|babbling -- repetition of consonant-vowel combinations of long strings, beginning about 4 months of age.
Babinski reflex -- a reflex in which stimulation applied to the sole of an infant's foot results in the infant spreading his or her toes.
baby biographies -- one of the first methods of child study, these narratives were written accounts by parents of what their babies did and said, usually in the form of a diary or a log.
baby teeth -- see deciduous teeth.
baccalaureate -- bachelor's degree; valedictory speech.
bacchanalian -- characterized by or given to drunken revelry; riotously drunken.
bacillophobia, bacteriophobia -- fear of germs.
back and forth interaction -- communication between two individuals in which both respond and reciprocate emotions and thoughts.
backbone -- see spine.
back to basics -- a movement of the 1970s and 1980s prompted by a desire for schools to return to teaching the basic skills usually associated with academic learning, such as reading,
writing, and arithmetic.
backward chaining -- method of teaching a task in which the instructor begins by teaching the last step in a sequence because this step is most likely to be associated with a potent positive
bacteremia -- spread of a bacterial organism in the bloodstream.
bacteria -- a large group of typically one-celled, microscopic organisms widely distributed in air, water, soil, and the bodies of living plants and animals. (See
bacterial endocarditis -- an infection of either the heart's inner lining (endocardium) or the heart valves. It is very serious and sometimes fatal. It is caused
by bacteria and a weakened heart.
bacterial infections -- bacteria that cause illness, that reproduce quickly in the body and give off chemicals called toxins which damage tissue. Antibiotics
are a treatment for bacterial infections. Some bacteria that cause bacterial infections are staphylococci (staph; can cause disease or infections), methicillin-
resistant staphylococcus aureaus (MRSA; antibiotic resistant, skin infections), streptococci (strep; strep throat, pneumonia, respiratory infections), haemophilus influenzae
(respiratory infections, ear infections, meningitis), E Coli (food poisoning), H. Pylori (stomach ulcers), salmonella (food poisoning). Symptoms of a bacterial infection are fever, swelling,
discharge and pain.
bacterial meningitis -- an infection of the meninges, the three membranes enveloping the brain.
bacterial pneumonia -- an infection of the lungs. Symptoms are coughing, fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Usually the body keeps bacteria from infecting the lungs, but with
bacterial pneumonia, bacteria reproduce in the lungs. The body responds with inflammation in the alveoli (microscopic sacs in the lungs), and they fill with fluid. This causes the lungs to be
less elastic which causes the lungs to be less effective in taking oxygen into the blood and removing carbon dioxide from the blood.
bacterial vaginosis -- an STD in which the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by
discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning. While considered a sexually transmitted disease, the cause is not fully understood. However having sex with a new partner or multiple sex
partners and douching seem to be risk factors.
bad dads -- men who have little or no contact with their children and provide little or no economic support.
baksheesh (BAK-sheesh) -- payment (as a tip or bribe) to expedite service.
Balaam -- a diviner in the Torah, occurring near the end of the book of Numbers. Every ancient reference considers him a non-Israelite, a prophet, and the son of Beor. He is reviled as a
balance -- the ability to maintain bodily equilibrium -- for a baby, not to fall down all of the time. During the middle childhood years, balance grows tremendously, which supports running,
hopping, skipping, throwing, kicking, and rapid directional changes required in sports.
balanced families -- families who fit into the four central categories of the Couple and Family Map: families who are flexibly connected, flexibly cohesive, structurally connected, or
balanced polymorphism -- a kind of genetic diversity in which the genes that cause diseases provide certain genetic advantages as well as disadvantages.
balantidiasis -- an intestinal infection with a parasitic protozoa (Balantidium coli) resulting in intestinal inflammation. It is usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with pig
fecal matter. Symptoms are fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and intestinal ulcers.
balderdash -- nonsense; baloney; blatherskite; codswallop; crapola; fiddlesticks; flapdoodle; hogwash; hokeypokey; hoodoo; hooey; horsefeathers; humbug; humbuggery; malarkey; nerts;
nuts; poppycock; senselessness; taradiddle; tommyrot; tosh; trumpery; twaddle.
ballad -- a poem that tells a story or describes a person or thing. They were often used to spread the news, provide entertainment, or create a "bigger than life" story. Ballads usually have a
regular rhyming pattern: 4 lines per verse, with the rhyming patter ABAC or AABB or (easiest) ACBD. Ballads were frequently set to music. Ballads have a lot of repetition: sometimes entire
stanzas are repeated like a chorus in a song; lines repeated with only a certain word changed; questions and answers. Ballads contain dialogue, and the action described is often in first
person. Two characters can speak to each other on alternating lines. Sequences of threes often occur: 3 kisses, 3 tasks, 3 events, etc. Examples of ballads are Bad Bad Leroy Brown (Jim
Croce), Rime of the Ancient Mariner (Coleridge).
ball and socket joint -- allow the greatest freedom of movement. The hips and shoulders have this type of joint, in which the round end of a long bone fits into the hollow of another bone.
ballistophobia -- fear of being shot.
balustrade -- a low parapet or barrier; a row of balusters topped by a rail.
bamboozle -- to deceive or get the better of (someone) by trickery, flattery, or the like; humbug; hoodwink; perplex; mystify; to practice trickery, deception, cozenage, etc.
banal -- so lacking in originality as to be obvious and boring; drearily commonplace and often predictable; trite.
banausic (buh-NAW-sik, -zik) -- relating to or concerned with earning a living -- used pejoratively; utilitarian; practical.
banderilla -- a decorated dart that is shot into the neck of the bull during a bull fight.
bandersnatch -- from Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky; an imaginary wild animal of fierce disposition; a person of uncouth or unconventional habits, attitudes, etc., especially one considered
a menace, nuisance, or the like.
banding pattern -- a series of light and dark bars that appear on chromosomes after they are stained. Each chromosome has a distinct banding pattern.
bandy -- to pass from one to another or back and forth; give and take; trade; exchange; to throw or strike to and fro or from side to side, as a ball; to circulate freely; having a bend or crook
outward; bowed; an early form of tennis; hockey or shinny; a hockey or shinny stick.
bandy-legged -- bowlegged.
bankruptcy -- the state of being financially insolvent or unable to pay one's bills.
banshee -- usually seen as an omen of death, a banshee can appear in a number of disguises. Most often a banshee appears as an ugly, frightening hag, but can also appear as a
stunningly beautiful woman of any age that suits her. Although not always seen, her mourning call is heard, usually at night when someone is about to die, and usually around the woods.
When several banshees appear at once, it indicates the death of someone great or holy. Banshees are frequently described as dressed in white or gray, often having long, fair hair which
they brush with a silver comb. A group of banshee is a scream. A banshee baby is a sigh.
bard -- historically, an oral poet, often a court poet, whose function was to glorify the deeds of heroes or leaders. Technically, the word bard referred to Celtic oral
poets in general. In France, they were called trouveres in the north and troubadours in the south; in Scandinavia, they were called skalds. Today the word is
generally used to mean a poet. (See picture.)
