wants the client to feel independent, not dependent on the therapist. In turn the therapist would be supportive, not reconstructive,
showing honesty, empathy, and respect for the client.

client empowerment -- creating an emotional sense of personal control and involvement with social issues such as legal rights.

climacteric (kly-MAK-tuh-rik) -- a major turning point or critical stage; menopause; a period in the life of a male corresponding to female menopause; the marked and sudden rise in the
respiratory rate of fruit just prior to full ripening.

clinical, or case study method -- a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique individual child by combining interview data, observations, test scores, and
sometimes psychophysiological measures.

clinical interview -- a method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view.

clinical low vision evaluation -- examination performed by an optometrist or ophthalmologist who specializes in low vision to determine whether an individual with a visual
would benefit from the use of optical devices, non-optical devices, or other strategies to enhance visual functioning.

clinical observation -- data collected in a child's natural environment.

clinical research -- research that entails in-depth study of individuals or small groups who have sought counseling for psychological, relationship, or marital/family problems from mental
health professionals.

clinical samples -- research subjects who are selected for study because they are being treated for a specific personal or family problem.

clinodactyly -- a congenital defect in which one or more toes or fingers are abnormally positioned. (See illustration.)

clinophobia --
fear of going to bed.

clinquant -- glittering as gold; glittering with tinsel; showily ornate.

cliques -- small groups of peers, usually of the same gender and age, who interact with each other on a regular basis.

clithridiate -- keyhole-shaped; resembling a keyhole.

clitic -- a word that is treated in pronunciation as forming a part of a neighboring word and that is often unaccented or contracted: What's happening? The "s" in "what's" is a clitic. We hear
clitics everyday in sentences like "This'll be fine" and "C'mon over here." An enclitic is a clitic associated with the word that comes before it. Contractions are enclitics. A proclitic is associated
with the word that follows it, such as "They love to dance" is typically pronounced with the "to" truncated to a "t" that gets tacked onto the front of "dance." What kind of clitic is this: "I wanna

clodhopper -- a clumsy, coarse person; bumpkin; a big heavy shoe; a kind of candy.

cloister -- monastatic establishment; convent of living.

clomped -- walked heavily and noisily.

clone -- a plant or animal having exactly the same genetic composition as the original from which it was produced.

clonic phase -- the phase of a seizure in which the muscles of the body contract and relax in rapid succession.

clonic seizure -- Seizures characterized by alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles (jerking). The jerking cannot be stopped by restraining or repositioning. Clonic seizures are

clonidine -- a medication used historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. It works by stimulating certain brain receptors which result in the relaxing of blood vessels in other parts of the body,
causing them to widen. It can also be used in the treatment of
Tourette syndrome.

clonus -- alternate muscle contraction and relaxation in rapid succession.       

closed adoption --
adoptions in which birth parents and adoptive parents do not know each other's identities and do not communicate.     

closed caption television -- process by which people with hearing impairments are provided translated dialogue, in the form of subtitles, from television programs.   

closed-circuit television (CCTV) -- a TV system that includes a small television camera with zoom lens, TV monitor, and sliding platform table, which allows an individual with vision loss to
view printed material enlarged up to 60 times its original size.    

closed couple single -- single people who are expected to be faithful to their partner and not go outside the relationship for romance or sex.    

closed fields -- settings in which people are likely to interact and thus make it relatively easy to meet a potential partner.

closed head injury -- injury in which the brain is damaged by bouncing around inside the skull without physical damage occurring to the skull itself.

closed method -- the recorder makes a judgment from observation and records it with a check, slash, few words. Raw data is not available for the reader.

closed question -- one expected answer like on a test.

closed system -- a family system that has the capacity to maintain the status quo and avoids change.

closed type family -- marriage/family system that values the family over the individual and emphasizes tradition, stability, belonging, and caring for one another; one of the three types of
marriage/family systems proposed by
David Kantor and William Lehr in 1975.

closure -- the resolution of an issue.

cloud-cuckoo-land -- a realm of fantasy or of whimsical or foolish behavior.

cloze procedure -- involves the modification of a text of at least 250 words by eliminating every fifth word and replacing it with a blank.

clubbing -- a thickening of the flesh under the toenails and fingernails. The nail curves downward, similar to the shape of the round part of an upside down spoon. It can occur as a part of
several diseases; most often found in heart and lung diseases. It may also occur as the result of lung cancer, and diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

club foot (talipes equinovarus) --
malformation of the foot; cause unknown generally; incidence approximately 1 in 1000 infants. There are 3 components of
deformity --
equinus, hindfoot varus, and forefoot adductus. Club foot can also result from deformity of a normally shaped foot. This can occur when a
fetus has spinal muscular atrophy, is caught in an abnormal position in utero, and is too weak to move. It may also result from  "packing syndromes," such
oligohydramnios, where there has been a leakage of amniotic fluid, resulting in abnormal pressure on the foot. Club foot is more common in boys. (See

clubhand --
finger extremities are broadened. (See picture.)

cluster grouping --
involves grouping 3 to 6 students who are gifted and talented in the same general education classroom so that they
can work together.

cluttered nest -- the period during which young adults return to their parental home until they are established professionally and financially
and can move into an apartment or home of their own.

cluttering -- a speech disorder characterized by excessively rapid, disorganized speaking, often including words or phrases unrelated to
the topic.

CMV -- see cytomegalovirus.

cnidophobia --
fear of insect stings.

CNS -- see central nervous system.

coaching --
directing family members to talk to team members about their concerns and observations.

coagulation -- blood clotting.

coalesce -- to fuse, intersect, or entwine to create a unity; to unify by an external means.

coarctation -- a congenital narrowing such as of a blood vessel, most commonly of the aorta.

Coat's disease -- a rare condition where a small group of dilated blood vessels (telangiectasia) form in the retina of one eye and can result in retinal detachment. Symptoms are sensitivity
to light, cloudy vision, retinal hemorrhages, progressive loss of
visual acuity, white pupil.

cobalt --
atomic number 27, symbol Co; a hard brittle metallic element, found associated with nickel, silver,
lead, copper and iron ores. It is used chiefly for magnetic alloys. Discovered 1737 by
George Brandt.

cocaine -- a drug that induces feelings of euphoria and self-confidence in users and is usually inhaled
(through the nasal cavity). Cocaine addiction in a newborn baby --
teratogen. Used medicinally -- Freud.

coccyx --
the lower end of the spine; the tailbone.

cochlea -- Part of the inner ear that is shaped like a snail shell and contains thousands of tiny hair cells
that vibrate in response to sound. These vibrations are converted into electrical signals that are carried to
the brain by the
auditory nerve to be interpreted and given meaning. Damage to these hair cells can be a
cause of
sensorineural deafness. (See illustration.)      

cochlear implant --
a surgical procedure in which an electronic device is implanted into the cochlea to allow
electrical impulses to be carried directly to the brain by stimulating nerve endings in the inner ear (cochlea)
in order to receive and process sound and speech.
(See illustration.)    

Cockayne syndrome (Weber-Cockayne syndrome or Neill-Dingwell Syndrome) --
a rare, inherited
disorder in which there is a sensitivity to sunlight, short stature, and the appearance of premature aging.
Other characteristics are
microcephaly, growth failure, impaired development of the nervous system,
hearing loss, eye abnormalities, short life span expectation. Two genes so far have been  identified as
causal -- ERCC8 (CSA) and ERCC6 (CSB). CSA is found on the 5th chromosome; CSB on the 10th.
Autosomal recessive; a cause of deaf-blindness.

cockaigne --
an imaginary land of great luxury and ease.

cockalorum -- a boastful and self-important person; boastful talk.

cockroach cluster -- one of the revolting candies mentioned in a Monty Python sketch. Others are Ram's
Bladder Cup, Anthrax Ripple, Spring Surprise, and Crunchy Frogs. Cockroach Clusters are also mentioned in the
Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). Here are two recipes for making a cockroach cluster (not using cockroaches):
Ingredients: 12 ounces chocolate chips, 1 cup raisins, 2 cups pretzel sticks, broken, 1/4 cup chocolate sprinkles.
Melt the chocolate chips in the microwave until melted. Stir in the raisins and pretzel pieces. Drop onto waxed paper
-- a tablespoon at a time and sprinkle with chocolate sprinkles.
Ingredients: 12 ounces butterscotch chips; 1 can Chinese noodles (can also use peanuts, but if you don't, add more
Chinese noodles.) Melt butterscotch chips, stir in Chinese noodles, and drop by tablespoons onto waxed paper.

coculture -- a distinct cultural or social group living within a dominant culture, but also having membership in
another culture, such as gay men and lesbians.

coddling period of childrearing --
the dominant cultural view of childhood from the thirteenth through the sixteenth centuries, childhood was viewed as a period of innocence and

code of association -- in group work, establishes who is doing what and when.  

Code of Ethics -- statement adopted by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) in 1989, revised in 2005, to provide guidelines for ethical behavior of

codependent -- a person, often a spouse, whose actions enable an alcoholic to continue to drink but who is often unaware of the ways in which her or his behavior "enables" the partner's

code switching -- the alternate use of two or more languages.

codominance -- a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles in a heterozygous combination are expressed.

codons -- triplets of nucleotides that form the DNA code for specific amino acids.

codswallop --
nonsense, specifically talk or writing that is foolish and insincere; nonsense; rubbish.

coelacanth -- a type of prehistoric fish, initially thought to be extinct.

coenzymes -- a vitamin-containing substance required by certain enzymes before they can perform their prescribed function.  

coercion -- the act of coercing; the use of pressure, threats, blackmail, or intimidation.

