Sp--Sz (s, part 2)
space -- an art element referring to the distance within or between aspects in an artwork.

spacious nest -- a positive descriptive term for the time in a marriage when the children have left home. Also called empty nest. (see three great pictures.)

spanking --
hitting a child, usually on the buttocks, with an open hand without causing physical injury.

spasmodic dysphonia -- spasms of the vocal cords (vocal folds) which may cause them to freeze in an open position.

spastic -- increased muscle tone so that muscles are stiff and movements are difficult. Caused by damage to the pyramidal tract in the brain.

spastic cerebral palsy -- most common type of cerebral palsy in children affecting approximately two-thirds of those with this neurological condition; muscles are stiff and movements are
awkward. About 70% to 80% of affected individuals have this kind of
cerebral palsy, in which muscles are stiff, making movement difficult. When both legs are affected, a child may have
difficulty walking because tight muscles in the hips and legs cause legs to turn inward and cross at the knees. In other cases, only one side of the body is affected, often with the arm more
severely affected than the leg. When all four limbs and the trunk are affected, often along with the muscles controlling the mouth and tongue, it is the most serious. These children (with
quadriplegia) often have intellectual disability and other problems.

spastic diplegia -- a form of cerebral palsy primarily seen in former premature infants that is manifested as spasticity of both lower extremities with only mild involvement of upper

spastic dysarthria -- involves excessive muscle tension and overly sensitive reflexes. This person's voice often sounds strained or strangled, and reflexes are so easily excited that these
extraneous movements may interfere with speech production.

spastic esophageal motility disorder -- a disorder in the efficient transport by the esophagus of food from the mouth to the stomach for digestion. A disorder of this movement limits
delivery of food and fluid, as well as causes a sense of
dysphagia and chest pain.

spastic hemiplegia -- a form of cerebral palsy in which one side of the body demonstrates spasticity and the other side is unaffected.

spasticity -- a condition that involves involuntary contractions of various muscle groups.

spastic paralysis -- see cerebral palsy.

spastic paraplegia -- a group of neurological orders: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (also called Familial Spastic Paraparesis, Spastic Paraplegia, Strumpell Disease, Hereditary Charcot-
Disease, Spastic Spinal Paralysis, Diplegia Spinalis Progressive, French Settlement Disease, Troyer Syndrome, and Silver) and Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS). These disorders cause
progressive weakness and spasticity in the muscles of the lower body. In PLS, the disease also affects muscles in the upper body, causing problems with the arms, voice, and swallowing.
Both may cause pain, balance disturbance, and bladder and bowel problems. Very rare forms can cause
intellectual disability, dementia, epilepsy, vision problems, skin problems, and
other neurological problems.  
HSP, infantile onset is caused by mutations in the ALS2 gene on chromosome 2, autosomal recessive. Spastic paraplegia type 11 is caused by mutated
SPG11 gene on chromosome 15,
autosomal recessive. Type 2 is caused by mutations in the PLP1 gene on the X chromosome, X-linked recessive. Type 3A is caused by mutations in
the ATL1 gene on chromosome 14,
autosomal dominant. Type 4 is caused by a mutation in the SPAST gene on chromosome 2, autosomal dominant. Type 7 is caused by a mutated
SPG7 gene on chromosome 16,
autosomal recessive. Type 8 is caused by a mutated KIAA0196 gene on chromosome 8, autosomal dominant. Troyer syndrome is caused by a mutation
in the SPG20 gene on chromosome 13,
autosomal recessive.

spastic quadriparesis -- the involuntary movement of muscles in all four extremities.

spastic quadriplegia -- a form of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are affected. Increased muscle tone is caused by damage to the pyramidal tract in the brain.

spatial -- having to do with the nature of space, as in the awareness of the space around one's own body.

spatial ability -- ability to mentally visualize and manipulate objects, translating into adeptness of physical manipulation and creativity.

spatial orientation -- Knowing where one is in relationship to his or her surroundings.

spatial perception -- the ability to locate the horizontal or vertical while ignoring distracting information.

spatial reasoning -- seeing places or things mentally.

spatial visualization -- the ability to find figures and shapes hidden within other figures.

spatial-visual skills -- the cognitive abilities involved in orienting one's self in the environment.

spattergroit -- "A most grievous affliction of the skin that will leave you pockmarked and more gruesome than you are now. The only remedy is to take the liver of a toad, bind it tight about
your throat, stand naked by the full moon in a barrel of eel's eyes... " (a healer at St. Mungos;
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, J.K. Rowling).

speaking valve -- a valve that can be used  in children who have tracheostomy tubes in place to permit vocalizations.

special education --
specially designed instruction provided to children, at no cost to parents, in all settings (such as the classroom, physical educational facilities, the home, and hospitals
or institutions); education designed to meet the individual and specific needs of children with disabilities.

special education teacher -- person trained to teach children who have disabilities. As a team member, this person coordinates the child's IEP; compiles, organizes, and maintains good,
accurate records on each student; provides instructional alternatives for the students and works with other professionals to implement these; helps other professionals with needed materials;
works directly with the parents.

specialized vocabulary -- words that have multiple meanings depending on the context.

specially designed instruction -- refers to adaptations of the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction to address a student's unique needs and ensure that the student can
participate and make progress in the general curriculum.

special services committee -- a multidisciplinary team that follows the process of identifying and planning services, developing an IEP or IFSP, and evaluating the child's progress
throughout the year.

speciation -- the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise.

specific academic skills deficits -- children may have difficulties with any or all of the following: acquiring basic reading skills (e.g., learning letter names and sounds, blending, applying
phonetic and structured analysis), reading comprehension, writing, written expression, spelling, mathematical calculations, and mathematical reasoning.

specific development -- area of a person's growth and maturation that can be defined distinctly, such as physical, social, emotional, intellectual, and creative growth.

specificity -- The capacity of a screening instrument to accurately select out children who should not be identified.

specific language impairment (SLI) -- a significant deficit in linguistic functioning that does not appear to be accompanied by deficits in hearing, intelligence, or motor functioning.

specific learning disability -- a specific condition in which a student has a dysfunction in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using
language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include children who have learning problems which are
primarily the result of visual, hearing, or other disabilities, of
intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. "Specific learning
disability" coined by
Samuel Kirk.

specimen description -- a form of narrative observations technique that involves taking on the spot notes about a child to describe behavior.

specious -- superficially plausible, but actually wrong; misleading in appearance, especially misleadingly attractive.