Bardet-Biedl syndrome -- obesity, genital anomalies, polydactyly, retinal anomalies, intellectual disability, learning disabilities, speech disorders,
abnormal liver function, cataracts, occasional cardiac and renal anomalies, diabetes, delayed puberty, ataxia, spasticity, night blindness. Bardet-Biedl and
Laurence Moon syndrome were previously called Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome but are now known to be separate disorders. Cause: linked to six
distinct chromosomal loci: 2q31, 3p12-p13, 11q13, 15q22.3--q23, 16q21, 20p12. Inheritance is usually similar to autosomal recessive. Rare in most populations;
increased frequency in Newfoundland as well as in Arab population in Kuwait and Bedouin population. A cause of deaf-blindness.
bardiglio -- finely-grained, multi-gray Italian marble.
bargaining -- stage of bereavement, sometimes used to describe the reaction of parents of children with special needs.
barium -- atomic number 56, symbol Ba; a soft, silvery-white alkaline-earth metal, used to deoxidize copper and in various alloys; it occurs only in combination with other elements, especially
in barite; used in x-raying the digestive system, and in making fireworks and white pigments; discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphrey Davy.
barophobia -- fear of gravity.
barotrauma -- injury related to excess pressure, especially to the lungs or ears.
barrier-free facility -- a building or other structure that is designed and constructed so that people with mobility disabilities (such as those in wheelchairs) can move freely through all
areas without encountering architectural obstructions.
barsom -- a ritual implement used by Zoroastrian priests to solemnize certain sacred ceremonies; a bundle of short metal wires or rods, each about 20 cm in length, and made of brass or
basal-body-temperature method -- a woman uses a special thermometer to record her body temperatures daily, in order to know when she is ovulating. Many women have a slight drop in
temperature 1 -- 3 days before ovulation. Then, there is a sharp rise at the beginning of ovulation. Ovulation is confirmed if the rise is sustained for at least 3 days. It is unsafe to have
unprotected intercourse from the day the temperature drops until 3 days after it rises if one is not desiring pregnancy. If one IS desiring pregnancy, that would be a good time to have
basal ganglia -- sections of the brain that are near the stem, close to where the spinal cord meets the bottom of the brain matter.
Clusters of nuclei deep within the cerebrum and the upper parts of the brain stem that play an important part in producing smooth,
continuous muscular actions in stopping and starting movement. (See illustration.)
basal metabolic rate -- minimum amount of energy needed to carry on the body processes vital to life.
base -- any of a class of compounds whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a bitter taste, a slippery feel, the ability to turn litmus
blue, and the ability to react with acids to form salts; a substance that yields hydroxyl ions when dissolved in water; a substance that can
act as a proton acceptor; a substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond; the lowest or bottom part; the
fundamental principle or underlying concept of a system or theory, a basis; a fundamental ingredient; a chief constituent; the face,
observation, or premise from which a reasoning process is begun; a fortified center of operations; headquarters; a facial cosmetic used
to even out the complexion ...
baseline -- Data that are collected on a behavior, prior to a systematic plan being introduced -- these data provide a base against which
later behavior can be compared.
baseline period -- a period during which a researcher observes a subject's behavior without regard to reinforcing or punishing stimulus
basic emotions -- those emotions that are present and observable in the newborn or within the first few months of life; they include
happiness, interest, surprise, disgust, distress, fear, anger, and sadness.
basic forms stage -- the stage in the development of art when a child finds, recognizes, and repeats at will basic shapes such as
rectangles, squares, and circles.
basic interpersonal communications (BICS) -- the language of face to face conversation skills that is normally acquired at about 2
basic needs -- conditions, described by Abraham Maslow, that are necessary for growth; these needs, such as physiologic conditions and safety and security, are critical for a person's
basic skills approach -- an approach to beginning reading instruction that emphasizes training in phonics -- the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds -- and simplified
reading materials. Distinguished from whole language approach.
basic trust versus mistrust -- in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively if caregiving, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving.
basilica -- large, public building the Romans used, usually as a courtroom or meeting hall.
basilisk -- a legendary reptile said to be the king of reptiles (see his crown on his head). The basilisk has the power to cause death with a single glance. It is so venomous that it leaves a
wide trail of deadly venom in its wake. The basilisk may grow to gigantic proportions and live for several hundred years. It is born from a chicken's egg, hatched beneath a toad. All spiders
have a deathly fear of the basilisk, but the basilisk is only afraid of a crowing rooster, which is deadly to the basilisk. A group of basilisks is a gaze. A basilisk baby is a pupil.
basiphobia, basophobia, bathmophobia -- fear of walking.
basophils -- a type of white blood cell. These are extremely rare, making up less than 1% of the white blood cells in the body at any given time. Their role is not well understood.
Basophils originate in the bone marrow, where they are created by stem cells.
bastille -- imprisonment, jail, prison.
bathetic -- characterized by triteness or sentimentalism.
bathophobia -- fear of depth.
batrachophobia -- fear of frogs and toads and also reptiles.
batten -- to grow or to make fat; to feed gluttonously; to grow prosperous especially at the expense of another; usually used with one; an iron bar used to secure the covering of a hatchway
on a ship.
Batten Disease (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis) -- progressive neurodegenerative disease. Child develops normally until 6 -- 18 months of age and then starts to lose motor and
cognitive skills. Rapid vision loss between 4 and 7 years; gradual onset of ataxia, myoclonic or major motor seizures, intellectual disability, and severe retinal degeneration occur.
Gradual intellectual decline, spasticity, psychosis, kyphoscoliosis, decline in speech, behavioral problems, sleep disturbance. Fatal outcome usually by adolescence. Autosomal
recessive; CLN3 gene mapped to chromosome 16p12.1, with the common cause being a large deletion in the gene. Associated complications are microcephaly, seizures, behavior
problems, progressive neurological deterioration. Prenatal diagnosis is available by demonstrating inclusions in the chorionic villi. Incidence is 1/100,000; recurrence risk for siblings, 25%.
Also called Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.
battered woman syndrome (BWS) -- a subcategory of postraumatic stress disorder consisting of a cluster of cognitions, feelings, and
behaviors brought about by the effects of trauma, learned helplessness, and the cycle of violence that culminates in the victim's belief that she
cannot escape her abuser.
battering -- a process whereby one member of an intimate relationship experiences vulnerability, loss of power and control, and entrapment as a consequence of the other member's
exercise of power through the patterned use of physical, sexual, psychological, and/or moral force. See physical violence.
battleax -- a woman held to be antagonistic or overbearing; a heavy, broad-headed ax used as a weapon; a sharp-tongued domineering wife.
battologize -- to keep repeating needlessly; to iterate.
bawd -- a woman who keeps a brothel; a madam; a prostitute.
bayonet -- blade adapted to fit the muzzle-end of a rifle and as a weapon in close combat.
B.C.E. -- Before the Common Era. This is the international designation for BC (Before Christ).
B-cells -- a type of lymphocyte produced in stem cells in the bone marrow. B cells produce antibodies. B cells develop into plasma cells that are
the source of antibodies.
B complex vitamins -- supplements containing all eight B vitamins.
beamish -- bright, cheerful, and optimistic.
beast epic -- a medieval literary form consisting of a linked set of animal tales revolving around the same characters. Beast epics were especially
popular in France. Stories about Reynaud the Fox and the animals with whom he interacted were frequently the subjects of these tales. (See painting.)
(also called animal tales or beast tales).
beaucoup -- slang: great in quantity or amount; many; much; French for "a lot" or "much" as in "merci beaucoup" for "thank you very much."
Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) -- see muscular dystrophy.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome -- omphalocele (congenital defect in the abdominal wall containing the intestine), macrosomia (large body size), large organs (especially the tongue),
neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), advanced growth for the first 6 years, with advanced bone age, occasional hemihypertrophy (enlargement of one side of the body), kidney or
adrenal anomalies, increased risk of malignancy (liver, kidney, muscle), occasional intellectual disability (may be due to hypoglycemia). Caused by a presumed failure to suppress gene
for insulin-like growth factor, type 2 (IGF2), caused by a duplication of paternal chromosome 11p15.5, maternal chromosome rearrangements involving chromosome 11p15.5, or mutations
in one or more critical genes in this region, mostly new mutations with autosomal dominant inheritance with variable penetrance when passed from an affected individual.
bed and board divorce -- in English history, a divorce that allowed the husband and wife to live separately, but the legal obligations of marriage continued.
bedevilment -- a form of grief in which one focuses only on the negative memories of a deceased loved one.
bedlamite -- a mentally ill person; lunatic, insane person; a mental patient; funny term to call children.
bed-wetting -- see enuresis.
beetled -- make one's way hurriedly; of a person's eyebrows; project or overhand threateningly.
beguile -- to deceive by cunning means; to draw notice or interest by wiles or charm; to cause (as time) to pass pleasantly.
behavioral assessment -- examination of factors that govern children's behavior under given conditions.
behavioral audiological evaluations -- hearing tests that require the child to respond to a series of beeps called pure tones to indicate that she hears the sound.
behavioral autonomy -- the capacity to make and follow through with decisions on regulating one's behavior.
behavioral contract -- an agreement, written or oral, between people, stating that if one party behaves in a certain manner (for example, the student completes homework), the other (for
example, the teacher or parent) will provide a specific reward.
behavioral curriculum model -- a model, based on learning principles of behavioral psychology, which emphasizes direct instruction through a prescribed sequence of instructional
behavioral disorders -- conditions in which the emotional or behavioral responses of individuals in various environments significantly differ from those characteristic of their peer and their
ethnic and cultural groups. These responses seriously affect social relationships, personal adjustment, schooling, and employment. Also called emotional disorder, emotional
behavioral factors -- behaviors, such as dangerous activities or maternal substance abuse, that can cause intellectual disability or other disabilities.
behavioral genetics -- a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity of human traits and abilities. (See picture of an actual, real, live behavioral
behavioral goals and objectives -- statement of desired outcome for a child.
behavioral intervention plan (BIP) -- a statement of specific strategies and procedures to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and
intervene when necessary. The BIP is based upon results of a functional behavior assessment.
behaviorally disordered -- children who demonstrate chronic or pervasive behavior challenges.
behavioral theory -- a theory of learning based on the ideas of BF Skinner, who is considered the father of behavioral psychology. Major tenets of
behavioral theory include an analysis of behavior, its stimulus and consequences, systems of reinforcement, and direct instruction of skills.
behavior control -- method of modifying behavior that often includes using negative comments or punishment after "undesirable" behavior has
behavior disorder -- a disabling condition characterized by behavior that differs markedly and chronically from current social and cultural norms and adversely affects educational
performance. Sometimes called seriously emotionally disturbed.
behavior geneticist -- individual who seeks to understand both the genetic and environmental contributions to individual variations in human behavior. (See picture above.)
behavior inhibitions -- the ability to regulate one's attention and how often it switches, and the behavior that accompanies this ability; students with ADHD have difficulties with behavior
behavior intervention plan (BIP) -- set of strategies designed to address the function of a student's behavior in order to change it.
behaviorism -- theory of learning concerned primarily with observable components of behavior, including classical and operant conditioning; directly observable events -- stimuli and
Behaviorist Theory -- a psychological theory developed in the US in the 20th century, which states that all important aspects of behavior and people are learned and can be modified or
changed by varying external conditions.
behavior management -- techniques used to help children learn to use more appropriate behavior and less inappropriate behavior.
behavior modification -- procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable ones.
behavior observation audiometry -- a method of hearing assessment in which an infant's reactions to sounds are observed; a sound is presented at an increasing level of intensity until a
response, such as head turning, eye blinking, or cessation of play, is reliably observed.
behavior patterns -- customary ways of conducting oneself.
behavior problems -- types of actions or responses that are considered inappropriate.
behavior trapping -- a method of instruction in which the environment is arranged to provide for the positive reinforcement of behaviors. Typically used to promote social behaviors.
behemoth -- a large beastly animal that is very powerful. It has strong bones and muscles and lives in swamps. It is the primal unconquerable monster of the land (the leviathan of the sea
and the ziz of the sky). It is impossible for anyone to kill a behemoth, except for the person who created it. A group of behemoths is a thunder. A behemoth baby is a kitten.
behind the ear hearing aid -- a small amplifying device worn behind the ear, the most common type of hearing aid worn by children. (See picture.)
beignet -- a square doughnut with no hole; a fritter.
being needs (B-needs) -- Maslow: the fifth level of the hierarchy of needs, or self- actualization. In this level, there is growth motivation, and it
does not involve homeostasis. All of the lower needs, or deficit needs need to be fulfilled in order to achieve this level. According to Maslow, only 2%
of the world's population is self- actualizing.
beldam -- an old woman, especially an ugly or malicious one; hag; obsolete word for grandmother.
beliefs -- definitions and explanations people have about what is true; convictions of truth of a statement or the reality of some being or phenomenon.
belief system -- one of the four major components of the sociocultural context in which families live, centering on religious/ spiritual/ ethical beliefs and other ideas about how to live
successfully and happily in the world.
belladonna -- a type of plant, highly poisonous; "pretty woman".
Bellatrix -- the third brightest star in the constellation Orion. It is the 27th brightest star in the nigh sky. The name Bellatrix is Latin for female warrior. Bellatrix forms the left shoulder of Orion
the Hunter. It has 8.4 times the mass as our sun.
bell curve -- the theoretical, natural distribution of a group of scores; most scores are in the middle range. The curve is symmetrical, with a single peak in the center. The center is the mean
score, and one standard deviation to either side of the mean represents approximately 68% of the population; 2 standard deviations around the mean represent roughly 95% of the
population. Another standard deviation (i.e., 2 standard deviations to either side of the mean) represents roughly 99% of the population.
belle-lettres -- "beautiful letters;" aesthetic literature, as opposed to didactic.
bellicose -- demonstrating aggression and willingness to fight.
belligerence -- the behavior of provoking and challenging one's partner's power and authority.
Bell's Palsy -- a temporary form of facial paralysis that occurs with damage to the nerve that controls movement of the muscles of the face. Symptoms are changes in facial expression,
difficulty eating or drinking, drooling, droopy eyelid or corner of mouth, dry eye or mouth, face feels stiff or pulled to one side, facial paralysis on one side, headache, loss of sense of taste,
pain behind or in front of the ear, hyperacusis (sensitivity to sound), twitching in the face, weakness in the face. About 60% to 80% of cases go away in a few weeks to months.
bellwether -- leader or indicator of future trends; trendsetter.
belly dancing -- a dance which uses the middle region of the body in a much more flowy way that other dance forms and which originated in the Middle East.
belonephobia -- fear of pins and needles.
Beltane -- the Celtic May Day festival.
belvedere -- roofed structure, on top of another building, which commands a large view.
bemuse -- to make confused; puzzle; bewilder; to occupy the attention of; absorb; to cause to have feelings of wry or tolerant amusement.
benchmark -- a point of reference for measurement and evaluation. Used especially in connection with content standards. For example, standards may state that 'by the end of the second
(or fourth, or eighth) grade, children should be able to . . . '
benevolence -- beginning at about 8 years old, children recognize that special recognition should be given to those at a disadvantage. Also they adapt their basis of fairness to fit the
situation, relying more on equality with strangers and more on benevolence with friends.
benevolent neglect -- paying no attention to minor speech and language errors that usually self-correct as the child's communication skills mature.
benevolent sexism -- holding positive attitudes toward women yet endorsing negative status for them.
benign -- lacks all three of the malignant properties of cancer (growing in an unlimited, aggressive manner; does not invade surrounding tissues; and does not spread to non-adjacent
benison -- blessing, benediction.