Cogan syndrome -- a disorder that involves the ear and eyes. Cogan syndrome causes hearing and balance problems, and inflammation of the eye (cornea) fever, fatigue, weight loss, joint
and muscle pain. Symptoms of Cogan syndrome can be treated with cortisone-related medicines, such as prednisone. The cause of Cogan syndrome is unknown; it is extremely rare; a cause

cognition --
the act of thinking, knowing, or processing information.

cognitive -- knowing, thinking, reasoning, and remembering.

cognitive adaptive skills -- terms referring to thinking and problem-solving abilities and ability to interact with others in a variety of situations.

cognitive behavioral therapy -- involves teaching the use of inner speech to modify underlying cognitions that affect overt behavior.

cognitive curriculum -- curriculum, based on Piaget's theory, that emphasizes strategies that teach thinking and the need for children to learn through direct experiences.

cognitive delays -- intellectual (thinking) skills developing later than is typical for a particular chronological age.

cognitive development -- Changes in behavior related to perceiving, thinking, remembering, and problem-solving. According to PL 105-17, developmental delay is defined as a delay in
one or more of 5 areas, and cognitive development is one of the areas. The other four are
adaptive development, communication development, social or emotional development, and
development, including vision and hearing.

cognitive developmental theory -- An approach developed by Piaget that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world, views cognitive
development as taking place in stages.

cognitive disability or cognitive impairment -- terms sometimes used synonymously with intellectual disability. Cognitive impairment is often considered a less stigmatizing term than
mental retardation. Preferred is
"intellectual disability."

cognitive emphasis curriculum --
a program with activities that emphasize the child's thinking or cognitive development. Based on Piagetian philosophy.

cognitive indifference -- failure to interact or show recognition; e.g., gaze aversion, blank expression.

cognitive inhibition -- the ability to resist interference from internal and external distracting stimuli, thereby ensuring that working memory is not cluttered with irrelevant information.

cognitive maps -- mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces, such as school or neighborhood (Piaget).

cognitive processes -- basic components of thinking and problem-solving that include perception, attention, reasoning, and memory.

cognitive readiness (for reading) -- the abilities of comprehension, problem-solving, and reasoning required in order to read.

cognitive retraining -- helps students regain perceptual processing, communication, behavioral, and social skills that were lost as the result of a traumatic brain injury.

cognitive self-regulation --
the process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.

cognitive skills -- The ability to solve problems, perceive, think, and remember; evolving intellectual and mental ability.

cognitive style -- inclination to take a particular approach or orientation to thinking and learning.

cognitive taxonomies -- ordered lists of cognitive skills or activities that can be used to differentiate expectations for students.

cognitive theories -- an approach that views children as actively building thinking skills in stages.

cognoscenti -- a person who is especially knowledgeable in a subject; connoisseur.

cohabitation -- two unrelated adults sharing the same living quarters.

Cohen syndrome -- obesity, microcephaly, short stature, long hands with tapering fingers, characteristic facial features, including micrognathia, short philtrum, prominent incisors,
varying degrees of
intellectual disability, hypotonia, joint laxity, ocular abnormalities, occasional heart defect. Caused by mutations in the COH1 gene linked to chromosome 8q21--q22;

cohesion --
According to family systems theory, this is a concept used to describe the degree of freedom and independence experienced by each family member within a family unit.

cohesive -- exhibiting or producing a condition in which people or things are closely united.

coho -- a Pacific salmon (also called silver salmon).

cohort -- a group of individuals who are the same age or who experience similar events at the same time.

cohort effects -- the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Children born at the same time are influenced by particular cultural
and historical conditions. Results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing at other times.

cohort-sequential research design -- a cross-sectional study expanded so that data are collected from the same cohorts at different points in time.

cohort study -- an epidemiologic study of subgroups of a population identified with some common characteristic (e.g., an exposure, an ethnic background) that are followed or traced over
a period of time for the occurrence of disease.

coiffure -- a style or manner of arranging the hair.

coimetrophobia -- fear of cemeteries.

coitophobia -- fear of sexual intercourse.

cold sores -- small, painful, fluid-filled blisters or sores that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth, caused by a virus, herpes simplex virus (usually type 1). They usually last a few days, and
are contagious.

colic -- a condition in infancy marked by uncontrollable crying usually caused by abdominal discomfort and often the result of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

collaborated/assisted living --
a type of teaching - learning experience in which a child is helped by another, usually more skilled, person, often as an older child or adult; this kind of
learning is highly regarded in
Vygotsky's theory of child development.

collaborating style of conflict -- a means of handling conflict whereby one has a great deal of concern in advancing one's interests but also those of their partner.

collaboration -- Style for direct interaction between at least two coequal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal; professionals, parents,
and students working together to create an effective educational program designed to meet individual needs.

collaborative divorce -- divorce in which a couple and their lawyers sign a contract agreeing to dissolve the marriage without litigation -- and if they fail, the lawyers pledge to drop out of
the case before it goes to court.

collaborative style -- a style of conflict resolution characterized by a high degree of assertiveness about reaching one's own goals coupled with a concern for the other party.

collaborative team -- a group of people who work together to provide assessment and educational services to children with special needs.

collage -- a French word meaning "to paste." A two-dimensional art activity involving selection, organization, and arranging materials, and then attaching them to
a flat surface.
(See picture.)  

collagen --
a protein that forms the major constituent of connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and skin. (See diagram below the collage.)     

collagenous --
made of collagen.

collectanea -- selection of pieces of writing by an author or by several authors.

collective monologue -- see monologue.

collectivist societies -- societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group over individual goals.    

collective unconscious -- Jung: Our "psychic inheritance." It is the reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with.
And yet we can never be directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the emotional ones, but we only know
about it indirectly, by looking at those influences.

colliquate -- to change from solid to liquid; liquefy.

collop (KAH-lup) -- a small piece or slice especially of meat; a fold of fat flesh.

colloquial -- informal, as in speech; conversationally informal.

colloquialism -- a linguistic phrase that is characteristic of or only appropriate for casual, ordinary, familiar, and/or informal written or spoken conversation,
rather than for formal speech, standard writing, or paralinguistics. May be referred to as slang. Examples are OMG, okeydokey, yall, gonna, wanna, etc.

colloquy -- conversation; dialog; a high-level serious discussion; conference.

collywobbles -- uneasiness; butterflies in the stomach; little demons that dwell in the stomach; abdominal pain; belly ache;
more than one three-legged sheepdog; a feeling of fear, apprehension, or nervousness.

coloboma -- congenital cleft in the retina, iris, or other ocular structure. (See picture.)

colon --
the last part of the digestive system; it extracts water and salt from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the
body. The colon, cecum, and
rectum make up the large intestine.

colophon -- inscription at the end of a book; an identifying emblem for a book.

color -- the property of reflecting light of a particular visible light wavelength; the colors of the spectrum are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
(See the color wheel.)

coloratura --
elaborate or technical vocal music with florid ornamentation.

color blindness -- a disorder in which one of the three types of  cones in the eye is either abnormal or missing from birth. Red-green color blindness, the most
common form, is typically inherited as an X-linked trait and affects about 8% of men and 1% of women.
X-linked recessive.

color poem -- one color, using  metaphors to describe the color's look, feel, and sound.    

colostrum -- a pre-milk substance containing antibodies from the mother that protect the baby from infections.

columbine -- any of various perennial herbs native to north temperate regions, with showy, variously colored flowers that have petals with long hollow spurs.
See picture.

coma --
a state of deep or prolonged unconsciousness usually caused by an injury or illness.   

combination programs -- A service delivery model for young children with developmental delays that combines elements of home-based and center-based
program models.  

comedy -- a form of drama or, more generally, literature that is designed to provoke smiles or laughter using wit and humor. The comic effect is
achieved by allowing the reader, viewer, or listener to recognize an incongruity in speech or action.
(See movie poster illustration.)  

come hither --
inviting or enticing, especially in a sexually provocative manner; beckoning.

come out -- to publicly reveal one's homosexuality.  

comestibles -- items suitable to be eaten; edible sundries; articles of food; victuals.

comet -- an icy body that releases gas or dust. Most of the comets that can be seen from the earth travel around the sun in long, oval orbits. It
consists of a solid nucleus surrounded by a cloudy atmosphere called the coma and one or two tails.
See the amazing picture of the Comet
McNaught in 2007 and another of the Comet Ikeya-Seki in 1965.   

cometophobia --
fear of comets.

comity -- friendly civility; courtesy.

commensal -- living in a relationship in which one organism derives food or other
benefits from another organism without helping it or hurting it. For example,
commensal bacteria are part of the normal flora in the mouth.

committed single -- person who lives in the same household with his or her partner and is engaged to be married or
has agreed to be faithful to the partner.

commitment -- attachment to another. One of the six major qualities (commonly found in emotionally healthy families)
identified by researchers working within the family strengths framework; ALSO the cognitive component of
Sternberg's three dimensions of love.

common couple conflict -- a type of interpersonal violence that is not terribly severe, that involves both relational partners, and that does not escalate.

common couple violence -- mutual violence between partners arising from everyday disagreements.

common law marriage -- type of living arrangement in which a man and a woman living together present themselves as being married and are legally recognized as such; marriage existing
by mutual agreement or by the fact of cohabitation, without a civil or a religious ceremony; also called
de Facto marriage.

communal -- refers to a type of relationship in which one person gives to another without expecting to get something back; the giving is based on the recipient's needs.    

commune -- a group of adults, perhaps including children, who live together, sharing different aspects of their lives.    

communicable -- a condition that can be spread or transmitted from one individual to another.    

communication -- the way humans create and share meaning, both verbally and nonverbally; the foundation for developing and maintaining human relationships, especially intimate

communication board --
a device containing words, pictures, or other symbols to facilitate the communication of an
individual with limited vocal abilities.
(See example.)

communication development --
according to PL 105-17, developmental delay is defined as a delay in one or more of
5 areas, and communication delay is one of them. The other four are cognitive development,
adaptive development,
social or emotional development, and physical development, including vision and hearing.