SPECT -- see simple photon emission computed tomography.

spectator play --
a young child observes the play of others but does not attempt to join them.

spectral karyotyping -- an advanced form of chromosome analysis that can identify small alternations that cannot be seen by normal karyotype analysis.

spectrophobia -- fear of mirrors.

spectrum disorder -- a group of disorders that seem to be qualitatively distinct, but believed to be related from an underlying pathogenic point of view. The word spectrum also implies that
the syndrome is composed of subgroups that range from severe to mild.

spectrum of teaching styles -- a model of instructional styles based on the premise that the teaching/learning process involves decisions made by the learner before, during, and after
learning. Also referred to as
Mosston's Spectrum, this model is now accepted and applied throughout the world.

speech -- the sounds produced to make words; phonemes; the audible, oral output of language.

speech aids -- visual aids such as pictures, real objects, and printed words.

speech and language development -- The development of expressive and receptive language.

speech and language disorder -- problems in communication and related areas such as oral-motor function.

speech and language impairment -- term used in IDEA to refer to the inability to communicate effectively; also physical conditions that may impair speech; a category of IDEA. Problems in
communicating and related areas such as oral motor function. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or used the
oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders are
hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, intellectual disability,
drug abuse, physical impairments such as
cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Often, however, the cause is unknown.

speech and language pathologist (SLP) -- A professional who works in a variety of roles and settings with children who have communication disorders; a specialist who diagnoses and
treats or remediates
communication disorders in children. The SLP provides individual therapy for children, consults with the child's teachers about the most effective ways to facilitate the
child's communication in the class setting, and works closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home
(see picture).

speech disorder --
difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality; abnormal speech that is unintelligible, unpleasant, or interferes with
communication and includes problems of voice, speech clarity, or
fluency (stuttering).

speech mechanisms -- the various parts of the body used during oral speech, including tongue, lips, teeth, mandible, and palate.

speech reading -- Interpretation of lip and facial movements in order to understand speech; also called lip reading. Used by people with hearing loss who communicate orally and by
some people who become deaf or hard of hearing later in life.

speech synthesizer -- assistive technology devices that create "voice".

spender -- a person whose money-handling style is characterized by a love of purchasing items for herself or himself as well as for others.

spendthrift -- a person who spends improvidently or wastefully.

sperm -- the male reproductive cells produced by the testes. A healthy, average man produces 75 to 150 million of these per day (although
different sources report different numbers)
(see illustration).

spermatic cord --
a cord-like structure, consisting of the vas deferens and its accompanying arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels, that passes
from the abdominal cavity through the
inguinal canal down into the scrotum to the back of the testicle.

spermatic ducts -- see ductus deferens.

spermatids -- the result of the division of spermatocytes, each one containing 23 chromosomes and including either an X or a Y sex chromosome.

spermatocytes -- sperm in the early stage of development, at which time each one contains 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome.

spermatogenesis -- the process by which sperm develop.

spermatophobia, spermophobia -- fear of semen.

spermatozoa -- mature spermatids that are fully functional and capable of fertilizing a human ovum (see illustration above).

sperm bank --
a depository for storing sperm (see picture).

sperm donor --
a male who makes his sperm available for artificial insemination.

sphekosophobia --
fear of wasps.

sphenoid bone -- a prominent, irregular, wedge-shaped bone at the base of the skull. It has been called the "keystone" of the cranial floor since it is contact with all the other cranial bones.
It resembles a butterfly or a bat --
see picture.

spherical convex --
the type of optical lens used to correct farsightedness. It can be
incorporated into eyeglasses or contacts. The lens has a dome shape.

sphynx -- a mythological creature depicted as a recumbent feline with a human head. A
group of sphinxes is a riddle. A baby sphinx is a puzzle.

spica cast -- a cast that covers much of the lower body and is used following hip surgery
(see picture).

spillover --
the effect of participation in one of life's domains (such as work) on another domain (such as family).

spilth -- the act of spilling; an amount spilled.

spina bifida - a developmental defect of the spine; also called spinal dysraphism (see picture below); multifactorial. Literally means cleft spine, which is an incomplete closure in the spinal
column. This occurs when the spinal cord, surrounding nerves and/or spinal column fail to develop normally during the first 28 days of gestation. The condition can affect the nervous,
urinary, muscular and skeletal systems; often causing bowel and bladder complications and
paralysis below the spinal defect -- see pictures.

spina bifida cystica --
a malformation of the spinal column in which a tumor-like
sac is produced on the infant's back.

spina bifida meningocele -- a type of spina bifida cystica in which the characteristic tumor-like sac contains spinal fluid (see picture above).

spina bifida myelomeningocele --
a type of spina bifida cystica in which the characteristic tumor-like sac contains both spinal fluid and nerve tissue.
Incomplete closure of the embryonic
neural tube that results in a defect of the spine and paralysis below the level of the lesion. Hydrocephalus. Cause is unknown, however, vitamin
supplementation in early pregnancy has reduced prevalence. Inheritance is multifactorial; can be diagnosed prenatally by
ultrasound, amniocentesis, and measurement of alpha-
fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid. Associated complications, depending on the level of the lesion, neurogenic bladder, cranial nerve abnormalities, orthopedic abnormalities, including
intellectual disability or learning disabilities are common. Incidence: 1/500 to 1/2000 live births; recurrence risk to patient's siblings. 2% -- 5% (see picture above).

spina bifida occulta --
generally benign congenital defect of the spinal column not associated with protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. Often called hidden spina bifida, the spinal
cord and the nerves are usually normal, and there is no opening in the back. In this usually harmless form of spina bifida, there is a small gap or defect in a few of the small bones
vertebrae) that make up the spine. There may be no motor or sensory impairments evident at birth; but subtle, progressive neurological deterioration often becomes evident in later
childhood or adulthood. In many instances, spina bifida occulta is so mild that there is no disturbance of spinal function at all. It can be diagnosed at any age
(see picture above).

spinal --
pertaining to, relating to, of, or using the spine.

spinal bulbar muscular atrophy -- X-linked recessive.

spinal column -- (or vertebral column or backbone or spine) consists of 33 vertebrae, the sacrum, intervertebral discs, and the coccyx. The spinal column houses and protects the
spinal cord in its spinal canal. The spinal column has several curves, from the top, the
cervical, then the thoracic, the lumbar, and the pelvic.

spinal cord -- the thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that extends from the base of the brain down through the spinal column.