Beor -- the father of Balaam, considered a prophet. Baba Bathra 15b: "Seven prophets prophesied to the heathen, namely, Balaam and his father, Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the
Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite. Beor is the father of Bela, first King of Edom in Genesis 36:31.
berceuse -- lullaby, song used to put someone to sleep.
bereavement -- the process of dealing with loss, particularly the death of a loved one, involves grieving that may be uncomplicated or complicated.
Beriberi -- disease caused by thiamine deficiency. (See picture.)
berkelium -- atomic number 97, symbol Bk; a synthetic transuranic radioactive element with half-lives from 3 hours to 1,380 years; produced by bombardment of
americium (or curium or plutonium); named after Berkeley, where it was discovered; discovered in 1949 by G. T. Seaborg.
beryllium -- atomic number 4, symbol Be; a steel-gray, bivalent, hard, light, metallic element, used chiefly in copper alloys, in springs, in aerospace structural
material, as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors, and in electrical contacts; it is found chiefly in beryl, discovered in 1798 by Fredrich Wohler.
beslime -- to daub with slime; to soil.
best practices -- Recommended strategies agreed upon by members of a profession.
beta blockers -- medications (e.g., propranolol [Inderal]) that were initially used to control high blood pressure and have subsequently been found to be useful in treating tremor and
beta cells -- cells that are responsible for creating and releasing the hormones insulin and amylin, which regulate glucose levels in the blood. They constitute 65% to 80% of the cells in
the islets of Langerhans.
Betelgeuse -- is the 8th brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest star in the constellation Orion (outshining Rigel only rarely). It is a red supergiant star, and forms Orion's right
shoulder. It is one of the largest and most luminous stars known. It is visible to both hemispheres.
bethesda -- a sanctified, hallowed, or holy place; chapel; holy ground.
bewilderment -- a stage of grief.
bezaleel -- the shadow of God; God's shadow.
bezoar -- a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system (usually the stomach), though it can occur in other locations. Throughout history, bezoars have been sought because they
were believed to have the power of a universal antidote against any poison. The word "bezoar" comes from a Persian word which means "protection from poison." In the Harry Potter series
(J.K. Rowling), a bezoar is a stone taken from the belly of a goat, and is used as an antidote to most poisons.
bias -- preconceived attitudes that may affect objectivity, either positively or negatively.
bibelot -- trinket, bauble; small object which is rare or valuable or beautiful; a small book.
bibesy -- a too earnest desire after drink; example from stumbleupon.com: "Wedding guests waited anxiously for the bar to open; bibesy should be expected after such a long, dull service."
bibliophile -- someone who loves (and usually collects) books; book collector.
bibliophobia -- fear of books.
bicultural -- identifying with both the majority and minority culture.
bicultural-bilingual approach -- instructional approach advocating ASL as the primary language and English as the second language for students who are deaf. ASL would thus serve as
the foundation for learned English.
bicuspid pulmonic valve -- 2 instead of 3 cusps.
bidialectal -- refers to someone who uses two variations of a language.
bidirectional effects -- both the influence of the child on the parent and the influence of the parent on the child; child development specialists and family scientists concur that studying
these effects is important to an understanding of parent-child dynamics.
bifurcate -- the splitting of a main body into two parts or branches.
bigamy -- having two spouses at one time.
bijouterie -- (plural) trinkets or jewelry; gallery thereof; display thereof.
bilateral -- having 2 sides.
bilateral amplification -- amplification of sound in both ears.
bilateral cleft lip and/or palate -- palate and/or lip that are cleft on two sides.
bilateral descent -- a method of tracing the lineage of children equally through ancestors of both mother and father. (See diagram.)
bilateral hearing loss -- hearing loss in both ears.
bilateral integration -- the ability to perform activities requiring both sides of the body working together, such as hopping or skipping.
bilateral manipulation skills or use of hands -- the ability to coordinate the use of both hands. Each hand is performing a separate task for a common outcome. Examples: buttoning,
bildungsroman (BIL-doonks-roh-mahn) -- a novel about the moral and psychological growth of the main character.
bile -- a thick digestive fluid released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can then be taken into the body by the digestive tract. Bile
contains mostly cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. It also contains water, potassium and sodium, as well as a small amount of copper and other metals.
bilingual -- ability to read, write, and speak two languages fluently. Bilingüe, la capacidad para leer, escribir, y hablar dos lenguas con fluidez. Les moyens bilingues que la capacité à lire,
écrire, et parler dans deux les langues couramment. I mezzi bilingue che la caacità di leggere, scrivere, e parlare due le lingue fluentemente.
bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi) approach -- Teaching students ASL as the primary language of instruction and English as a second language for reading and writing print; its goal is for
students to function in both the Deaf and hearing cultures.
bilingual education -- an approach that is often used with English language learners (ELLs) in which the student's dominant language is used along with English for instructional purposes.
bilingual special education teacher -- professional who is knowledgeable about both bilingual education and special education.
bilirubin -- the orange-yellow pigment of bile, which is formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells after their lifespan ends; then it normally travels in the
bloodstream to the liver, and ultimately most is excreted in the stool.
billion -- the number 1,000,000,000: a thousand million; British, old fashioned: the number 1,000,000,000,000: a million million; a very large number.
billow cloud -- a cloud created from instability associated with air flows having marked vertical shear and weak thermal stratification; visualized as a row of horizontal eddies aligned within a
layer of vertical shear.
binary fission -- a method of asexual reproduction that involves splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells.
bind -- Freud: the process by which the secondary process manages or traps free libido. Thinking instead of fornicating, for instance. (Obviously binding has disadvantages as well as
binding statements -- habits of interaction that generally close or diminish the probability of continued conversation.
binocular vision -- the focusing of both eyes on an object to provide a stereoscopic image. (See illustration.)
binuclear family -- a post-divorce family in which both parents participate in the raising of their children despite living in separate households; the children
generally reside with one of the parents.
biochemical theory -- a theory about the origins of love; it suggests that love results from our biological, chemical, and hormonal origins.
bioecological model -- a theoretical model that emphasizes the unique contribution that the individual and the environment, working together, make to
bioethics -- the study of ethics in medicine.
biologic agents -- microorganisms that cause damage to human cells by either living on cells or by causing inflammation of the cells and that travel throughout the body via the
bloodstream or lymphatic system.
biological causes -- changes in physiological functioning due to genetic or environmental factors; also called physiological causes.
biological essentialism -- explaining all gender differences in terms of biology.
biological father-stepmother family -- a family in which all children are biological children of the father and stepchildren of the mother.
biological insult -- a term that describes interference with or damage to an individual's physical structure or functioning.
biological mother-stepfather family -- a family in which all children are biological children of the mother and stepchildren of the father.
biological risks -- medical conditions that threaten to compromise a child's health, particularly perinatally, and are predictive of later delays.
biomass -- the total mass of living matter within a given unit of environmental area; plant material, vegetation, or agricultural waste used as a fuel or energy source. From thefreedictionary.
com: When biologist J.B.S. Haldane was once asked if the study of life on Earth gave him any insights into God, he replied jokingly that his research revealed that God must have "an
inordinate fondness for beetles." There are more beetle species (almost 400,000 now known) than any other animal species. Insects create an amazing amount of biomass. The number of
individual insects is about 10 quintillion. If the weight of the Earth's human population were added up, the biomass of the insect population would be 300 times as great.
biomedical factors -- biologic processes, such as genetic disorders or malnutrition, that can cause intellectual disabilities or other disabilities.
biophilia -- a hypothetical human tendency to interact or be closely associated with other forms of life in nature.
biopsychosocial approach -- an approach to stress management and health care that assumes a connection among a person's physical symptoms, psychological issues, and social
biotin -- a B-group vitamin.
biotinidase deficiency -- inborn error of metabolism that results in the body's inability to recycle the vitamin biotin; can be fatal if untreated, but patients respond well to oral biotin
supplementation; see multiple carboxylase deficiency, late onset, juvenile form.
bioturbation -- the restructuring of sedimentary deposits (as in a lake bottom or seabed) by moving organisms (as worms or burrowing clams).
bipolar disorder -- a psychiatric disorder manifested by cycles of mania and depression. Periods of manic (hyper-excitable) episodes alternating with periods of deep depression.
Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurring affective diseases that may have degrees of severity, tending however to worsen with time if not treated. Severe crises can lead to suicidal
attempts during depressive episodes or to physical violence against oneself or others during manic episodes. In many patients, however, episodes are mild and infrequent. Mixed states may
also occur with elements of mania and depression simultaneously present. Some people with bipolar affective disorders show a rapid cycling between manic and depressive states; previously
called manic depression.
birdnesting -- a variation of joint custody whereby the children stay in the family home and the parents alternate staying with them.
birth defect -- any abnormality present at birth, particularly a structural one, which may be inherited genetically, acquired during gestation, or inflicted during the birth process. See
birthmarks -- see cafe au lait spots.
bisexuality -- Freud: what we all have going psychically. For Freud, this meant that everyone is part passive (= female) and part active (= male), although later in his career he began to
question those problematic traditional equations. The idea of inherent bisexuality came to him from his friend Wilhelm Fliess.
bismuth -- atomic number 83, symbol Bi; a pinkish-white, crystalline, brittle, highly diamagnetic metallic element; has low thermal and electrical conductivity, which expands on cooling; known
to the ancients, discovery unknown.
bitterns -- tawny brown herons that inhabit reedy marshes.
bivouac -- temporary military or squad encampment.
bladder -- a hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine.
blamer -- a person whose style of anger management is characterized by a short temper, emotionally intense
response to stress, and the belief that others are responsible for his or her feelings.
blastocyst -- the embryonic group of cells that exist at the time of implantation. (See illustration.)
blaze -- bright flame of fire; bright steady light or glare; hot gleam.
blellum -- an idle, indiscreet talker; noisy faineant.
blended family -- a term used to describe a step-family. Some researchers object to the term because it creates unrealistic expectations that the new family will quickly and easily blend
together harmoniously and because it assumes a homogeneous unit, one without a previous history or background. Also called reconstituted family.
blending -- blending meaningful units of compound words (butter + cup = buttercup), syllables, first sounds (onset), rest of the word (rime), and individual phonemes.
blends -- two or more consonants that appear together and in which both letters make their normal sound. Such letter blends are bl, br, cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr, nd, pl, pr, sl, sm, sn, sp, st.
Three letter blends are shr (sh digraph + r), spl, spr, squ, str, and thr (th digraph + r).
blennophobia -- fear of slime.
blepharitis -- an inflammation of the eyelash follicles, causing an overgrowth of bacteria.
blepharoptosis -- droopy upper eyelid; see illustration.
blibbering humdinger -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), one of the many strange creatures that Luna Lovegood believes exists, though most others don't believe they do.
blind -- having either no vision or only light perception; incapable of reading conventional printed material (not including illiteracy).
blindisms -- Atypical mannerism displayed by some children with severe vision loss.
blind marriage -- a marriage in which neither partner saw the other until the day of their wedding.
blindness -- disability in which an individual has no vision or has only the ability to detect the presence or absence of light. Legal blindness is defined as visual acuity of 20/200 or worse
in the better eye with the best possible correction; or a much reduced field of vision (at its widest, a visual arc of 20 degrees or less).
bliss -- joy, rapture, elation, felicity.
Blissymbols -- a system developed by C.K. Bliss that ties a specific symbol to a word. There are four types of Blissymbols: pictographic,
ideographic, relational, and abstract. (See sketch.)
blisters -- fluid-filled bumps that look like bubbles on the skin. They can result from friction, burns, cold injuries, spider bites, strong pinches,
etc. Some infections can cause blisters, such as chicken pox, shingles, herpes simplex, impetigo, infected hair follicles, scabies, or
bedbugs. Inflammation may cause blisters, such as contact dermatitis, allergies, or autoimmune diseases. Some medications can cause blisters.
blithe -- carefree; nonchalant; heedless; lacking concern; joyous.
Block alphabet -- letters of the alphabet are "written" onto a person's hand -- a communication system used by people who are deaf-blind.
blocks -- often one of the largest activity areas in a preschool classroom, this area may include wooden blocks, a doll house, toy garages, cars, trucks, boards, carpet squares, toy people,
building set, traffic signs, etc.
blood -- a specialized body fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body cells (nutrients and oxygen) and removes waste. It is composed of blood cells suspended in plasma.
blood cells -- blood has seven kinds of cells: red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets (thrombocytes), and five kinds of white blood cells (leukocytes): neutrophils, eosinophils,
basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
blood clots -- clumps that occur when the blood hardens from a liquid to a solid (coagulates). A clot inside a blood vessel or within the heart is a thrombus.
blood connective tissue -- blood is considered a connective tissue because it has the same origin (mesodermal) as do the other connective tissue types, and blood connects the body
systems together bringing the needed oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other signaling molecules, and removing the wastes.
bloodletting -- originally used in Egypt; Hippocrates documented curative blood-letting in 500 BC; in the Middle Ages, monks were required to undergo regular bloodletting.
Barbers were given the task later: the barber pole (red and white stripes) represents blood (red) and tourniquet (white) (see???). Today, bloodletting is used rarely, but has been
found to be effective in treating hemochromatosis (a condition marked by excessive iron in the body). Patients with hemochromatosis donate a pint of blood per week until their
iron stores are normal. Afterward, they donate blood once a month to keep iron levels where they should be.
blood PaO2 -- a measurement of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (i.e., the amount of oxygen in the blood).
blood pH -- blood acidity normally 7.25 to 7.40.
blood poisoning -- see sepsis.
blood pressure -- blood is carried from the heart to all parts of the body in arteries. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of the arteries. Blood
pressure is at the highest when the heart beats (systolic pressure). When the heart is at rest, blood pressure falls (diastolic pressure).
bloodstream -- the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
blood sugar (blood glucose) -- the main sugar that the body makes from food. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to provide energy to all cells in the body. Cells cannot use
glucose without the help of insulin.
blood types -- though blood is made of the same basic elements, there are different common blood types that are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens. The ABO
blood group system has four major blood groups: Group A (has only the A antigen in red blood cells and B antibody in the plasma); Group B (has only the B antigen in red blood cells and
A antibody in the plasma); Group AB (has both the A and B antigens in the red blood cells; but neither A nor B in the plasma); and Group O (has neither A nor B antigens in the red blood
cells, but both A and B antibodies in the plasma). People with Group O can donate red blood cells to anybody; it is considered the universal donor. People with Group A can donate red
blood cells to As and ABs. People with Group B can donate red blood cells to Bs and ABs. Group AB can donate to other ABs but can receive from all others. In addition to the A and B
antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can either be present (+) or absent (-). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh negative people and to Rh positive people.
Rh positive blood is given to Rh positive people. The universal red blood cell donor has Type O negative blood. The universal plasma donor is Type AB positive blood. O positive is
the most common blood type and the least common type is AB negative. Blood type is inherited.
blood vessels -- the paths whereby blood is transported throughout the body. There are three major kinds of blood vessels: arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart;
capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. Other
blood vessels are arterioles and venules.