communication difficulties -- one of the three major characteristics of autism: developmental delays in language.
Some children diagnosed with
Autism Spectrum Disorders remain mute throughout their lives. Some infants who later
show signs of ASD coo and babble during the first few months of life, but they soon stop. Others may be delayed,
developing language as late as age 5 to 9. Some children learn to use communication systems such as pictures or sign
language. Those who do speak often use language in unusual ways. They seem unable to combine words into meaningful
sentences. Some speak only single words, while others repeat the same phrase over and over. Some children with ASD
parrot what they hear, a condition called
echolalia. They often carry on a monologue on a favorite subject, giving no one
else an opportunity to comment. Without meaningful gestures or the language to ask for things, people with ASD are at a
loss to let others know what they need. As a result, they may simply scream or grab what they want. Until they are taught
better ways to express their needs, children with ASD do whatever they can to get through to others.

communication disorders -- an impaired ability to function using speech or language.

communication/lanugage/speech development -- The exchange of information and knowledge or articulation, and language development.

communication signal -- gesture, social formality, or voiced message that announces a current event, person, action, or emotion.

communication skills -- words chosen and the way they are expressed, coupled with facial expressions, posture, and other nonverbal signals.

communication symbols -- spoken words or utterances, letters of the alphabet, pictures, or gestures used to relay a message related to present, past, or future events.

communicative competence -- how well an individual can communicate with others.

communicative intent -- characteristic of many students with autism in which they do not seek to obtain the attention of others and do not communicate for social purposes.

communiqué -- an official announcement; bulletin board; a dispatch; an official report.

community-based approach -- services provided to children with disabilities in a community rather than residential setting.

community-based instruction (CBI) -- highly individualized instruction in the community where students can sample different types of jobs and become accustomed to accessing community
facilities. This instruction reflects the interests of students, while helping them to explore new possibilities.

community of divorce -- fifth of Bohannan's six different but overlapping experiences of divorce; involves changes in friendships and community relationships.

community of learners -- an educational approach inspired by Vygotsky's theory in which teachers guide the overall process of learning, but otherwise, no distinction is made between
child and adult contributors. All participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems.

community property -- property acquired by a couple during their marriage.

community property laws -- the joint ownership of the earnings and property accumulated during a marriage, divided equally between divorcing spouses.

community resources -- agencies and organizations within the community that can be used by children with disabilities and their parents.

community self-sufficiency -- a component of adaptive behavior that refers to age and culturally appropriate behaviors of children under adult supervision in community settings.

commuter marriage -- dual-career marriage in which each partner lives in a different location yet the pair still maintain their commitment to the family.

comorbidity -- a situation in which multiple conditions occur together.

compacting the curriculum -- first testing students to identify the content they have already mastered and then teaching them only the concepts that they have not yet mastered.

companionate family -- according to Steven Mintz and Susan Kellogg, a relatively recently evolved form of family whereby marriage is supposed to provide "romance, emotional growth,
and sexual fulfillment"; wives are no longer supposed to exercise sexual restraint; spouses share decisions and tasks equally; and adolescent children are allowed greater freedom from
parental supervision. (started approximately early 1900s).

companionate love -- a type of love relationship characterized by commitment and intimacy but lacking intense passion; common between partners who have been together for many years.

companionate marriage -- marriage in which the spouses base their relationship on equality and friendship; one of the four types of "good marriage" described by Judith Wallerstein and
Sandra Blakeslee
in 1995.

companionate style of grandparenting -- a relationship style in which grandparents enjoy and have fun with their grandchildren but have little direct and intimate involvement in the child's

comparing -- a mathematical skill involving the perception of differences in items.

compendious -- marked by brief expression of a comprehensive matter; concise and comprehensive.

compensation -- the understanding that one change can offset another.

compensatory education -- Educational programs (such as Head Start) designed for children who are disadvantaged; early experiences and intervention efforts aimed at ameliorating the
consequences of living in poverty; goal is to better prepare young children for school.

competence -- the feeling of capability, independence, and autonomy; contributes to self-esteem.

competency-based assessment --
evaluation in which a teacher is judged or rated in comparison with a predetermined set of skills, or competencies, related to the job.

competitive style -- a style of conflict resolution characterized by aggression, lack of cooperation, pursuit of personal concerns at the expense of the other, and the desire to "win" at all

competitive symmetry -- a style of communication in which partners try to control the situation and the other by escalating the level of hostilities in a competitive manner.

complementary interaction -- a style of communication in which the partners adopt two different tactics: One is dominant and one is submissive.

complementary needs theory -- the supposition that people are attracted to partners whose personalities differ from but complement their own. Family researchers have not found much
support for this theory.

complementary proteins -- proteins with offsetting missing amino acids; complementary proteins can be combined to provide complete protein.

complete proteins -- proteins that contain all essential amino acids in amounts relative to the amounts needed to support growth.

complex emotions -- those emotions that emerge in the child after infancy; these include shame, guilt, envy, and pride.

complexity -- a feature of curriculum that requires exploration of multiple perspectives, issues, variables, and relationships.

complex absence seizure -- an absence seizure that includes a change in muscle activity, such as eye blinks, tasting movements of the mouth, hand movements or contraction and
relaxation of the muscles. They usually last more than 10 seconds.

complex partial seizure -- Seizures that usually start in a small area of the temporal lobe or frontal lobe of the brain. They quickly involve other areas of the brain that affect alertness
or awareness. Complex partial seizures often start with a
simple partial seizure, called an "aura," and the person has an odd feeling in the stomach. The person loses awareness or
consciousness and may make odd movements called "
automatisms" (such as moving the mouth, picking at hair or clothes, laugh, repeat words, etc.)

complex sentence -- a sentence that contains at least one independent clause and at least one subordinate or dependent clause.

complex stepfamily -- a stepfamily that includes children from both parents.

compliance -- obedience brought about by external pressures (such as the knowledge that one will be rewarded or punished for actions).

compliance training -- an important prerequisite to instructional training. The instructor orients the child to attend to the instructor and then issues a developmentally appropriate "do"

compound sentence -- a sentence that contains more than one independent clause and combines two or more ideas in a single sentence by using conjunctions, relative pronouns, or other
linguistic linkages.

compound word -- a word composed of two or more words that are spelled normally and retain their usual meanings, such as sawdust.

comprehension -- in language development, the words and word combinations that children understand.

comprehensive -- inclusive, covering completely, such as a program for children that concerns itself with the physical, intellectual, social, emotional, creative, and health needs of the

comprehensive intervention model -- a full array of professional services offered through an transdisciplinary approach.

comprehensive screening -- Evaluation of a child's current abilities, delays, and impairments in all areas of development.

comprehensive service plan -- a plan that includes social, financial, and medical care, mental health, recreation, employment, and housing.

compressed workweek -- work period in which employees perform a full-time job in less than five days of standard eight- (or nine-) hour shifts, such as in four days of 10 hours each.

compromise style -- a style of conflict resolution characterized by a willingness to give up something to resolve an issue.

compulsion neurosis -- Freud: a mental illness whose symptoms are either prohibitions and atonements (e.g., washing one's hands over and over) or symbolic substitute gratifications. As
always for Freud, the problem's core is repressed sexual wishes -- in this case the desire to masturbate. Now this is called
obsessive compulsive disorder.

compulsive reaction -- the need to do something in a particular way.  

compunction -- a feeling of guilt or moral scruple that follows the doing of something bad; a  pricking of the conscience.  

compurgator -- one who under oath vouches for the character or conduct of an accused person.

computed tomography (CT) or computerized axial tomography (CAT) -- an imaging technique in which x-ray "slices" of a structure
are taken and synthesized by a computer forming an image. It is most commonly used to visualize the brain. CT scans are less clear
than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, but are better at localizing certain tumors and areas of calcification.
(See machine
illustration and image illustration.)

computer technology --
using computers to help young children develop independence, self-help skills, visual and auditory concepts, language skills, and cognitive

concatenation -- to connect or link in a series or chain.

concave -- having a curved, indented surface. (See image?)

concept development --
the development of a thought, notion, or an abstract idea.

conception -- the union of a sperm and an ovum (egg), which begins the development of a fetus; also called fertilization (see ?? picture).

conceptual framework --
a set of interconnected ideas, concepts, and assumptions that helps organize thinking from a particular perspective. The field of family
science includes a wide variety of major conceptual frameworks: family systems theory, the family strengths framework, the family developmental framework, the
symbolic interaction framework, the social construction framework, and the feminist framework.

conceptual system -- a set of principles that articulate a body of knowledge.

conceptually accurate signed English (CASE) -- a sign system used in the United States that involves signing concepts rather than the literal English translation.

conciliabule -- secret meeting of conspirators.

conciliate -- to win over from a state of hostility or distrust; appease.

concinnity -- harmony in the arrangement or fitness of parts with respect to a whole.

concordance rate -- the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member. Used to study the  contribution of heredity to
emotional and behavioral disorders that can be judged as either present or absent.

concrete -- concerning the immediate experience of actual things or events; specific and particular rather than general or symbolic; naming a real thing or class of things; formed by a
coalition of particles into one solid mass; relating to or involving specific people, things, or actions rather than general ideas or qualities; relating to or made of concrete.

concrete operations -- a Piagetian term that refers to the stage of thinking at ages 6 -- 11 years. During this period, the child's thoughts are still shaped by previous experience, and they
are dependent on concrete objects that the child has manipulated or understood through the senses.

concrete operational stage -- period of development (7 to 11 years old) using logic and reasoning; mental actions are still related to "concrete" objects.

concupiscence -- lasciviousness; lewdness; ardent lust.

concurrent validity -- a type of validity that refers to the extent to which the information gained from an assessment instrument would be useful in planning intervention programs.

concussion -- a clinical syndrome, caused by a blow to the head, characterized by loss of consciousness; a jarring injury of the brain resulting in disturbance of cerebral function.

condensation -- Freud; the dream's tendency to combine several themes into one dream symbol. In this way the symbol can stand for several different thoughts, feelings, wishes, ideas.

condescend -- to descend to the level of one considered inferior; lower oneself; to deal with people in a patronizingly superior manner.

condign -- deserved, appropriate.