spinal cord injury -- an injury in which the spinal cord is traumatized or transected. It usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. The
damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or
ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Most injuries to the spinal cord don't completely
sever it. Instead, most injuries cause fractures and compression of the
vertebrae, which then crush and destroy the spinal axons. Some spinal cord injuries will completely heal, others will
cause paralysis
(see picture above, beside spina bifida).

spinal disorders --
physical or motor disorders caused by problems in spinal development or functioning, i.e., spina bifida, hydrocephalus, etc.

spinal dysraphism -- see spina bifida.

spinal muscular atrophy (
Werdnig-Hoffman syndrome) -- progressive respiratory failure and severe muscle weakness in infancy. Normal intelligence. Survival is unusual past 2 years of
Autosomal recessive inheritance. Associated complications are contractures, cardiomyopathy, respiratory infections, scoliosis; infantile forms are incompatible with prolonged
survival; however, juvenile forms are compatible with survival but require aggressive physical therapy and orthopedic care. These children usually have normal intelligence. Incidence: 4/100,
000 in northeast England; recurrence risk to patient's siblings, 25% for AR forms.

spinal tap -- a procedure in which a hollow needle is used to draw cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal canal; see lumbar puncture (see picture).

spindle --
in mitosis and meiosis, a web-like figure along which the chromosomes are distributed; not to be confused with muscle spindle.

spindle-shaped -- thickest in the middle, and tapering to both ends.

spiral -- helix; string in a successively concentric pattern.

spiritual abuse -- degrading one's beliefs; withholding means to practice; forcing adherence to a belief system. Spiritual abuse is not limited to the
behaviors listed here.

spirituality -- Freud -- the power of abstract thought. For this reason, Freud saw the commandment against idolatry as an elevation of culture: our object of central concern, God, has
become invisible and therefore abstract.

spiritual well-being -- one of the six major qualities (commonly found in emotionally healthy families) identified by researchers working within the family
strengths framework.

spirochete -- a highly coiled bacterium; a general term applied to any organism of the order Spirochaetales, which includes the causative organisms of
(see picture).

spleen --
an organ above the stomach and under the ribs on the left side. It is part of the lymphatic system. It contains white blood cells and lymphocytes that fight germs. It also helps
control the amount of blood in the body, and destroys old and damaged cells. The spleen supplies the body with blood in emergencies such as a bad cut.

splenetic -- marked by bad temper, malevolence, or spite.

splenomegaly -- enlargement of the spleen.

splice -- to infuse, join, or interweave; unite.

splints -- see orthotics (see picture).

split custody --
a legal child custody arrangement following a divorce in which each parent has sole custody of one or more of the children.

splitting -- Freud: the separation of one item into two such that they can be handled separately. If there are two thoughts in one's mind that are contradictory or otherwise uncomfortable,
the person will cognitively separate them, not thinking of the separate thoughts at the same time. In this way, a complex situation is simplified by separation rather than resolution.

spokesgoblin -- a goblin that speaks for the other goblins.

spondyloephipheseal dysplasia -- congenital abnormality  of vertebral column caused by a lack of mineralization of bone; also called lag of mineralization of bone.

spongy degeneration of central nervous system -- see Canavan disease.

spontaneity -- acting from natural impulses.

spontaneous abortion -- also called miscarriage; spontaneous loss of the embryo/fetus that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

spontaneous concepts -- concepts mastered in the course of everyday life. Acquisition is no conscious or deliberate but rather occurs with little or no awareness by the child that he or she
is thinking conceptually.

spontaneous play -- the unplanned, self-selected activity in which a child freely participates; a free, unplanned, flexible kind of play. See free play.

spontaneous recovery -- in behavior management, the recurrence of an undesirable behavior after it has been extinguished.

spool -- cylinder with ridges that has spiral string around it.

spoonerism -- an accidental or intentional play on words in which corresponding vowels, consonants, or morphemes are switched. William Archibald Spooner was a professor at New
College in the late 1800s and early 1900s. He was famous for his word plays, now called spoonerisms. Example: A well-boiled icicle (A well-oiled bicycle).

sporadic or new mutation -- in genetics, a disease that occurs by chance and carries little risk of recurrence; a sudden change in DNA which has the potential to cause disorders or
diseases that occur by chance and carry little risk of recurrence.

spousal entitlement -- an alternative to alimony in which a nonworking spouse receives a kind of severance pay for her or his "investment" in the marriage -- for helping the income earner's
career during the marriage.

spousal support -- also called spousal maintenance (now usually preferred to alimony); court-ordered financial support payments by a spouse or a former spouse to the other person
following divorce or separation.

sprain (muscle) -- an overstretching or partial tearing of a ligament, usually the result of an injury, such as twisting an ankle or knee. A common sprain is in the Achilles tendon, which
connects the calf muscles to the heel.

spurious -- not being what it purports to be; false or fake; apparently but not actually valid.

sputum -- the mucus and other matter brought up from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea that one may cough up and spit out or swallow.

squamous cell carcinoma -- the second most common skin cancer (after basal cell carcinoma).

squiffer -- organ player.

squinny -- to look or peer with eyes partly closed; squint.

stabiles -- Similar to mobiles, except stabiles are designed to be stationary.

stage -- a qualitative change in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development.

Stage 1 -- in this stage of labor, the cervix dilates and effaces. Also contractions regulate and get more and more frequent. The climax of this stage is transition.

Stage 2 -- in this stage of labor, the baby is delivered.

Stage 3 -- in this stage of labor, the placenta is delivered.

stages of acceptance -- the stages of acceptance parents may experience in coming to term with their child's disabilities. These stages are similar to those manifest by people who are
grieving and include shock, disbelief, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

stalking -- maliciously following, pursuing, and/or harassing another person.

stamina -- strength of physical constitution; power to endure disease, fatigue, privation, etc.; staying power; toughness.

standards -- state expectations of students' learning.

standard deviation -- a statistical term that describes the average deviation of scores from the mean and is one of several ways to measure variation of a distribution.

standard error of measurement (SEM) -- a psychometric term that describes the average error of measurement contained in any given test score. It forms a confidence interval around an
individual's test score.

standardized achievement tests -- tests that measure what children know or can do at a particular age or grade.

standardized aptitude tests -- standardized tests that are intended to predict future performances or success in a given area of training or in an occupation.

standardized assessment -- method of evaluating ability level using a fixed methodology and normative data.

standardized rating scales -- questionnaires concerning specific behaviors that have been completed for large samples of children so that norms and normal degrees of variation are

standardized recipe -- a recipe that has been tested to produce consistent results.

standardized screening and diagnostic tests -- standardized tests used to identify or diagnose children with potential learning problems.