Bloom syndrome -- pre- and post-natal growth retardation, dolichocephaly (long head), microcephaly, narrow face with prominent ears and nose, genital anomalies, syndactyly and/or
polydactyly, skin abnormalities (cafe au lait spots, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, facial telangectasia, hypertrichosis), mild intellectual disability or learning
disabilities, chronic lung disease, infertility in males, reduced fertility in females, non-insulin dependent diabetes, immunoglobulin deficiency, predisposition to neoplasm (lymphoma,
leukemia, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma). Caused by mutations in the BLM gene which encodes the BLM RecQ protein on chromosome 15q26.1, autosomal recessive.
Bloom's taxonomy -- a hierarchy of educational objectives consisting of six types of cognitive understanding: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis (creation), and
evaluation. Can be used as a framework for differentiating curriculum by asking questions and assigning activities that require students to demonstrate different types of learning.
blossom -- billowing; period or condition of flowering or growth.
bloviate -- to make pompous or arrogant discourse; to speak or write verbosely or windily.
blowchunk -- vomit. Is this correct?
bludger -- a round, jet-black ball, made of iron, used in the wizarding sport of Quidditch in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). They are 10 inches in diameter. The purpose of the two
bludgers in a quidditch match is to fly around and knock players off their brooms. Each teams' Beaters protect their teammates from the bludgers and also hit them towards the other team.
blue-collar couple -- a couple in which one or both partners is employed in a blue-collar job.
blueprint for movement -- predetermined sequence of muscular growth and ability to move.
B lymphocytes -- a lymphocyte derived from bone marrow that provides humoral immunity. It recognizes free antigen molecules in solution and matures
into plasma cells that secrete immunoglobulin (antibodies) that inactivate the antigens. Yeah, I said it.
BMD muscular dystrophy, Becker type, see muscular dystrophy and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Bodhisatta -- Often spelled BODHISATTVA. In Buddhism, an enlightened person who chooses not to enter nirvana (escape the cycle of rebirths) but instead
remains within the cycle as a guide and teacher for others. (See picture.)
bodily-kinesthetic -- awareness of the body's position and movement; one of Howard Gardner's nine intelligences; this kind of learner is physically active,
prefers hands-on learning, and is talkative. Often called the "mover."
body-mass index (BMI) -- a measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which
weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters and the result is an index of obesity.
body-worn hearing aid -- amplification device worn on the chest with wires to the ear, connected to individually fitted ear mold.
(Examples are shown.)
boeotian -- marked by stupidity and philistinism; crudely obtuse; loutish.
boggart -- a household fairy which causes things to disappear, milk to sour, and dogs to go lame. They are always malevolent,
and will follow its family wherever they flee. A boggart should never be given a name because it may become uncontrollable and
destructive. It is said that boggarts crawl into people's beds and puts a clammy hand on their faces. Sometimes boggarts strip
bedsheets off people. Sometimes boggarts will pull people's ears. In the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a boggart is a
shape-shifting creature that takes the form of the viewer's worst fear. It is confusing to a boggart for there to be two viewers. The
charm that wards off a boggart is "Riddikulus" which makes the boggart change to a form that is no longer frightening but
amusing. A boggart is naturally rather squat, hairy, and smelly, which is why they are so fond of shape-shifting. A group of
boggarts is a ridicule. A boggart baby is a changeling.
boggle -- to be bewildered, dumbfounded, or confused; mystify; overwhelm; mindboggling; a game by Parker Brothers; see picture.
bogus -- not genuine; counterfeit; sham.
bogyphobia -- fear of demons, spirits, goblins, etc.
bohrium -- atomic number 107, symbol Bh; a transuranic, radioactive element with half-lives of seconds, also called unnilseptium; artificially produced in minute quantities by bombarding
bismuth with chromium ions discovered in 1976 by Peter Armbruster, Gottfried Munzenber, and others; named after Niels Bohr, who was a Danish physicist.
bolo -- bolo bat, bolo knife, bolo punch, bolo tie, bolo'bolo, Bolsheviks, testicles (Samoan), cake (Portuguese), speak (Hindu), bolo shell, B-18 Bolo, Operation Bolo, Bolo in the Central
African Republic, Bolo in Ethiopia, Bolo in Tibet, O Bolo in Spain, Biana de Bolo in Spain, Bolo Yeung from China, Bolo the footballer from Spain, Robert Luongo from Vancouver, Bolo
Whistler, Bolo tank, Bolo video game, Bolo the breakout clone, Be On the LookOut.
bolshevik -- a member of the extremist wing of the Russian Social Democratic party that seized power in Russia by the Revolution of November 1917.
bolster -- covered foam cushions of various shapes often used during occupational or physical therapy; a therapeutic device to keep a child in the desired position.
bolus -- a small rounded mass of food made ready by tongue and jaw movement for swallowing.
bombard -- to attack especially with artillery or bombers; to assail vigorously or persistently (as with questions); to subject to the impact of rapidly moving particules (as electrons).
bona fides -- good faith; sincerity; evidence of one's good faith or genuineness; evidence of one's qualifications or achievements.
bonding -- parents' feelings of affection and concern for the newborn baby.
bone cancer -- a cancer which can occur in childhood. Chondrosarcoma (forms in the cartilage), Ewing's sarcoma (occurs in the hip bones, long bones of the thigh and upper arm, and
ribs; generally occurs between ages 10 and 25), osteosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma (the sixth most common malignancy in children and the most common bone cancer in children;
usually occurs in the long bones of the thigh, calf, and upper arm; generally occurs between ages 10 and 25).
bone-conduction hearing aid -- amplification device for a person whose ear canal is closed, which allows sound to bypass the blocked ear canal
and stimulate the hearing mechanism. It rests on the bone behind the ear and is held in place by a headband. (Illustration shows path of sound
into the aid and the ears.)
bone disorders -- physical or motor disorders caused by problems in bone development or functioning, i.e., osteogenesis
imperfecta, hip dysplasia, or osteomyelitis.
bone marrow -- the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. It
constitutes 4% of total body weight in adults. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red blood cells, platelets, and
most white blood cells come from red marrow. Both contain numerous blood vessels. At birth, all bone marrow is red. With age,
more and more is converted to yellow. Half of adult bone marrow is red, found mostly in flat bones such as hip bone, breast bone,
skull, ribs, vertebrae, and shoulder blades, and in the material at the epiphyseal ends of the long bones. Yellow marrow is found in
the hollow interior of long bones.
bone tuberculosis -- a chronic, recurrent infection that most often causes pulmonary disease, but in this case, the involvement is in the skeleton. Tuberculosis is caused by a
mycobacteria, most commonly Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis. Bone tuberculosis usually attacks long bones of the body such as the femur, but it can also affect the spine. It
can lead to deformation and bone necrosis.
bones -- the dense, semi-rigid, porous calcified connective tissue that forms the skeleton. Bones aid in movement and are reservoirs of calcium and phosphate and are the source of
all blood cells. Bones provide support for our bodies and help form our shape. The skull protects the brain and forms the shape of our faces. The spinal cord, a pathway for messages
between the brain and body, is protected by the spinal column. The ribs form a cage that shelters the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen; and the pelvis helps protect the bladder and
intestines, and in women, the reproductive organs. Although they are very light, bones are strong enough to support our entire weight. They are fastened to each other by long fibrous
straps called ligaments.
bonobo -- a pygmy chimpanzee -- close cousin of the common chimpanzee -- a sexual Olympian.
boogeyman -- a legendary ghost-like monster that has no specific appearance but is an amorphous embodiment of terror. A boogeyman
can be found scratching at windows, in green fog, under tje bed, in the closet, and so forth. Boogeymen can cause warts. Sometimes a
boogeyman will carry a kidnap sack. A group of boogeymen is an insomnia. A boogeyman baby is a booger.
books and quiet area -- an area in an early childhood setting for a child to go to be alone, quiet in one's thoughts, and a place to
explore the world of books.
boomerang kids -- adult children who came back to their parents' home to live as a result of divorce, job loss, or an inability to make it in
the real world.
boontling -- double talk from North Carolina.