conditional positive regard -- Rogers: getting positive regard (or love, affection, etc.) on condition. The conditions are very powerful and we bend ourselves into a shape determined,
not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by a society that may or may not have our best interests at heart.

conditional positive self-regard -- Rogers: We begin to like ourselves only if we meet up with the standards others have applied to us; not by our potentials or our real self. We find that
we are unable to meet them so we are unable to maintain our

conditioned response or conditioned reflex (CR) --
in classical conditioning, an originally reflexive response that is produced by a conditioned stimulus (CS).

conditioned stimulus (CS) -- in classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus that, through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), leads to a new response (CR).

conditioning -- the process by which new objects or situations elicit responses that were previously elicited by other stimuli.

conditions of worth -- Rogers: parents, teachers, peers, the media, others give us what we need only when we show that we are worthy, rather than just because we need it. If you think
this, do that, look like this, say what I want you to say, behave this way, then you are worthy.

condone -- to regard or treat (something bad or blameworthy) as acceptable, forgivable, or harmless.

conduct disorder -- a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated, as manifested by the
presence of three or more of the following (in the last 6 months): aggression to animals or people, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules. A type of

behavioral disorder
in which persistent, negative, hostile, and anti-social behavior impairs daily life functioning and that includes disobedience, disruptiveness, fighting, and temper
tantrums. (also called
disruptive disorders).

conduction aphasia -- the ability to speak spontaneously and name object is intact, but inability to repeat words.

conductive hearing loss -- Hearing loss that is due to damage or blockage in the outer or middle ear; this causes sound waves to be unable to
reach the inner ear through the normal air conduction channels of the outer or middle ear. In children, conductive hearing loss is often medically
(see illustration).

cone cells --
photoreceptor cells of the eyes associated with color vision. (See illustration.)

confection --
something put together from varied material; a fancy dish or sweetmeat; a sweet food; a work of fine or elaborate craftsmanship; a
light but entertaining theatrical, cinematic, or literary work.

confidentiality -- the professional attitude and practice of preserving the privacy of information.

conflagration -- a large destructive fire.

conflicted couple -- a type of premarital and married couple characterized by few relationship strengths, low levels of relationship satisfaction, and a
high risk of divorce.

conflict -- disagreement between two or more people.

conflict-habituated marriage -- marriage characterized by ongoing tension and unresolved conflict.

conflict perspective -- the sociological approach that views individuals and groups as being basically in conflict with each other for power and scarce resources.

Conflict Tactics Scale -- a list of specific tactics that people use when they have conflicts with a family member, used as a way of measuring family violence.

conflict taboo -- a societal attitude that considers conflict and anger wrong.

confounding -- lack of clarity about which of two or more variables is responsible for observed outcomes.

confusion -- 1) a stage of grief; 2) a constant state.

congelifraction -- splitting or disintegration of rocks as a result of the freezing of water.

congenial -- having the same nature, disposition, or tastes: kindred; existing together harmoniously; suited to one's nature, tastes, or outlook; sociable, genial.

congenital - any condition that is present at birth (originating prior to or during birth); does NOT necessarily mean genetic.

congenital anomalies --
abnormalities of the body that are present at birth; any abnormality present at birth, particularly a structural one, which may be inherited genetically, acquired
gestation, or inflicted during the birth process. See birth defect.

congenital cataracts --
cataracts that are present at birth due to inherited tendencies, infections, metabolic problems, diabetes, trauma, inflammation, or drug reactions. For example,
taken by the mother during pregnancy has been shown to cause congenital cataracts. Maternal disorders such as measles, rubella, rubeola, chicken pox, cytomegalovirus,
simplex, herpes zoster, poliomyelitis, influenza, Epstein-Barr virus, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis can also cause congenital cataracts.

congenital cytomegalovirus -- a viral infection that spreads through close contact with another person who is shedding the virus in body secretions (contracted prenatally). Characteristics
hepatosplenomegaly (large liver and spleen), thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), jaundice, hemolytic anemia, microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, cerebral
calcifications, central nervous system disruptions, and progressive
sensorineural hearing loss. It is one of the top ten syndromes most commonly associated with hearing impairment.

congenital deafness --
a hearing loss that is present at birth.

congenital disability -- a disability present at birth.

congenital dermal sinus (CDS) -- a rare congenital disease that a scaly, multi-layered channel of tissue present at birth, extending from the surface of the body and passing between the
bodies of two adjacent
lumbar vertebrae to the spinal cord. It may appear as a dimple or a sinus (open tract), with or without hair, usually midline, with an opening of only 1 to 2
millimeters. These tracts are a potential pathway for infections within the
dura mater in the brain, and may lead to meningitis or an abscess. If the tract expands into the sac surrounding
the spinal cord to form a cyst, bladder dysfunction usually occurs. CDS is a form of
dysraphism. It results from a failure of normal midline fusion between the third and fifth weeks of
pregnancy. It is considered a
neural tube defect.

congenital facial diplegia --
see Moebius sequence.

congenital hearing loss -- hearing loss that is present at birth.

congenital heart defects -- heart problems present at birth. 44% of children with Down syndrome have a congenital heart defect, most commonly endocardial cushion defect,
ventricular septal defect, and atrial septal defect; multifactorial.

congenital heart disease or defects -- abnormalities in the heart's structure and function caused by abnormal or disordered heart development before birth. Congenital heart disease is,
by definition, present at birth although its effects may not be obvious immediately. It is responsible for the most deaths in the first year of life than any other congenital condition.

congenital myopathies -- a group of inherited muscle disorders often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

congenital rubella syndrome -- German measles contracted prenatally. A mother contracting German measles can cause a variety of conditions, including intellectual disability,
deafness, blindness,
and other neurological problems; also deaf-blindness. Can be considered teratogenic; maternal condition.

congenital toxoplasmosis infection --  an infection that is characterized by jaundice and anemia and frequently also results in central nervous system disorders (contracted prenatally).

congenital visual impairment -- visual impairment present at birth.

congestive heart failure -- a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body. Symptoms are shortness of breath, cough, swelling of feet and ankles,
swelling of the abdomen, weight gain, irregular or rapid pulse,
palpitations, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, indigestion, decreased concentration, decreased
urine production, nausea and vomiting, need to urinate at night.

congruence -- Rogers: a therapist must feel this for the client: genuineness, honesty with the client.

conjunction -- any member of a small class of words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences: and, because, but,
however, or, not, yet, for, so, either/or, both/and, neither/nor, until (for example).

conjunctiva -- the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball. (Indicated in illustration over

conjunctivitis --
an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that lines the insides of the eyelids and covers the cornea, which can be caused by a
number of irritants such as dust, smoke, wind, pollutants in the air, and excessive glare.
(See picture.)

conjugal family system --
a family consisting of a husband, a wife, and children.

connected knowledge -- the kind of knowledge and information that is connected to the child in ways that are real and relevant to that individual; also
known as meaningful knowledge.

connective tissue --  one of the four traditionally classified types of biological tissue. Each type of connective tissue serve functions of structure and
support, often connecting two other types of tissue to each other. There are loose connective tissue (
areolar, adipose, and reticular), dense connective tissue (regular and irregular),
cartilage (
elastic, hyaline, fibrocartilage), and other (skeleton, blood, lymphatic tissue).  

connexin --
a protein produced by the placenta which links uterine muscle cells to one  another so that they can contract in a coordinated fashion (during labor).

consanguineal family system -- a family system that emphasizes blood ties more than marital ties.

consanguinity -- relationship by blood.

conscience -- when the child thinks what his or her parents think is right or wrong; a personal sense, generally intuitive and urgent, of the way one should respond under specific
circumstances, often described, as by
Socrates, an inner voice that forbids certain actions. Freud: one of two sectors that comprise the superego. Basically, an internalized critical parent.
The conscience turns our innate destructiveness back upon ourselves and thereby safeguards the cohesion of society. At the same time, renunciations of drive strengthen the conscience.
Unlike the
ego's ideal internalized standards, those of the conscience deal mainly with what is "bad." Ultimately, it is fear of castration. A severe conscience comes about by 1. frustration of a
drive, which releases aggression needed to build the conscience; and 2. being loved, which directs innate aggression back to the person who has it.

conscious -- Freud: a quality of mental life of the ego. The ego uses consciousness to manage reality, which includes allowing pleasurable id gratifications that don't collide with everyday
demands or provoke the "thou shalt not"s of the
superego. Jung: the ego, the only conscious part of the mind or psyche. The other two parts, the collective unconscious and the personal
unconscious, are not conscious.

consciousness -- the state of being conscious; awake; aware.

consensual union -- an intimate relationship in which partners share a home but are not legally married.

consensus building -- guiding groups in decision making based on group agreement.

consensus decision making -- a process in which all members of a group must agree to a decision before action is taken, and if any one member disagrees with a decision, it is aborted.

consequate -- to follow, contingent upon a specific behavior.

consequences-- events that follow a behavior.

consequential/cultural -- refers to a communication approach that emphasizes the culture of the relationship and considers such things as interaction routines, rituals, and norms for

conservation -- understanding that volume or measurability of objects remains the same if nothing is added or subtracted, but the form is changed.

conservative perspective (on families) -- a political and intellectual position which holds that the traditional family is deteriorating and in risk of disappearing because of the widespread
social changes that have occurred in its form and function.

conservative quality of instincts -- instincts' tendency to use the least amount of energy necessary to move toward the goal object.

conservation tasks -- tasks used to assess children's use of operations, in which children must decide whether a transformed object is the same or different from what it was before.

conservatorship -- a circumstance in which the court declares an individual unable to take care of legal matters and appoints another individual (a conservator) to handle these matters on
the individual's behalf.

consistency -- a theory's ability to explain new discoveries without a need for changes in the assumptions on which the theory is based; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory
should be measured.

consolidate -- Behaviors become so well-learned that they are an integrated part of the child's repertoire.