standardized tests -- Method of evaluating ability level using a fixed methodology and normative data; a test with specific characteristics: 1) developed according to APA/AERA guidelines
with high levels of reliability and validity; 2) prescribed methods for administration and security; and 3) scoring systems based on comparisons with other people or to a specified criterion.

standards -- Outcome statements that specify what children should know and be able to do at different points in their school learning. Some statements of standards also address attitudes,
values, and dispositions toward learning. In child assessment, standards are often used as a way of expressing expectations about intent and outcomes.

standards-based approach -- instruction that emphasizes challenging academic standards specifying knowledge and skills and the levels at which students should demonstrate mastery of

standard score -- derived scores that have been transformed to produce a distribution with a predetermined mean and standard deviation.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale -- a standardized individual intelligence test, originally known as the Binet-Simon Scales, which was revised and standardized by Lewis Terman at
Stanford University.

stanza -- a verse of a poem.

stapes -- one of the three small bones in the middle ear that help amplify sound.

staphylococcus (staph) (staphylococcus aureus bacteria) -- a bacteria that can cause serious food-borne illnesses (see picture; picture is pseudo-

starter marriage --
a short-lived first marriage that ends in divorce, usually with no children and not much community property.

startle reflex -- occurs when a sudden noise or movement causes a child to throw its arms away from the body and then back toward midline (see
picture, titled "
Moro reflex").

stasiphobia, stasophobia --
fear of standing.

stasis -- equilibrium causing a peaceful inactivity via equal opposing forces.

State Education Agency (SEA) -- typically a state's department of education or division of special education.

statement of transition services -- a component of IEPs for students age 16 or older to help them move effectively and appropriately to adulthood -- independent living, semi-independent
living, dependent living; work, continued schooling, etc.

states of arousal -- different degrees of sleep and wakefulness.

state-of-the-relationship talk -- a relationship ending strategy in which one person tells the other during a discussion of their perception of the problems with the relationship.

static -- unchanging.

static marriages -- marriages that don't change over time, don't allow for changes in the spouses, and rely on the fact of the legal marriage bond to enforce sexual exclusivity and

static positioning -- placing a child in a fixed position.

static splints -- stationary assistive devices that hold a part of the body in an immobile position.

static thinking -- the tendency to attend more to the outcome than to the changes that produced the outcome.

status -- the social ranking or the prestige attached to a particular position in society.

status epilepticus -- a prolonged seizure of 15 minutes or more that is a life-threatening condition.

status marmoratus -- condition caused by excessive myelinization of nerve fibers in the corpus striatum; a cause of brain damage in premature infants.

status offenses -- acts that are illegal for juveniles but not for adults, such as running away from home.

status quo -- literally means "the state in which" -- "normal".

stay at home dad -- see househusband.

stay put provision --
prohibits students with disabilities from being expelled because of behavior associated with their disabilities.

staurophobia -- fear of crucifixes.

STD -- see sexually transmitted disease.

stellate -- arranged in a radiating pattern like that of a star.

stem cells -- a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. They commonly come from two main sources: embryos formed during the blastocyst
stage of embryological development (embryonic stem cells) and adult tissue (adult stem cells). Adult (or
somatic) stem cells are found in such tissues as the brain, bone marrow, blood,
blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver. They remain in a quiescent state for years until activated by disease or tissue injury. Stem cells are either extracted from adult tissue
or from a dividing
zygote in a culture dish.  Research with stem cells shows promise for organ and tissue regeneration, brain disease treatment, cell deficiency therapy, blood disease
treatments, and general research.  

stem to stern -- an idiom for completely; based on the literal meaning of from the stem to the stern (front end to the back end of a ship).

stenophobia -- fear of narrow places.

stenosis -- a narrowing.

stentorian -- extremely loud.

stepfamily -- the family created when one or both partners in a marriage have a child or children from a previous marriage. Also called reconstituted family or blended family.

step-hop -- a movement commonly performed in folk dances. Like the skip, it is a combination of a step and a hop; however, unlike the skip, the two movements have the same value and the
accent is on the step.

stepism -- the attitude of prejudice and discrimination that assumes that stepfamilies are inferior to biological families.

stepfamilies -- see reconstituted families.

stepmother trap -- two conflicting societal views that can "trap" a stepmother; a stepmother is, on the one hand, expected to be unnaturally loving toward her stepchildren and yet she is, on
the other hand, viewed as being mean, abusive, and vain.

stepparent -- an adult who is married to a child's biological parent but who is not child's birth parent.

Stepping Ahead Program -- An 8-step program designed to build strengths in stepfamilies.

stepping reflex -- step-like response that occurs when a newborn child is held in a vertical position so that its feet touch a surface. Disappears at 2 -- 3 months (see

stereoscopic --
the blending together of two images of the same object from two slightly different viewpoints.

stereotype -- a standardized, oversimplified, often foolish and mean-spirited view of someone or something.

stereotype threat -- the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype, which can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance.

stereotypic behavior -- repetitive nonfunctional movements (e.g., hand-flapping, rocking) characteristic of autism or other severe disabilities.

stereotypic movement disorder -- disorder characterized by recurring purposeless but voluntary movements (e.g., hand flapping in children with autism). Repetitive,
often rhythmic, but purposeless movement; which may result in self-injury, must continue for at least 4 weeks, and must interfere with normal daily functioning. This disorder most often affects
children with intellectual and developmental delay; also called

stereotypies -- see stereotypic movement disorder.

sterile --
free from living microorganisms.

sterility -- the total inability to conceive; free from living microorganisms.

sterilization -- the process of making an individual unable to reproduce, usually accomplished surgically.

sternum -- a flat, dagger shaped bone located in the middle of the chest. Along with the ribs, it forms the rib cage that protects the lungs, heart,
and major
blood vessels. It has three parts: the manubrium (at the top, connected to the first two ribs), the body (located in the middle and
connects to the third through seventh ribs directly and the eighth through tenth indirectly), and the
xiphoid process (located on the bottom, often
cartilaginous, but does become bony in later years)
(see picture).

steroids --
medications used to treat severe inflammatory diseases and infantile spasms; also refers to certain natural hormones in the body.

stewardship -- responsibility for judicious management of resources; the obligation assumed by an individual or an agency to act responsibly in the use of both natural and personal