Boötes -- a constellation in the northern sky. Its name comes from the Greek for herdsman or plowman (literally, ox-driver). It was one of
the 48 constellations described by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. It contains the fourth brightest star, Arcturus (after Sirius,
Canopus, and Alpha Centauri). It has 7 main stars, 29 easily visible, and 9 have planets.
Boq -- a minor character in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum. He is a rich Munchkin who provides shelter for Dorothy on her journey to the Emerald City. He has a small party
celebrating the Wicked Witch of the West's demise. He waits on Dorothy and offers her fruit, nuts, cakes, and pies. He informs her that only witches and sorceresses wear white. He is also in
the novel Wicked by Gregory Maguire, in which he attends Shiz University with Elphaba and Galinda. In the musical adaptation of Wicked, Boq becomes the Tin Woodman.
borasca -- a squall, usually accompanied by thunder and lightening.
bordereau -- a detailed note or memorandum of account.
borderline disorders -- a group of psychological disturbances which exhibit various combinations of normality, neurosis, functional psychosis, and psychopathy. The term borderline
implies that there is no dominant pattern of deviance, but there are problems with impulsivity, instability of moods, and so forth. Antisocial disorder is characterized by long-standing
problems such as a disregard for the rights of others, irresponsibility, and resisting authority.
Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome -- obesity, short stature, postpubertal gynecomastia (breast enlargement in males), long, thick ears, coarse facial appearance, protruding
tongue, hypogonadism (small testes), cataracts or other eye anomalies, tapering fingers, varying degrees of intellectual disability, seizures, microcephaly, hypotonia. Caused by
gene PHF6 linked to chromosome Xq26.3, X-linked recessive, with females less severely affected.
borogove -- thin shabby-looking bird with its feathers sticking out all round -- something like a live mop. (Lewis Carroll, Jabberwocky); an extinct kind of parrot. They had no winks, beaks
turned up, made their nests under sundials and lived on veal. "There were probably sundials on the top of the hill, and the borogoves were afraid that their nests would be undermined.
boron -- atomic number 5, symbol B; a very hard, brittle, shiny, black crystalline metalloid element that in impure form exists as a soft, brown, amorphous powder, extracted chiefly from
kernite and borax; used in flares, propellent mixtures, nuclear reactor control elements, abrasives, and hard metallic alloys; discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy and J.L. Gay-Lussac.
Borsippa -- an ancient city of Sumer, built on both sides of a lake, southwest of Babylon on the east bank of the Euphrates.
bosons -- subatomic particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. Several bosons can occupy the same quantum space. They are often force carrier particles. They can be elementary, like
photons, or composite, like mesons. All known elementary and composite particles are bosons or fermions, depending on their spin.
botanophobia -- fear of plants.
botch -- to spoil by clumsy work.
bottle mouth syndrome -- a pattern of tooth decay, predominantly in the upper teeth, that develops as the result of permitting a child to go to sleep with a bottle containing juice, milk, or
any other caloric liquid that may pool in the mouth. (See just below.)
bottom-up model -- see developmental model.
botulism -- poisoning by botulin toxin and manifested as muscle weakness or paralysis.
boulevard -- broad street, avenue; broad spectrum of something.
bouleversement -- reversal of fortunes; overturning; tumult.
boundaries -- the lines that both separate systems from and connect systems to each other. The notion of a boundary implies a hierarchy of interconnected systems, each larger than the
one before it.
boundary ambiguity -- lack of clarity about whether a person is either in or out of the family system; related to family stress levels. The concept includes two variables: physical and
psychological presence or absence. High ambiguity produces high levels of stress.
bound flow -- describes movement that is punctuated or halting, such as the movements of a robot.
bound morphemes -- morphemes that cannot stand alone in meaning (-ed, -ing, etc.).
bourgeoisie -- the middle class; the middle class in Communist theory.
boustrophedon (boo-struh-FEE-dahn) -- the writing of alternate lines in opposite directions (as from left to right and then right to left).
bowel -- see intestine.
bower -- an attractive dwelling or retreat; a lady's private apartment in a medieval hall or castle; a shelter made with tree boughs or vines twined together; arbor.
bowlegs -- a condition in which the knees remain wide apart when a person stands with the feet and ankles together. (See picture.)
bowtruckle -- a small, insect-eating, tree dweller with long sharp fingers (two on each hand), brown eyes, and a general appearance of a flat-faced little stick man
made of bark and twigs, which serves well as camouflage in its natural habitat.
boy howdy -- an exclamation of enthusiastic agreement which can be used in both a genuine or sarcastic tone. It is also the name of an American country music band
from the 90s. Southern slang. An interjection.
BPD -- see Bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
brabble -- verb, to quarrel about trifles; especially to quarrel noisily, brawl, squabble.
brachialis -- a muscle in the upper arm.
brachial plexus -- a group of spinal nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. These nerves allow the arm, forearm, and hand to move and feel things.
Brachmann-de Lange syndrome -- see Cornelia de Lange syndrome or de Lange syndrome.
brachycephaly -- a congenital malformation of the skull in which premature closure of the coronal suture results in excessive lateral growth of the head, giving it a short, broad
appearance with a cephalic index between 81 and 85 – normal is 100.
brachydactyly -- abnormally short fingers or toes. (See hands.)
bradycardia -- abnormal slowing of the heart rate, usually to fewer than 60 beats per minute; slow heartbeat,
causing fainting, dizziness, chest pain.
braggadocio -- arrogant person; braggart; arrogant or boastful behavior.
Brahman -- In Hinduism, the universal soul of which all are a part. Each individual has a unique soul, Atman.
Brahmin -- a member of the priest cast in India.
Braille - System of tactile reading and writing that uses various combinations of six embossed dots, arranged in a pattern with two dots
across and three dots down, to denote letters, numbers, contractions, punctuation marks, and special symbols. (See alphabet illustration.)
brailler -- a six-keyed device for writing braille.
brain atrophy -- also known as cerebral atrophy, a condition in which the cells of the brain are lost, or the connections between them are
broken. A number of conditions can lead to brain atrophy, including epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, strokes, Alzheimer's disease,
multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, AIDS, and Huntington's disease.
brain damage -- (also called brain impairment, brain injury, brain dysfunction) any damage to the brain caused by illness, injury, or drug
brain hemisphericity -- two hemispheres, or sides, of the brain deal with information and function in different ways.
brain impairment -- see brain damage.
brain injury -- any damage to the brain caused by accident, illness, or drug use.
brain lesions -- lesions refer to a wound, sore, rash, boil, or other abnormality of tissue; described as benign, cancerous, gross, occult, or primary.
brain plasticity -- the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions.
Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.
brain stem -- the primitive portion of the brain that lies between the cerebrum and the spinal cord. It
links the lower brain with the middle of the brain and cerebral hemispheres. It is considered the "inner
core" of the brain and regulates life-support. The brain stem contains the medulla (vital involuntary
functions), the pons, the reticular formation (sleep, arousal, attention) and attaches to the
cerebellum (balance/ movement). (See diagram.)
brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) -- see auditory brain stem response.
branchial arches -- a series of arch-like thickenings of the body wall in the pharyngeal region of the
Branchio-Oto-Renal Syndrome -- branchial clefts, fistulas, and cysts, malformation of auricle and sinus, renal abnormalities, conductive and/or sensorineural hearing loss. One of
the 10 syndromes most commonly associated with hearing impairment.
brannigan -- a drinking bout; a spree or binge; originally a North American slang word.