consonant -- in agreement; agreeable; in accord; consistent; a letter that isn't a vowel; letters of the alphabet that stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech: b, c (cat or cyst), d, f,
g, (girl or George), h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.

consortium -- a legal term used to refer to the services traditionally provided by wives to their husbands.

constellation -- specific arrangement of stars to form an image.

constipation -- occurs when bowel movements become difficult or less frequent. It is caused by inadequate water intake, inadequate fiber in the diet, a disruption of regular diet or routine,
inadequate activity or exercise or mobility, eating a large amount of dairy products, stress, hemorrhoids, overuse of laxatives,
hypothyroidism, neurological conditions (Parkinsons
disease or multiple sclerosis), antacid medicines, other medicines, depression, eating disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, pregnancy, or colon cancer (or other things ...)

construct -- a group of variables that are related to each other.

constructive communication -- communication that helps to move a relationship in a positive direction, leads to growth and development, helps partners resolve differences, and provides
them with emotional support.

constructive intimacy games -- games, or exercises, designed to increase intimacy in a relationship; people participate voluntarily, and they know the rules and goals of the game.

constructive play -- manipulating objects, such as blocks, to create a physical product.

constructivist classroom -- a classroom that encourages students to construct their own knowledge, through richly equipped learning centers, small groups, and individuals solving
problems they choose themselves, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs. Students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior
development. Often grounded in
Piaget's theory. The classroom follows a constructivist perspective or constructivist theories of learning.

construct validity -- a type of validity that refers to the degree to which a test addresses the constructs on which it is based.

consultants -- specialists who are enlisted, and paid, for their advice.

consultation -- voluntary process in which one professional assists another to address a problem concerning a third party; in schools, consultants often are psychologists or other
specialists, consultees are often teachers, and clients usually are students.

consummate love -- a type of love relationship characterized by passion, commitment, and intimacy.

contact dermatitis -- an inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating substance. Symptoms are itching, redness, inflammation, tenderness, swelling, warmth, and
lesion or rash in exposed areas.

contagious -- capable of being passed or transmitted from one person to another.

contaminate -- to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association; to make inferior or impure by admixture; to make unfit for use by the introduction of unwholesomeness or undesirable

contempt -- the expression of one's feeling that one's partner is inferior or undesirable.

content analysis -- systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life.

contentious binuclear family -- divorced spouses who have a conflict-ridden relationship, but a high level of interaction.

content standards -- state what every child should know and be able to do.

content validity -- A specific type of validity that refers to how well a test represents the contents it purports to measure.

contexts -- unique combinations of genetic and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of development.

contextualized literacy -- the ability to read words when other clues are present, such as cereal names, restaurants, and traffic signs.

contextually based -- Assessment and intervention practices that are embedded into naturally occurring activities of the child.

contiguous gene syndrome -- a genetic syndrome resulting from defects in a number of adjacent genes.

continent -- large landmasses on earth; seven regions are considered continents (largest to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
Supercontinents on earth have included Laurasia, Gondwana, Vaalbara, Kenorland, Columbia, Rodinia, and Pangaea.

continual -- continuing indefinitely in time without interruption; recurring in steady usually rapid succession.

contingency -- part of a contract or agreement in behavior management.

contingency contracting -- also known as the Premack principle. At its essence, this type of contract states, "If you do X, then you get to do Y."

contingent stimulation -- applying punishment following the occurrence of a misbehavior; responding to a child in a way that prompts further learning.

contingent withdrawal -- the removal of access to positive reinforcement following a misbehavior.

continual -- continuing indefinitely in time without interruption; recurring in steady usually rapid succession.

continuing education -- the commitment of teachers to learning new approaches and ideas and to continuing to challenge themselves to higher levels of learning and competence.

continuous assessment -- type of assessment embedded within the daily process of instruction so that appraisal of children's responses and actions -- and subsequent adjustment of
curriculum and teaching -- is ongoing.

continuous coverage system -- situation in which parents become fully responsible for a fragile infant 24 hours every day.

continuous development -- a view that regards development as gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.

continuous performance tests (CPTs) -- assessment instruments designed to require a student to sustain attention in order to respond correctly to test items.

continuous perspective -- view that regards development as a cumulative process of adding more of the same type of skills (children can remember a greater number of items as they
grow older).

continuous process view of development -- a view of developmental change as occurring in small, gradual steps, with outcomes that are not qualitatively different from what was present
earlier, and in which the same general laws underlie the process at all points along the developmental continuum.

continuous reinforcement -- the reinforcement of a behavior every time it occurs.

continuum of placements -- the range of settings in which students with disabilities receive their education.

contraceptive -- (contraception) birth control measures.

contractions -- tightening of the muscles, especially those of the uterus, during labor.

contractures -- irreversible shortening of muscle fibers that causes decreased joint mobility. (See pictures.)

contradictory --
asserting the contrary or opposite, inconsistent, logically opposite; irreconcilable, paradoxical; given to argument or contention.

contrail -- a condensation trail of condensed water vapor resembling the tail of a kite; formed through the injection into the atmosphere by exhaust fumes from a jet engine;water droplets
freeze in a matter of seconds.

contrasting sensory qualities -- differing qualities pertaining to taste, color, texture, temperature, and shape.

contrast sensitivity -- a general principle accounting for early pattern differences, which states that if babies can detect a difference in contrast between 2 or more patterns, they will prefer
the one with more contrast.

contrectophobia -- fear of sexual abuse.

contrite -- feeling or showing sorrow and remorse for a sin or shortcoming.

control -- the exercise of direct authority over someone.

control group -- in an experiment, subjects who are not introduced to the independent variable by the researcher.

control of emotions and motivation -- mental activity that involves setting aside frustration or other emotion in order to complete a task.

control parameters -- the individual parts of a dynamic system.

controversial children -- in research about popularity among children, these are the children who get a large number of positive votes but who also get a large number of negative votes.

contumacious -- stubbornly or willfully disobedient to authority.

contumelious -- scornful and insulting; insolent.

contusion (of brain) -- structural damage limited to the surface layer of the brain, caused by a blow to the head; extensive
damage to the brain resulting in intense
stupor. This condition is often derived from brutal shaking, violent blows, or other
serious impacts to the head.
(See picture.)

conundrum --
a confusing and difficult problem or questions; a question asked for amusement, typically one with a pun in
its answer; a riddle.

convalescent -- the stage of recovery from an illness or disease.

convenience -- a type of cohabiting relationship  in which one partner takes and the other gives. A relationship of convenience is usually based on sexual, caretaking, economic, or social
needs rather than love.

conventicle -- an assembly of an irregular or unlawful character; an assembly for religious worship, especially a meeting for worship not sanctioned by law; meetinghouse.

conventional level -- The second level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on winning praise and recognition for good conduct and maintaining
the social order. There is a desire to establish and maintain good relations with others. Also called the conventional stage or the law and order stage.

convergent thinking -- the ability to arrive at a single answer, more difficult for young children with still-developing classifying, listening, and attending skills.

conversant -- having knowledge or experience.

conversation -- the spoken exchange of thoughts, opinions, and feelings; talk; an instance of this; an informal discussion of a matter by representatives of
governments, institutions, or organizations.
(See picture.)

conversational postulates --
subtle conversational rules that allow humans to converse in a reciprocal manner (i.e., initiating, turn taking, questioning, repairing
a breakdown in conversation, maintaining interactions, and closing a conversation.)

conversational right-of-way -- the patterns of turn-taking in conversations which allow only one person to speak at once.

conversation skills -- the development of such skills as listening, eye contact, not interrupting, respectful language, body language, etc.

conversational speech -- the everyday speech used between two or more people.

conversazione (kahn-ver-saht-see-OH-nee) -- a meeting for conversation especially about art, literature, or science.

conversion hysteria -- a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause).

convex -- having a curved, elevated surface, such as a dome. (See diagram.)

convoluted --
having many twists and curves; involved; intricate.

convulsions -- a violent sequence of uncontrollable muscular movements caused by a seizure.

convulsive disorder -- condition that produces convulsions or seizures.

cooing -- pleasant vowel-like noises made by infants, beginning about 2 months of age.

cooking (and emergent literacy) -- cooking with children and following recipes help develop pre-reading skills, pre-math skills, health, safety, nutrition, following directions, cooperation,
science, enjoyment of reading, joy of achievement, eye-hand coordination, attachment, and many more that I can't think of right now.

cook's tour -- a rapid or cursory survey or review.

coonazz or coonass -- a controversial term in Cajun -- to some it means ignorant; to others it is a badge of pride.

cooperative binuclear family -- divorced spouses who maintain high levels of friendship and interaction.

cooperative interactions -- opening oneself to the will of the group and abandoning individualistic orientation to the work.

cooperative learning -- collaboration on a task by a small group of students who resolve differences of opinion, share responsibility, consider one another's ideas, and work toward
common goals; an instructional method that emphasizes simultaneous learning of students as they work together to achieve group goals.

cooperative play -- Form of play in which children share toys and use mutually accepted goals and rules.

coordination of secondary circular reactions -- infant's ability to combine actions to solve simple problems.

coordination of secondary schemata -- a level of learning characterized by ability to understand and manipulate the environment.

coparental divorce -- fourth of Bohannan's six different but overlapping experiences of divorce; involves decisions about custody of the children, single-parenting, and visitation rights for
the noncustodial parent.

coparenting -- a style of parenting in which both parents take on tasks and roles traditionally associated with only the mother or the father.

copernicium -- atomic number 112; symbol Cn; a synthetic transition metal named after Nicolaus Copernicus (originally called ununbium, Uub); made through a nuclear reaction involving
fusing a zinc atom with a lead atom; half life of only about 240 microseconds; radioactive; has only been produced in minute amounts. Discovered in 1996 by
S. Hofmann, V. Ninov, and F.
B. Hessbuger

coping mechanisms -- strategies for overcoming uncomfortable situations.

coping skills -- strategies to overcome emotional traumas.

copious -- abundant in supply or quantity.