Stickler syndrome (hereditary progressive arthroophthalmopathy) -- flat facies, myopia, cleft of hard or soft palate, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (lag of mineralization of bone),
hypotonia, hyperextensible joints, occasional scoliosis, risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, arthropathy in late childhood or adulthood, occasional hearing loss or cognitive
Cause: mutations in type 2 and type 11 procollagen genes (COL2A1, COL11A1, COL11A2), which have been linked to chromosomes 12q13.11--q13.2, 1p21, and 6p21.3,
autosomal dominant with variable expression; a cause of deaf-blindness; one of the ten syndromes most commonly associated with hearing impairment.

stiction --
the force required to cause one body in contact with another to begin to move.

stigmata - An identifying mark or characteristic; a diagnostic sign of a disease or a disability.

stiletto -- high-heel with sharp point; a small dagger.

stillbirth -- the birth of a dead baby that was developmentally mature enough to have lived outside the womb; occurs between the seventh and ninth month of pregnancy (the third trimester).

stillicide -- water falling from the roof of a house or a gutter.

stimming -- a slang word to describe self-stimulating behaviors or perseveration, common in children with autism.

stimulant  medication -- the most commonly prescribed medication for students with ADHD; examples include Ritalin, Dexedrine, Cylert, Adderall, and Focalin.

stimulus -- environmental condition that elicits responses from an individual.

stimulus control -- A behavioral science concept that states that future behaviors are more likely to occur in the presence of specific stimuli while the behavior is initially being reinforced.

stimulus event -- a change in the environment that has a measurable impact on behavior.

stimulus function -- the functional relationship between a stimulus and a response.

stimulus generalization -- a process in which the response to a new stimulus is similar to the response of an earlier, similar stimulus.

stimulus overselectivity -- characteristic of student with Autism Spectrum Disorders in which they attend to only one item or object to the exclusion of others and to the detriment of
understanding their environments, or a pattern of responding that has little to do with knowledge.

stimulus-response -- the kind of psychological learning, first characterized in behavior theory, that makes a connection between a response and a stimulus; that is, the kind of learning that
takes place when pairing something that rouses or incites and activity with the activity itself in such a way that the stimulus (such as a bell) will trigger a response (such as salivating).

stimulus-response connection -- the basis of all behavior, influenced by the laws of classical conditioning.

stimulus-response unit -- the basic component of behavior.

stippled – the appearance of colored dots in some cells when stained.

stock characters -- conventional story characters within a literary or folk tradition. The Appalachian trickster Jack and the African American trickster Brer Rabbit are two examples of stock
characters. Others include the Russian witch
Baba Yaga, the Norwegian youngest son Boots, and the Puerto Rican noodlehead Juan Bobo.

stoic -- seemingly indifferent to or unaffected by joy, grief, pleasure, or pain.

stolid -- having or expressing little or no sensibility; unemotional.

stomach -- an organ of digestion. It has a saclike shape and is located between the esophagus and the intestines. It is muscular, elastic, and lies beneath the diaphragm in the abdominal
cavity. The stomach's capacity is about 1 quart in an adult. The connection between the stomach and the esophagus is called the
cardiac sphincter, which prevents food from passing back
into the esophagus. In the stomach,
gastric juices break down the food. Some substances are absorbed. The pyloric sphincter separates the stomach from the small intestine.

stomach flu -- see gastroenteritis.

stonewalling -- a dysfunctional response to conflict that involves complete unyieldingness and withdrawal from the partner; contains elements of both the exit and neglect responses.

stool -- feces.

storge -- according to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of the six basic styles of loving; an affectionate, peaceful, companionate style of loving, also referred to as
companionate love.

story -- the events or topic to be narrated.

story dictation -- children write and produce a story or episode.

storying -- the activity of creating narratives.

story play -- a type of creative play inspired by a book or a fingerplay.

storytelling -- go here http://www.eldrbarry.net/roos/eest.htm for Effective Storytelling: A Manual for Beginners
by Barry McWilliams. It is most informative and better than any definition I could put together. (Here is one of his pictures.)

strabismus --
Condition in which an individual cannot align both eyes simultaneously; sometimes colloquially referred to as "cross-eyed"
(internal; esotropia) or look outward (external; exotropia) (see picture---------->).

strain (muscle) --
occur when muscles and tendons are overstretched. They usually happen as a result of a strenuous activity when the muscles
haven't properly warmed up or the muscles are not used to the activity.

stranger anxiety -- distress when approached by an unfamiliar person, beginning at 7 to 9 months and ending about 1 year.

Strange Situation -- a procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth in which a baby (~12 months old) is taken through eight short episodes, in which brief separation from and reunions with
the caregiver occur in an unfamiliar playroom. It is used to assess the infant's
attachment style.

strategem -- an artifice or trick in war for deceiving and outwitting the enemy; a cleverly contrived trick or scheme for gaining an end; skill in ruses or trickery.

strategic family therapy -- a specific and fairly uniform strategy that aims to quickly uncover the source of relationship problems and reduce disruptive behavior in a short time.

strategic/functional -- refers to a communication approach that emphasizes the intentional, goal-oriented, instrumental aspects of communication.

strategy instruction -- method of teaching students techniques, principles, or rules applicable in many learning situations that guide them to complete tasks independently.

stratified random sample -- sample of specific subgroups of the targeted population in which everyone in the subgroups has an equal chance of being included in the study.

stratocumulus clouds -- large, dark, rounded masses in groups, lines, or waves at low altitudes.

stratus cloud -- a large, dark, low cloud; flat, hazy, featureless clouds, varying in color from dark gray to nearly white; may produce a light drizzle or snow; a cloudy day usually features a sky
filled with stratus clouds obscuring the sun.

straw man argument -- argumentation fallacy whereby one misrepresents one's opponents position to make it easier to attack or attacks a weaker position while ignoring a stronger one.

strength --
what a student is able to accomplish; their talents and abilities; their positive supports.

strength based assessment -- an assessment procedure in which parents, teachers, and other caregivers rate a child's or youth's strengths and use this information to develop strength-
centered, rather than deficit-centered, individualized education programs for children and youth with
emotional disorders.

stenosis -- an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.

streptococcus (strep) -- a genus of spherical gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. In addition to strep throat, certain
streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of
meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infection).
However, many streptococcal species are non-pathogenic. Streptococci are also part of the normal
commensal flora of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract of humans.

stress -- the physical and emotional reactions and behaviors that come from having to cope with difficult situations.

stressor overload -- the situation in which unrelated but unrelenting small stressors produce a breakdown in a person or family's morale.

stress pileup -- the occurrence and after-effects of several stresses within a short period of time, which can strain an individual's or a family's coping abilities.

stressful life event -- an event that creates a change in the family system.