Braxton Hicks contractions -- mild, irregular contractions of the uterus experienced throughout pregnancy, especially during the last month or two.
brayer -- an ink roller used with a printing plate. The brayer is rolled in a shallow pan filled with water-soluble ink or tempera paint.
breadbasket -- stomach; a major cereal-producing region.
breast bone -- see sternum.
breastfeeding -- feeding a baby from a mother's breast rather than from a bottle; usually better than bottle-feeding for the physical
well-being of the baby.
breath-holding spells -- involuntary holding of breath.
brecciate -- to form rock into breccia (rocks made of sharp fragments set in a grainy matrix).
breech -- presentation of baby buttocks-first during birth. (See illustrations.)
breeze -- gentle push of the wind.
breviloquence -- speech characterized by brevity; shortness; briefness.
brevity -- briefness, swiftness, evanescence.
bricolage -- something made or put together using any materials that happen to be available.
bright-line -- providing an unambiguous criterion or guideline especially in law.
brillig -- from Lewis Carroll's Jabberwocky (Twas brillig and the slithy toves); four o'clock in the afternoon; the time when you begin broiling
things for dinner.
brio -- joie de vivre; vivacity; alacrity; gusto; esprit.
broadside -- a sheet of paper printed usually on one side (as an advertisement); all the guns on one side of a ship, also their simultaneous
discharge; a volley of abuse or denunciation; a strongly worded attack.
Broca's aphasia -- also called motor aphasia or non-fluent aphasia; difficulty speaking; words are stuttered and halting. Articulation
coordination is difficult.
Broca's area -- a language structure located in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that controls language production. This is
part of the left frontal area in the cerebrum. It converts thoughts into sounds (or written words) and sends the message to the motor area. Impulses go first
to Wernicke's area, then to Broca's area. This area of the brain is responsible for speech production, language processing, language comprehension,
and facial neurons. It was named for Pierre Paul Broca, who discovered the area in an autopsy of a patient who had been speech-impaired. (See
broker rule -- one role of a social worker that involves linking a family with services.
bromidrosiphobia -- fear of body odor.
bromine -- atomic number 35, symbol Br; a heavy, volatile, corrosive, reddish-brown, nonmetallic liquid element of the halogen series, having a highly irritating vapor. It is used to produce
gasoline antiknock mixtures, fumigants, dyes, and photographic chemicals; occurs in natural brine; discovered in 1826 by Antoine J. Balard.
bronchial asthma -- an allergic reaction with breathing difficulties and wheezing. The smooth muscles wrapped around the airways spasm, causing them to narrow, and producing mucus.
Most bronchial asthma attacks are caused by hypersensitivity to airborne particles or allergies to foods.
bronchitis -- an inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. It may be acute or chronic. The symptoms of bronchitis are chest discomfort, cough with mucus, fatigue, fever,
shortness of breath, and wheezing. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include swelling of the ankle, legs, and feet; cyanosis; and frequent respiratory infections.
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia -- A chronic lung disorder that occurs in about 7% of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. It is associated with 'stiff' lungs that do not
permit adequate gas exchange and frequently leads to dependence on ventilator assistance for extended periods of time.
bronchospasm -- acute constriction of the bronchial tubes, most commonly associated with asthma.
brontophobia, brontephobia -- fear of thunder.
brougham -- a closed four-wheeled carriage with an open driver's seat in front.
brouhaha -- a state of commotion or excitement; hubbub; uproar.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas -- Supreme court case that clarified that "separate cannot be equal" leading to racial desegregation of public schools, 1954. Although
this was not a disability issue, the precedent extends to segregation of all children.
brummagem (BRUM-ih-jum) -- not genuine, spurious, cheaply showy, tawdry.
bruxism -- repetitive grinding of the teeth.
budgeting -- the regular, systematic balancing of income and expenses.
buccal -- of or relating to the cheeks or the mouth cavity.
bucolic -- of or characteristic of the countryside or its people; rustic; of or characteristic of shepherds or flocks; pastoral; a pastoral poem; a farmer or a shepherd.
buffoon -- a clown, a jester; a court buffoon; a person given to clowning and joking; a ludicrous or bumbling person; a fool; a person who amuses others by ridiculous or odd behavior, jokes,
etc.; a rude or vulgar fool; goofball; motley fool; zany.
bulbar signs -- the bulbar muscles are those supplied by the motor nerves coming off the brain stem which control breathing, swallowing, talking, and other functions of the throat. Bulbar
signs are problems with these functions.
bulimia nervosa -- eating disorder in which binge eating is alternated with purging.
bullying -- aggressive behavior, repeated over time, that is intentionally harmful and occurs without provocation.
bulk -- material to increase quantity of intestinal contents and stimulate regular bowel movements. Fruits, vegetables, and fiber provide bulk in the diet.
bumbershoot -- umbrella.
bumpkin -- an awkward, unsophisticated person; a yokel; a short spar projecting from the deck of a ship, used to extend a sail or secure a block or stay.
bumptious -- crudely or loudly assertive; pushy; offensively self-assertive or conceited; forward; lacking restraint or modesty; cocky, arrogant, brash, swaggering, vaunting, showy,
overbearing, presumptuous, boastful, impudent, overconfident, vainglorious, egotistic.
bundimun -- a magical creature found world wide. It is a green fungus with eyes that can destroy an entire house. The secretions of the bundimun rot building structure, and if a house gets
a large enough infestation, it can collapse. Bundimun are known to spit out acid that can seriously harm anyone that bothers it. However, bundimun secretions, when diluted, are useful in
magical cleaning solutions. A group of bundimun is a secretion. A bundimun baby is a puddle.
buphthalmos -- an abnormal distention and enlargement of the eyeball.
burble -- to make a bubbling sound; to speak in an excited manner; babble; a bubbling or gentle flow; an excited flow of speech; Lewis Carroll described "burble" from Jabberwocky: "Then
again, as to 'burble' if you take the three verbs 'bleat, murmur, and warble' then select the bits I have underlined, it certainly makes 'burble' though I am afraid I can't distinctly remember
having made it in that way.
burke -- to suppress quietly or indirectly; bypass; avoid.
burlesque -- a form of comedy that makes light of serious situations or treats light situations in a serious manner (displays a discrepancy between content and style of presentation). The
term has also been applied to include raucous stage entertainment with songs and skits.
burnish -- to polish, the shine of a polished surface.
butryophenones -- drugs that inhibit the neurochemical dopamine in the brain and are used to control Tourette Syndrome, psychosis, and self-injurious behavior. An example is
butterbeer -- a popular wizarding beverage in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). It has a very slight alcohol content, but can get house elves quite drunk. It is served cold or hot in
"foaming tankards." Measure 1/2 cup butterscotch ice cream topping and 1/2 tablespoon butter into a 16 ounce glass and microwave for 1 -- 11/2 minutes , or until syrup is bubbly and butter
melted. Stir and cool for 30 seconds, and then slowly mix in 1 cup cream soda or club soda. Mixture will fizz quite a bit. Serve warm.
B vitamins -- vitamins that help the body process energy from food. They also help form red blood cells. B vitamins are B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic
acid), B6, B7 (biotin), B12, and folic acid. B vitamins come from fish, poultry, meat, eggs, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, beans, peas, and fortified cereal and bread.
|Most of the sighs
we hear have
|A beast epic painting by Tracy
Timmins. Check out all of her art
on her web site --
|This lady is a professor named Deb
Finkel. SHE is a behavior
geneticist!!! (pretty cool, huh?)
|A good example of
how our binocular
|The formation of a
blastocyst, seen in