copper -- atomic number 29, symbol Cu; ductile, malleable, reddish brown metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity and is used for electrical wiring, water piping,
and corrosion-resistant parts; copper was known to the ancients; discovery unknown.

coprolalia -- involuntary use of vulgar or obscene gestures or language; see Tourette Syndrome.

coprophobia --
fear of excrement.

copse -- thicket of small trees or shrubs; a coppice; a small wood; a tree.

coptostasophobia -- fear of constipation.

coprovider marriage -- also known as dual-earner marriages, both married partners are employed outside the home.

coquelicot -- a type of plant; red poppy.

coquetry -- a flirtatious act or attitude.

coquette -- woman who makes teasing or sexual or romantic overtures; a flirt or tease.

coracle -- small rounded boat made of waterproof material stretched over a frame.

cordillera -- group of mountain ranges forming a mountain system of great linear extent.

cordocentesis -- see percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS).

cordovan -- a rich shade of burgundy and a dark shade of rose. There are cordovan jackets, shoes, and uniforms. See this color??

core academic subjects -- PL 108-446 -- English, reading and language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography.

core emotions -- basic emotions present at birth from which other emotions evolve.

coregulation -- a transitional form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-by-moment decision making.

core knowledge perspective -- a perspective that states that infants are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought, each of which permits a ready grasp of
new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition.

coriander -- a type of aromatic herb; herb used in a variety of perfumes.

corinthian -- pertaining to Corinth or its culture; architectural term.

cornea -- the transparent, dome-like covering of the iris. (See illustration.)

corneal clouding --
clouding of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of genetic, metabolic, developmental, or idiopathic factors. A common
cause is
glaucoma. Others are birth trauma, Peters anomaly, dermoid tumors, sclerocornea, infections, etc. Here is a mnemonic to remember
causes of corneal clouding:
S -- Sclerocornea  T -- Tears in the descemet membrane due to birth trauma or congenital glaucoma   U -- Ulcers   
M --
Metabolic  P -- Peters anomaly E -- Edema   D -- Dermoid.

corneal opacity -- a disorder of the cornea, which occurs when the cornea becomes scarred. This stops light from passing through the cornea to the retina and may cause the cornea to
appear white or clouded over. Caused by infections, injury, or inflammation of the cornea. Other risks for developing corneal opacity are
vitamin A deficiency, measles, herpes simplex
virus, conjunctivitis, wearing contact lenses for long periods of time, especially overnight. Symptoms are vision decrease or loss, pain in the eye or feeling like there is something in your eye,
eye redness or light sensitivity, and an area on the eye that appears cloudy, milky, or is not completely transparent.

corneal reflex -- the blink reflex.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (Brachmann-de Lange syndrome) -- prenatal growth retardation, postnatal short stature, hypertrichosis (excessive body hair), synophrys (confluent
eyebrows), anteverted nostrils, depressed nasal bridge, long
philtrum, thin upper lip, microcephaly, low-set ears, limb and digital anomalies, eye problems (myopia, ptosis, or
), severe intellectual disability, occasional heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, long eyelashes, rounded eyebrows, short nose with triangular shape, small hands and feet,
phocomelia, autistic-like behaviors, language delays, gastroesophageal reflux, feeding abnormalities, speech-language delays, global developmental delays, hearing
, self-injurious behaviors. Caused by a mutation in the Nipped-B-like gene (NIPBL) gene, which is linked to chromosome 3q26.3, usually new mutation with occasional
dominant. Can be prenatally diagnosed through ultrasound. Incidence approximately 1/10,000; recurrence risk for patient's siblings less than 1% if parents unaffected, 50% for
affected parents' children. A cause of
deaf-blindness. Also called de Lange syndrome, or Brachman de Lange Syndrome.

coronal suture --
a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint that separates the frontal bone and parietal bones of the skull.

coronary heart disease -- a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. Symptoms are chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, fatigue.

corporal punishment -- the use of physical force to cause a child to experience pain but not injury, with the intent of correcting or controlling the child's behavior.

corpus callosum -- The bridge of white matter connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. It is a white-matter bundle of 200--300 million nerve fibers
that connect the left and right hemispheres. Located in the
midbrain area, it is about 4 inches long. (See two illustrations.)

corpus callostomy --
surgical procedure in which the corpus callosum is cut to prevent the spread of seizures from one hemisphere to another.

corpus luteum -- what is left of the follicle on the ovaries after ovulation.

corpus striatum --
either of two gray and white striated bodies of nerve fibers located in the lower lateral wall of each cerebral hemisphere.

corrade -- verb; to scrape together; to gather together from various sources.

corrected gestational age -- age adjusted to reflect premature delivery.

correlated constraints -- when children's lives are permeated with several risk factors, those factors constrain the development of positive

correlation coefficient -- calculated measure of the relations between variables.

correlational design -- a research design in which the researcher gathers information without altering participant's experiences and examines
relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect.

correlational study -- method in which researchers compare participants on two variables to determine whether the variables relate to each other.

correlation coefficient -- a number, ranging from 1.00 to -1.00 that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.

corrode -- to eat away by degrees as if by gnawing; to wear away gradually usually by chemical action; to weaken or destroy gradually; undermine;
to undergo corrosion.

CORT -- corticotropin is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal cortex during stress. It binds to a specialized neuronal receptor where regions in the amygdala and hippocampus are
particularly impacted.

cortex -- the outermost or superficial layer of an organ; the middle layer of a strand of hair; (cerebral cortex) the outer layer of the cerebrum (part of the forebrain); (motor cortex,
prefrontal cortex, and visual cortex); (cerebellar cortex) the outer layer of the cerebellum; (renal cortex) the outer portion of a kidney; (adrenal cortex) the portion of the adrenal
gland responsible for the production of cortisol and aldosterone; (cell cortex) the region directly underneath the cell membrane.

cortical -- pertaining to the cortex or gray matter of the brain.

cortical blindness -- conditions in which damage to the part of the brain dealing with sight results in the images received in the eyes not being interpreted correctly.

cortical mapping -- the placement of electrodes over the cortex during a neurosurgical operation. Stimulation of the electrodes results in motor or sensory activity that allows "mapping" of
cortical control or body action.

cortical visual impairment (CVI) -- a leading cause of acquired blindness, which involves damage to the occipital lobes and/or the visual pathways to the brain. CVI can result from
severe trauma,
asphyxia, seizures, infections of the central nervous system, drugs, poisons, or various neurological conditions.

corticospinal pathways -- white matter pathways leading from the brain through the spinal corticospinal tract; see pyramidal tract.

cortocospinal tract -- see pyramidal tract.  

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) --
a hormone released by the placenta that leads the fetal adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a stress hormone that clears the infant's lungs
of fluid in anticipation of breathing air.

cortisol (hydrocortisone) -- a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress.

cortisone -- a steroid that prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation.

coruscate -- sparkle, reflect brightly, shimmer.

cosmogany -- a theory or model of the origins and evolution of the universe. Cosmogonic stories relate the origins of the universe.

cosmology -- study of the physical universe considered a mass of phenomena in space time.

cosmopolitan -- pertaining to the world at large, without localized prejudices.

cost escalation -- an indirect relationship-ending strategy in which one tries to get his or her partner to end the relationship by making it unrewarding to him or her.

co-teaching -- service delivery model in which two educators, one typically a general education teacher and one a special education teacher or other specialist, combine their expertise to
jointly teach a heterogeneous group of students, some of whom have disabilities or other special needs, in a single classroom for part or all of the school day.

coterie -- tightly-knit group of persons having a common purpose or interest; cadre; clique.

co-twin control research method -- a research method in which one of two identical twins is trained on a physical task and then both twins are tested on the task when they are
maturationally ready for it; used by
Gesell to study the importance of maturation.

cotyledon -- a simple embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants; a tuft of villi on the mammalian placenta.

cough variant asthma -- asthma that is displayed by a persistent and irritating cough.

counter cathexis -- Freud: a process of internal frustration that, evolved from experiences of external frustration, sets up and maintains a repression. It involves the withdrawal of libido
from whatever is being repressed.

countermand -- to revoke (a command) by a contrary order; to recall or order back by a superseding contrary order.

countenance -- appearance, especially the expression of the face;  a look or expression indicative of encouragement or of moral support; bearing; demeanor.

counterphobic -- relating to or characterized by a preference for or seeking out of a situation that is feared.

counter transference -- Freud: the therapist's transference projections -- in other words, enactment of old conflicts from the family of origin -- onto the patient. Example: when Anna O
Bertha Pappenheim) fell in love with Freud's partner Josef Breuer, he fled because the situation aroused intolerable emotions in him. (For an example of Freud's counter transference,
see his
Dora paper). The meaning of counter transference has broadened since Freud's time to include all the therapist's reactions toward the patient.

counter-wish -- Freud: in a dream, an element that appears to contradict a wish but actually fulfills it. The frustration dreams of a masochist, for instance, who gets off on being frustrated.