stressor -- an external event that causes an emotional and/or a physical response and that can precipitate a crisis.

striated muscle -- the most common of the three types of muscles in the body. Striated muscle is attached to the bone and produces all the movements of body parts in relation to each
other. It is a
voluntary muscle. Its fibers are long and thin and are crossed with a regular pattern of red and white lines, giving the muscle its distinctive appearance and shape. The two
other muscle types are
cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

stridulate -- to make a shrill creaking noise by rubbing together special bodily structures -- used especially of male insects (crickets or grasshoppers).

stroke -- also called a brain attack; a medical emergency that happens when blood flow to the brain is stopped. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The
more common kind,
ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other, hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks
and bleeds into the brain.
"Mini-strokes" or transient ischemic attacks, occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. Symptoms are: sudden numbness or weakness of
the face, arm, or leg (especially on one side of the body); sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech; sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes; sudden trouble walking,
dizziness, loss of balance or coordination; and sudden severe headache with no known cause; can cause

stroma -- the supportive framework of an organ or gland or other structure, usually composed of connective tissue.

strontium -- atomic number 38, symbol Sr; a soft, silvery, easily oxidized element that ignites spontaneously in air; used in pyrotechnic compounds; occurs chiefly in celestite and strontianite;
discovered by
A. Crawford in 1790; named after Strotian, which is a town in Scotland.

structural buffers -- factors that dampen the impact of some work-family roles on others.

structuralism -- a theory of myths that proposes that myths are formed of significant opposites, named "binary opposites" by Claude Levi Strauss. The resolutions of these opposites
demonstrate the beliefs of the culture that tell the myths. Binary opposites  include male/female, young/old, and home/exile.

structural-functional perspective -- sociological approach that views the family as a social institution that performs essential functions for society in order to ensure its stability.

structure -- the regular and patterned activities of a society.

structured flexibility -- A well-structured early learning environment that also is adaptable to children's individual needs and preferences.

structured interview -- planned conversations to find out specific information about a child.

structured observation -- a method in which the investigator sets up a situation that evokes the behavior of interest and observes it in a laboratory.

strudel -- a pastry made from a thin sheet of dough rolled up with filling and baked.

student achievement standards -- standards that define the levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in the subjects.

student-directed learning strategies -- strategies that teach students with and without disabilities to modify and regulate their own learning.

study method -- consists of clinical practitioners working one on one with individuals or families using interviews, direct observation, and analysis of records.

study skills -- techniques students use to obtain, write, remember, and use content effectively.

stupor -- a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended sense or sensibility; a state of extreme apathy or torpor resulting from stress or shock.

Sturge-Weber syndrome -- flat facial "port wine stains," seizures, glaucoma, intracranial vascular abnormality, hemantiomas (benign congenital tumors made up of newly formed blood
vessels) or
meninges; may be progressive in some cases, with gradual visual or cognitive impairment and recurrent stroke-like episodes, hemiparesis, hemiatrophy, and hemianopia
(decreased vision in one eye). Cause: Unknown; usually sporadic possible due to somatic
mosaicism, autosomal
dominant in a few reported cases; a cause of deaf-blindness. (see picture of a woman in the early 1900s, who traveled
with a circus and was called the "mule faced woman." She likely had Sturge-Weber syndrome--------->).

stultify --
to cause to appear or be stupid, foolish, or absurdly illogical; to impair, invalidate, or make ineffective; negate; to have a
dulling or inhibiting effect on.

stuttering or stammering-- having excessive disruptions in the rate, rhythm, and forward flow of speech. A complex fluency
disorder of speech affecting the smooth flow of words, which may involve repetition of sounds or words, prolonged sounds, facial
grimaces, muscle tension, and other involuntary physical movements; hesitations, repetitions, omissions, or extra sounds in
speech patterns. It is believed that childhood stuttering is caused by an interaction of neurological (within the brain),
environmental, and developmental factors.

subacute necrotizing encephalomyopathy -- Leigh syndrome; see mitochondrial disorders.

subarachnoid -- beneath the arachnoid membrane, or middle layer, of the meninges (see picture).

subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) --
hemorrhage into the fluid-filled space between the arachnoid membrane and the underlying brain
that can compress or contuse the underlying brain and often may follow a particularly difficult labor and delivery that sometimes requires metal
forceps or vacuum assistance to the fetal head for delivery.

subatomic particles -- particles that are smaller than an atom. The three main kinds are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and
neutrons are in the
nucleus of an atom. Protons have a positive charge and neutrons have no electrical charge. Electrons circle the nucleus,
and have a negative charge.

subcortical band heterotopia -- also called Double Cortex Syndrome, is a rare brain development disorder which causes intellectual
and epilepsy. An extra layer of nerves develops under the brain cortex. It is usually associated with mutations in the DCX gene on the
X chromosome, and much less frequently in the LIS1 gene on chromosome 17. It is a neuronal migration disorder.

subculture -- a group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture.

subcutaneous -- beneath all the layers of the skin.

subdural -- resting between the outer (dural) and middle (arachnoid) layers of the meninges (see picture).

hematoma -- localized collection of clotted blood lying in the space between the dura and arachnoid membranes that surround the brain.
This results from bleeding of the cerebral
blood vessels that rest between these two membranes and most often results from traumatic brain injury
(see picture).

subdural hemorrhage (SDH) --  
hemorrhage between the tough outer membrane (dura) and the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord
that can compress or contuse the underlying brain.

subjective -- influenced by state of mind, point of view, inferential, interpreting the meaning, or cause of an event.

sublimate -- to cause to pass directly from the solid to the vapor state; to direct the expression of a desire or impulse from a primitive to a more socially and culturally acceptable norm.

sublimation -- Freud: socially constructed behavior that is formed in order to disguise unacceptable behavior; when a sexual drive is directed into a different aim, like daily work, creativity,
piety, etc. (
Jung didn't like that Freud came up with this concept, so he coined a term that means pretty much the same thing but called it psychoization). It was Goethe who introduced this
term into common German usage;
Hegel took it up later, as did Freud.

sublime -- noble; exalted; majestic; empyreal.

subluxation -- partial dislocation (see picture).

submerge --
to place in water.

submissive symmetry -- a style of communication in which each participant tries to give control of the situation, and responsibility for it, to the other.

substance abuse -- see drug abuse.

substantia nigra -- a group of darkly stained neurons in the mid-brain area that contains high levels of dopamine. These
connect to the
basal ganglia to control movement (see??).