Couple and Family Map (Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems by David H. Olsen and Dean M. Gorall) -- a family systems model of family development, change,
stressors, and reactions to stressors, cohesion, flexibility, communication, strengths, and satisfaction over time.

courtship -- the process by which a commitment to marriage is developed.

courtship violence -- the use or threat of force or restraint carried out with the intent of causing pain or injury to a dating partner.

covenant marriage -- an anti-divorce contract in which couples demonstrate their strong commitment to marriage by a) getting premarital counseling, b) getting marital counseling in times of
marital difficulties, c)agreeing not to divorce until after a separation of two years or after proving adultery or domestic abuse.

coxcomb -- a conceited showy person.

cozenage -- a fraudulent business scheme; swindle, cheat, rig.

crack -- a form of cocaine that can be smoked. (See picture.)

cranial bones --
flat bones that surround and protect the brain. These are: frontal bone, two parietal bones, two
temporal bones, sphenoid bone, occipital bone, and ethnoid bone. (See picture.)

cranial nerves --
12 pairs of nerves in the brain with different functions: Olfactory I -- smell; Optic II -- vision;
Oculomotor III -- eyelid and eyeball movement; Trochlear IV -- innervates superior oblique, turns eye downward and laterally; Trigeminal V -- chewing, face and mouth touch and pain,
Abducens VI --
turns eye laterally; Facial VII -- controls most facial expressions, secretion of tears and saliva, taste; Vestibulocochlear VIII (auditory) -- hearing, equilibrium, sensation;
Glossopharyngeal IX --
taste, senses carotid, blood pressure; Vagus X -- senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart rate, stimulates digestive organs, taste; Spinal Accessory XI --
controls trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, controls swallowing movements; Hypoglossal XII -- controls tongue movements

craniofacial -- relating to the skull and bones of the face.

craniofacial dystosis -- see Crouzon syndrome.

craniosynostosis --
premature closure of cranial bones.

cranium -- a skull without a mandible. See pictures, all except one of which, incidentally, have a mandible.

crapulous --
marked by intemperance especially in eating or drinking; sick from excessive indulgence in liquor.

craquelure -- fine pattern of dense cracking formed on the surface of paintings.

crawl -- coordination of the arms and legs to move across a surface on the abdomen.

creatine kinase (CK) -- an enzyme released by damaged muscle cells. Its level is elevated in muscular dystrophy.

creative dance -- an art form based on natural movement rather than the stylized movements used in ballet or other forms of theatrical dancing.

creative intelligence -- in Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, the capacity to solve novel problems.

creative movement -- movement that reflects the mood or inner state of a child. (See creative movement card)

creativity --
novel thinking or product; the ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate -- something that someone else has not
thought of but that is useful in some way.
Maslow: one of the characteristics of someone who is self-actualizing; inventive, original. Rogers: a
quality of a fully functioning person: being creative in a way that is sensible to you, i.e., in the arts or sciences, through social concern or
parental love, or simply doing one's best at one's job.

credulous -- ready to believe especially on slight or uncertain evidence; proceeding from credulity.

cremasteric reflex -- a drawing up of the scrotum and testicle in response to scratching the skin on the inner side of the body on the same
side of the body.

cremnophobia -- fear of precipices.

crescendo -- music, gradual increase of tempo, volume, or intensity.

CRF -- Corticotropin release factor -- a chemical secreted by the hypothalamus that prompts the pituitary gland to release a stress hormone,

crib speech -- an early form of private speech that toddlers engage in, typically before they go to sleep and after they wake up.

Cri-du-chat syndrome -- pre- and postnatal growth retardation, cat-like cry in infancy, widely spaced eyes with downward slant, intellectual disability, congenital heart defects,
, simian creases, hypertelorism with downward slant, low-set ears, micrognathia, cognitive defects ranging from learning disabilities to intellectual disability, severe
respiratory and feeding abnormalities in infancy,
hypotonia, inguinal hernia, sleep disturbance, hyperactivity. Caused by a partial deletion of chromosome 5p15.2, usually a new mutation
or sporadic.
Amniocentesis or chromosome analysis can be  used for prenatal diagnosis. Inheritance: if mother carries a chromosomal abnormality, risk to patient's  siblings is 15% to 25%.
If father carries the
translocation, 8%. If parents' chromosomes appear normal, actual risk is unknown, but low. Incidence: 1/20,000; recurrence risk, low unless parent carries a
translocation or other chromosomal abnormality.

crinolette -- crinoline; a coarse stiff fabric of cotton or horsehair used especially to line and stiffen hats and garments.

crisis -- a drastic change in the course of events; a turning point that affects the trend of future events; an unstable condition of affairs; a time of danger and a time of opportunity.

crisis/exploration -- the process of making choices about life directions by considering options, values, and goals.

crisis group -- a support group for families to help them resolve issues.

crisis-loss stage of grief -- a period of chaotic shock; the first of Brubaker's three stages of the grieving process.

crisis model -- one perspective of the divorce-stress adjustment model that assumes that divorce represents a temporary disturbance to which most individuals adjust over time.

criterion referenced assessment -- An evaluation method in which an individual's performance is interpreted relative to specific curricular objectives.

criterion referenced standardized test -- A standardized test in which the individual's score is compared to a criterion -- a specific level or cut-off score for acceptable performance.

criterion referencing -- a means of determining where an individual stands in relation to a criterion or a performance standard rather than to other individuals. This meaning comes from
comparison to an expected standard or criterion.

criterion related validity -- a form of technical adequacy in assessment that has to do with whether the tests, either presently (concurrent criterion-related validity) or in the future
(predictive criterion-related validity).

critical periods -- periods during which specific biological or environmental events must occur if development is to proceed normally.

critical thinking -- clear thinking, skeptical thinking, active thinking -- actively seeking to understand, analyze, and evaluate information in order to solve specific problems.

Crohn's Disease -- an inflammatory bowel disorder. It usually affects the intestines, but may occur anywhere from the mouth to the end of the rectum. Symptoms may be cramps, fever,
fatigue, loss of appetite, pain with passing stool, persistent watery diarrhea, unintentional weight loss, constipation, eye inflammation, joint pain, mouth ulcers, bloody stools, rash, swollen
gums. Cause is unknown.

cross-age tutoring -- an instructional method that pairs older students with younger students to facilitate learning.

cross-cousin marriage -- the marriage of two people who have parents who are siblings.

cross cultural studies -- research in which social scientists compare data between different kinds of societies.

cross dresser/ transvestite -- a person who enjoys wearing the clothes usually reserved for use by the opposite gender, but has no desire to change their sex
permanently. The majority are male and are attracted to women.
(See picture.)

crossing over -- the exchange of genetic material between two closely aligned chromosomes during meiosis.

cross sectional design --
a research design in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.

cross sectional sequential design -- a research design used in studies of development in which different subjects are observed from one testing time to the next.

cross sectional study -- method in which individuals of different ages are tested at the same point in time and the results from each age group are compared.

Crouzon syndrome (craniofacial dystosis) -- craniosynostosis, shallow orbits with proptosis (protuberant eyeballs), hypertelorism, strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip,
maxillary hypoplasia
(small upper jaw), conductive hearing loss, increased intracranial pressure, intellectual disability, seizures, visual impairments, agenesis of corpus callosum,
occasional cleft lip or palate, obstructive airway problems. Caused by mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) gene on chromosome 10q25.3--q26;
autosomal dominant,
though up to 25% may represent new mutations. A cause of

crowds --
peer groups defined by members' activities and social standing.  

crowning -- when the top of the baby's head becomes visible during childbirth.

Cruciatus curse -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), one of the Unforgiveable curses. It causes the victim almost intolerable pain. Some victims of this curse have been driven
insane. A Cruciatus curse was used on
Neville's parents.

crucible -- a vessel in which metals or other substances are heated to a very high temperature or melted; a severe test; a place or situation in which concentrated forces interact to cause or
influence change or development.

crude divorce rate -- the number of divorces in a given year per 1,000 population.

cruise -- in infant development, to move around while holding onto things for support.

Crumple-horned snorkack -- an elusive magical creature believed to live in Sweden. It is implied, though unconfirmed, that the Snorkack is a myth. It might be entirely the delusion of the
Lovegood family (Harry Potter, J.K. Rowling). The Lovegoods had a Crumple-Horned Snorkack horn in their house, and when Harry, Ron, and Hermione came to visit, Hermione said
that it was an erumpent horn instead; and could explode; and it did.

crup -- a magical creature from the southeast of England. It is a popular pet among wizards. It resembles a Jack Russell terrier except that it has a forked tail. It will eat anything.

crux -- a puzzling or difficult problem; an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome; a main or central feature (as of an argument).

cry analysis -- a research test in which acoustic measurements of the infant's cry are taken. Infants who have hypoxic brain damage tend to have an abnormal pattern.

crying -- the communication method most popular with newborns.

cryophobia -- fear of ice.

cryotherapy -- the use of freezing temperatures to destroy tissue. A cryotherapy probe has been used to treat retinoblastoma and retinopathy of prematurity.

cryptography --
the enciphering and deciphering of messages in secret code or cipher; the computerized encoding and decoding of information.

cryptorchidism -- undescended testes.

cryptosporidiosis -- an infectious illness caused by an intestinal parasite. May be present in water (e.g., swimming pools, hot tubs, streams) contaminated with feces or from unwashed
hands. Often causes severe diarrhea in children.

crystal -- mineral with many possible permutations; gemstone-like.

crystallophobia -- fear of glass.

c-section -- see cesarean section.

CSF -- see cerebrospinal fluid.    

ctesiphon --
the imperial capital of the Parthian Arsacids and of the Persian Sassanids, which was one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia. (The city was in central Iraq on the Tigris
River, southeast of Baghdad. It was the residence of Parthian kings, renowned for its splendor. The Arabs captured and plundered the city in 637 AD.