substantiated (allegation of maltreatment) --
a type of investigation disposition that concludes that the allegation of
maltreatment or risk of maltreatment was supported or founded by State law or State policy. This is the highest level of finding
by a State agency.

substitute marriage -- a type of cohabiting relationship in which couples do not plan to marry but have a lifelong
commitment to each other; viewed as a permanent alternative to marriage by the partners.

substitute mothering -- a technique that is used to help an infertile couple become parents, involving the impregnation of a woman who has agreed to carry a baby for the infertile couple;
see surrogate mother.

substitutions -- articulation disorder in which one sound is used when another is correct (e.g., wan for ran).

substrate -- a compound acted upon by an enzyme in a chemical reaction.

subsystem -- in the general systems theory, a small system that is part of a larger suprasystem.

subterfuge -- a deceptive stratagem or device; a stratagem employed to conceal something, evade an argument, etc.

succédanés (sue-ksay-dan-nay) -- something or someone less valuable than the stuff or person they are replacing, imitating, copying.

successive approximation -- rewarding students for learning a simple behavior, which when combined with other simple behavior patterns creates a more complex behavior.

succinct -- briefly stated; laconic; terse.

succor -- to aid or assist in time of need; assistance.

succubus -- paramour; a demon assuming female form to have sexual intercourse with men in their sleep.

sucker punch --a sudden surprise punch, especially from behind; a sudden unexpected defeat or setback; a blow with the fist.

sucking reflex -- the sucking reflex lasts in infants until age 3 to 4 months, but may persist in sleep until about 7 or 8 months (or longer!) see swallow reflex.

sucrose -- see glucose.

suctioning -- The advancing of a catheter through the nose or throat and into the trachea for the purpose of removing secretions by suction.

Sudden Infant death syndrome (SIDS) -
Diagnosis given to a previously well 2--6-month old infant (often a former premature baby) who is found lifeless  in bed without apparent cause.
Infant is found lifeless in crib after being well when going to sleep. Not inherited except in cases of inborn errors, which are
autosomal recessive; multifactorial. Occurs primarily in
premature infants during the first 6 months of life. Incidence 1/1000 to 2/1000.

suffix -- a word element placed after the root word, which changes the word's meaning as well as its function. Common suffixes, meaning, and examples: -er (doer, programmer); -able (able,
recyclable); -ous (full of, dangerous); -ful (full of, truthful); -ly or -y (like, happily); -ment (state of, contentment).

suffrage -- the right or privilege of voting; franchise; the exercise of such a right.

suffuse -- gradually spread through or over, typically with light, color, music, or liquid.

sugar -- a nutritional term, generally used to refer to "sucrose," which is refined sugar from sugar cane or sugar beets. Other sources of sugar are fructose, dextrose, lactose, and maltose.

suicidal behavior -- includes three types of self-destructive acts: completed suicide, attempted suicide, and suicide gestures. Thoughts and plans about suicide are called suicide ideation.
Attempted suicide is an act of self-harm that is intended to result in death, but does not. Suicide attempts frequently involve at least some ambivalence about wishing to die and may be a cry
for help. A suicide gesture is an act of self-harm that is unlikely to result in death, such as scratching the wrist superficially or overdosing on vitamins.

suicide -- the act of taking one's own life.

sugar -- composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; derived from sugarcane and sugar beets. DNA consists of two long polymers of nucleotides with backbones
made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bands. Attached to each sugar is one of four bases that encodes genetic information.

sulci -- furrow of the brain; singular, sulcus (see picture-------------------------------------------------------------------->).

sulfatide lipidosis --
see metachromatic leukodystrophy.

sulfur --
atomic number 16, symbol S; a pale yellow, brittle, nonmetallic element occurring widely in nature, especially in volcanic deposits, minerals, natural gas, and petroleum; used in
matches, gunpowder, medicines, rubber vulcanization, insecticides, fertilizer; one of the 13 most common elements in the body; known to the ancients; date of discovery unknown.

summative assessment -- evaluation that is done at the end of a period of time, such as at the end of the school year or the end of a research project, to determine the effectiveness of a

summative evaluation or summary evaluation -- Evaluation that takes place at the completion of services, or at the end of a unit, course of study, year, or unit of schooling, and
determines the degree of the children's attainment of objectives. Results are often used for reporting to others.

Sunday -- the first day of the week; named for the sun and associated with the Greek god Helios and the Roman god Solis. These were the gods of the daytime. Sunday was identified with
the color yellow, the heart in the body, and the metal gold (aurum), with the chemical symbol

sun sensitivity --
also called sun allergies or photosensitivity; an immune response to sunlight. Symptoms can include rash, chills, nausea, and headache.
Some medicines may trigger sun sensitivity. Some disorders may also cause sun sensitivity such as
lupus, rosacea, psoriasis, pemphigus, and atopic

supercontinent -- a great landmass that existed in the geological past and that split into smaller landmasses, which drifted and formed the present
continents; examples: Vaalbara (3200 -- 2800 million years ago); Ur (~3000 mya); Kenorland (~2700 mya); Nena (~1800 mya); Columbia (1800 -- 1600 mya);
Rodinia (1200 -- 1000 mya); Pannotia (850 -- 635 mya); Oldredia (418 -- 380 mya); Euramerica (300 mya); Pangea (299 -- 251 mya); Laurasia  (300 -- 69
mya); and Godwana (300 -- 30 mya). Today, Afro-Eurasia is considered a supercontinent; or Eurasia; and maybe even the Americas.
Look at this video
from wikipedia showing the break up of Pangea.

superego --
the part of the psyche that represents one's conscience, moral standards, and code of social conventions (Freud). It is formed out of, but less conscious than, the ego, an
agency that safeguards society from uncontrolled acting out by giving the person an internalization of all environmental inhibitions, particularly those of the parents. Developed as a result of
the resolution of the
Oedipal complex, it fills you with guilt when you deviate from your internal standards. It's a kind of parent-within formed of reaction formations to unconscious sexual
wishes; obeying it results in the secondary
narcissism of pride, an expectation of being loved by a parent figure, and disobeying it causes guilt. One of the therapeutic tasks is to lower its
demands, which emanate less from the parents than from the parents' superego. It is subdivided into the conscience and the
ego ideal and reaches down deep into the id.

supererogation (soo-per-air-uh-GAY-shun) -- the act of performing more than is required by duty, obligation, or need.

superficial reflexes -- any withdrawing reflex elicited by noxious or tactile stimulation of the skin, cornea, or mucous membrane, including the corneal reflex, pharangeal reflex,
cremasteric reflex, etc.