CT scan -- see computed tomography.    

cuckold --
a man whose wife has committed adultery.

cued speech -- a method of supplementing oral communication by adding hand signals made near the chin.  

cult of true womanhood -- an ideology about women's place in society that developed in the late nineteenth century, emphasizing women's moral duty and responsibility to remain in the
home and care for their families.    

cultural and linguistic diversity -- various cultural and language home environments in today's multicultural society that influence the growth and development of the child and the nature
of intervention.   

cultural appropriateness --
A component of the developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) guidelines, which refers to the need for the learning environment and curriculum to be
respectful and responsive to the individual cultures represented in the classroom.  

cultural capital -- comfort and familiarity with customs and demands of one's culture.  

cultural competence -- a program's ability to honor and respect those beliefs, interpersonal styles, attitudes, and behaviors both of families who are clients and the multicultural staff who
are providing services.  

cultural deficit theory -- blames the failure of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds on the disadvantages that they experienced within their own cultures.  

cultural difference theories -- also called cultural mismatch theories; contend that failure of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in school cannot be attributed
solely to their lack of assimilation into European culture.  

cultural dissonance -- significant discrepancy between two or more cultural frames of reference.

cultural evolution -- also known as unilinear theory, a nineteenth century theory of culture that postulated that all human societies go through the same evolutionary stages, with different
societies being at different stages. Thus studying a "primitive" society's beliefs, stories, and institutions can tell researchers what more "advanced" societies were like in the past. Cultural
evolutionists also believed that modern societies retain some customs as survivals of their primitive past. This theory is no longer held by anthropologists.

cultural-familial mental retardation -- any case of intellectual disability for which an organic cause cannot be found.

cultural group -- a set of people who embrace core beliefs, behaviors, issues, values, and norms and transmit them from generation to generation.

cultural identity -- a feeling of belonging that evolves from the shared beliefs, values, and attitudes of a group of people; the structure of the group's marital, sexual, and kinship

cultural interpreter -- an individual who helps school personnel and family members from a diverse culture communicate effectively; may or may not speak the family's native language, but
has sufficient understanding of both the home culture and school culture, policies, and practices to help the family and school understand one another.

cultural mores -- customs and beliefs associated with a particular culture.

cultural pluralism -- arrangement in which multiple cultural subgroups live together in a manner that preserves group differences, thereby maintaining each group's cultural or ethnic

cultural reciprocity -- a two way process between professionals and families of information sharing, understanding, and respecting how their different values and belief systems may
influence perspectives, wishes, and decisions. Requires careful examination of each party's cultural background and belief system.

culturally assaultive -- behaviors that attack the culture of another by ignoring, failing to accept and respect, demeaning, or attacking the beliefs and behaviors of another.

culturally biased assessment -- a measure that focuses on skills and abilities in the dominant Western culture and places children from non-Western, non-dominant cultures at a

culturally diverse -- distinct world views, values, styles, and language among people.

culturally diverse families -- families in which the predominant culture and/or language is different from mainstream. Sometimes referred to as culturally and linguistically diverse families.

culturally sensitive -- Classroom activities, materials, and curricula that acknowledge and respect the different ethnicities that are represented in the classroom and community.

cultural press for childbearing -- the set of family, religious, ethnic, and economic pressures that encourage people to have children.

culture -- Freud: two purposes of culture are to protect us against nature, and to regulate our affairs with each other. To adapt to life in a culture, one must repress one's drives (repress
one's sexuality and aggression, displacing the second onto suitable targets outside the culture and sublimating the first into other achievements). "Man is a savage beast," and to repeat a
quotation from
Plautus which Freud liked, "Homo homini lupus" ("Man is a wolf to man" -- written, presumably, by a wolf). So Eros and Ananke (Love and Necessity) are the parents of
civilization, and social restrictions on sexuality are unavoidable. Were it not for our need to live with one another, we could allow our drives free play and not be neurotic.

culture hero -- a hero (often male) who brings great gifts to his community through acts of creation such as bringing fire, through fighting for the community's safety against outside foes
from dragons to human oppressors, or through providing inspiration for noble or courageous behavior. The last function is also often demonstrated by women.

cumulate -- to gather or pile or become gathered or piled in a heap; to combine into one; to build up by addition of new material; to increase gradually in quantity or number.

cumulative deficits -- adding on or layering of developmental problems.

cumulative effect -- adding on or accumulation of consequences.

cumulative tales -- tales with formulaic plot structures using an additive formula which involves numerous characters each repeating the actions or words of previous characters until the
story's sudden climax; an example of a
formula tale.

cumulonimbus --
a type of cloud that augurs, foretells, or indicates bad weather; can exist as individual towers or form a light of towers called a squall line; they can easily reach 39,000 feet
or higher; lower levels consist mostly of water droplets, and higher, ice crystals; powerful thunderstorms (supercells).

cumulus cloud -- looks like floating cotton; has a lifetime of 5 to 40 minutes; flat base, slight vertical growth; fluffy due to buoyant bubbles of air.

cuneiform writing -- Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and ancient Persian writing made up of wedge-shaped characters imprinted in soft clay with a pointed stick.

curate -- a cleric, especially one who has charge of a parish, or who assists a rector or vicar.

curiosity -- strong need to know and to understand; a characteristic of many students who are gifted.

curious -- marked by desire to investigate and learn; marked by inquisitive interest in others' concerns; nosy; exciting attention as strange, novel, or unexpected; odd.

curium -- atomic element 96, symbol Cm; a silvery metallic synthetic radioactive transuranic element. Its longest lived isotope is Cm 247 with a half-life of 16.4 million years. Named after
Marie and Pierre Curie. Discovered in 1944 by G. T. Seaborg.

curlicue -- fancy curl or twist; flourish of writing.

curriculum -- What is to be learned in an early childhood program; it flows from the theoretical or philosophical perspectives on which the program is based.

curriculum-based assessment (CBA) -- the direct and frequent measurement of observable student behaviors to track their progress within the curriculum.

curriculum-based measurement (CBM) -- approach to assessment that measures achievement by sampling a student's understanding of the classroom curriculum.

curriculum compacting -- educational practice in which the goals of an instructional unit are identified, student mastery of all or part of the goals is documented, and alternative instruction
is provided as appropriate.

curriculum-embedded assessment -- suggests that assessment should be an integral part of teaching and learning.

curriculum extension -- efforts to expand the breadth and depth of the coverage of a given topic.

curriculum flexibility -- a combination of learning options responsive to learner needs and contextual demands; options include acceleration through grade skipping, scaling of objectives,
enrichment options, and out-of-school options.

curriculum-referenced instruments -- a type of measure that is used to interpret a child's performance or abilities in relation to specific curricular objectives.

cursive -- flowing, effusive, wavy, type on handwriting in English.

curvilinear relationship -- researchers have found that the relationship between stress and effective outcomes for people is curvilinear --both too much and too little stress are problematic
for individual and family functioning, but moderate levels of stress are usually positive.

cuspidor -- a receptacle for spit; spittoon.

custodial -- those tasks relating to guardianship of a child's basic needs for food, clothing, shelter; they include providing for eating, dressing, toileting, resting, and appropriate protection
from physical handicaps such as weather, danger, etc.

custody issues -- the questions involving which person or persons will serve as the child's legal guardian. In families in which there has been a divorce, one or both parents may serve as
the child's guardian when making decisions about the child's welfare. Terminology varies depending on the state, but terms such as joint legal custody, joint physical custody, and shared
custody may be used to define the parent's relationship to the child.

cutaneous -- relating to the skin.

cuvette -- a small, transparent, often tubular laboratory vessel.

CVA -- see cerebral vascular accident.

CVS --
see chorionic villus sampling.

cyan --
a type of greenish-blue.

cyaneous -- a type of deep blue, cerulean.

cyanobacteria -- blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria, cyanophyta; a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis.

cyanosis -- a blue-tinged color to the skin, which can occur when blood bypasses the lungs, resulting in decreased oxygen being available to cells.
(See picture.)

cycle menus --
menus that are written to repeat after a set interval, such as every 3 -- 4 weeks.

cycle of violence -- Lenore Walker's three-phases of violence: 1) rising tension; 2) escalation and explosion; 3) honeymoon phase in which there
is calmness, contrition, and kindness.

cyclopia -- a complicated and rare form of holoprosencephaly. In cyclopia, the eyes have not developed normally, nor has the nose. Instead of two eyes, the baby may have a single eye
almost in the middle of the face and a nose that is nonfunctional, is nearly absent, and may be located above the eye. Most babies born with cyclopia don't survive.

cygnet -- a baby swan; young swan.

Cygnus -- a northern constellation whose; Greek for "swan"; features a prominent asterism known as the Northern Cross; Cygnus was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century
Ptolemy; 36 of its stars have planets; lies between Draco, Cepheus, Lacerta, Pegasus, and Lyra.

cylinder -- long, tubular geometric shape rendered in three dimensions.

cymbal -- percussive instrument, usually attached to a drum kit.

cymophobia -- fear of waves.

cynophilist -- dog-lover, one who loves and appreciates doggies.

cynophobia -- fear of dogs or rabies.

cynosure -- that which garners great attention by calling to its brilliance; interest.

cypress -- type of swampy tree or plant, plant or tree occurring in swamps.

cyprianophobia -- fear of prostitutes.

cyst -- a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst.

cystic fibrosis -- an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of the secretory glands leading to malabsorption and lung disease.

cystinuria -- a familial condition in which stones form in the kidney, ureter, and bladder. Symptoms are blood in the urine, flank pain or pain in the side or back (usually on one side, often
severe, may worsen), pain may also be felt in the pelvis, groin, genitals, or between the upper abdomen and the back. Cystinuria is an
autosomal recessive disorder, caused by too much
of an
amino acid called cystine in the urine. This is caused by mutations in the SLC3A1 (chromosome 2) and SLC7A9 genes (chromosome 19).

cytherean -- pertaining to beauty or the goddess, Aphrodite.

cytokinesis -- the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following the division of the nucleus.

cytomegalic inclusion viral infection (CMV) -- one of the family of herpes viruses that is common and produces no symptoms in adults but can cause malformations and brain damage to
an unborn child.

cytomegalovirus -- (CMV) A virus causing symptoms that may mimic mononucleosis, or it may be asymptomatic. It can lead to severe fetal malformations similar to congenital rubella. Can
deaf blindness. Can be considered teratogenic or maternal condition.

cytoplasm -- the contents of the cell outside the nucleus.

cytosine --
one of the four nucleotides (chemicals) that comprise DNA. It pairs with guanine.

cytoskeleton -- the internal framework of a cell, composed largely of actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. The cytoskeleton is present in the cytoplasm of
eukaryotic cells
that organizes other cell components, maintains cell shape, and is responsible for cell locomotion and for movement of the organelles within it.
A   B  D     E     F     G    H  I   JKL     M      NO     PQ   
R      Sa--So    Sp--Sz   T  UVWXYZ
To love oneself is
the beginning of a
life-long romance.
--Oscar Wilde
Below, conception,