superfluous -- being more than is sufficient or required; excessive; unnecessary or needless; extra; redundant.

superhero -- those characters who embody a higher nature and power beyond human abilities, such as Superman, etc (--->).

superior --
in anatomy, above.

supernal -- celestial; heavenly; of, coming from, or being in the sky or high above.

supernumerary phalangeal epiphyses -- supernumerary means more or extra, phalangeal are the bones in the fingers and toes, and  epiphyses are
growth plates of bones. So put it all together ...

supersede -- to cause to be set aside; to take the place or position of; to displace in favor of another.

supervised visitation -- a way to alleviate tensions surrounding custody and visitation; the noncustodial parent is allowed to visit his or her child only with a third party present, such as a
court employee or a social worker.

supervision -- watching carefully over the behaviors and actions of children and others.

supine -- lying on the back (see picture------------------------------------------------------------------------>).

supplementary aids and services --
a range of supports provided in general education classes or other education-related settings that enable
students with disabilities to be educated with children who are not disabled to the maximum extent possible.

supplementary proteins -- a complete protein mix resulting from combining a small amount of a complete protein with an incomplete protein to provide
all essential
amino acids.

supported employment -- employment in an integrated setting provided for people with disabilities who need some type of continuing support and for whom competitive employment has
traditionally not been possible.

support groups -- groups with like concerns who formally or informally band together to discuss, seek answers, commiserate, and give advice to one another.

support system -- a network of people who support each other in their work and advancement.

supposititious (suh-pah-zuh-TISH-us) --fraudulently substituted; spurious; imaginary; of the nature of or based on a supposition; hypothetical.

supraorbital ridges -- the bony ridge of the skull located above the eye sockets of all primates. Also called the brow ridge.

suprasystem -- in the general systems theory, a large system that incorporates smaller subsystems.

supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) -- a rare condition characterized by narrowing of the aorta close to its origin. It causes a heart murmur and might cause ventricular hypertrophy.
Symptoms include
cyanosis, hypotension, tachycardia, respiratory distress, irritability, poor peripheral perfusion, difficulty feeding, poor weight gain, hepatomegaly. SVAS may be
cause by a genetic mutation (elastin gene -- ELN) located on chromosome 7q11.23. It is an
autosomal dominant condition. SVAS may also be a part of other syndromes, such as William
Syndrome, which is associated with nearly half of the cases of SVAS.

surfactant -- a lipoprotein normally secreted into the alveoli with the first breaths of life that acts like a soap bubble and allows for a significant decrease in the alveolar membrane's surface
tension, thus making breathing much easier and the lungs much more flexible immediately after birth.

surly -- churlishly rude or bad-tempered; unfriendly or hostile; menacingly irritable; dark or dismal; threatening; sullen, irascible, cross, grumpy, glum.

surreptitious -- stealthy; kept secret; hidden.

surrogate -- substitute, such as a teacher acting in the place of the parent, a school toy taking the place of a blanket from home; a thumb taking the place of a pacifier.

surrogate motherhood -- a controversial approach to female infertility in which a fertile woman agrees -- for a fee paid by a couple who cannot conceive -- to be artificially inseminated by
another person's husband's sperm, to carry the baby to term, and to give it to the infertile couple at birth.

surrogate parent- - individual appointed to act in place of someone else; a substitute parent.

surveillance -- the ongoing monitoring of disease in the population.

survey batteries -- a compilation of tests that assess different areas and provide an overview of achievement.

survey study -- method in which a number of people respond to a set of structured questions.

survey tests -- tests that survey, or assess, numerous areas.

survival of the fittest -- phrase used interchangeably with natural selection; the process, in nature, whereby living things that are best adapted to their surroundings survive and  
reproduce, and the adaptive characteristics of those individuals are passed on to the next generation (

survival skills -- skills that are considered to be useful in making the transition from one program to the next as smooth as possible for a child.

susceptible host -- an individual who is capable of being infected by a pathogen.

suspected abuse -- physical or sexual abuse as well as neglect that professionals may suspect is happening and are mandated to report. Professionals are provided with immunity for such
reports, even if the investigation proves that the suspicions were false.

sustain -- to supply with sustenance; nourish; to keep going; to buoy up; to suffer or undergo; to support or prove.

susurrant -- whispering; making a continuous, low, and indistinct sound.

susurrous (soo-SUR-us) -- full of whispering sounds.

sutures -- in anatomy, the fibrous joints between certain bones (i.e., skull bones).

svelte -- suave; urbane, and savvy; slender; lithe; polished; sophisticated.

swaddling -- a practice of wrapping an infant tightly in blankets, etc. so that it cannot move its arms or legs; believed to be calming.

swain -- a young man; suitor; ephebe.

swallow reflex -- works in combination with the sucking reflex; when fully developed a child has good tongue control and lip closure; also present is the ability to move food from the front to
the back of the mouth and to control the path of food to the
esophagus, and then to the stomach. (suck, swallow, breathe).

swath -- width of a scythe-stroke; strips or radii made by something.

sweat glands -- occur in nearly all regions of the skin, but are most numerous in the palms and soles. They are exocrine glands, and are used for body temperature regulation.

sweat lodge or sweat house -- a sacred building for spiritual renewal in many Native American religions. It is aligned with the four sacred directions:
north, east, south, and west
(see picture------------------------>).

swerve --
to abruptly turn or deviate from an otherwise straight course.  

sweven --
dream; vision; premonition.

swimming reflex -- newborn reflex in which the baby paddles and kicks when placed face down in water. Disappears by 4--6 months.

switches -- devices that children with physical disabilities use to activate battery-operated toys or adaptive equipment.

swivet -- a state of extreme agitation.

swoon -- fainting spell; a collapse from ecstasy.

syllables -- basic units of written and spoken language. A unit consisting of uninterrupted sound that can be used to make up words. For example, the word hotel has two syllables: ho and tel.

sylph -- graceful woman; fairy; air elemental.

sylvan -- living or located in the woods or forest; of, relating to, or characteristic of the woods or forest; made, shaped, or formed of woods or trees; abounding in woods, groves, or trees;

symbiosis -- mutual biological synergy between two dissimilar organisms.

symbol -- something that stands for a total experience or sequence of ideas.

symbolic concept -- understanding that a word or symbol can stand for an object or idea.

symbolic interaction framework -- a conceptual framework that focuses on the internal perceptions of family members and examines how they learn roles and rules in society through
interaction and shared meaning.

symbolic mode of representation -- in Bruner's theory of development, the mode in which the child uses the most efficient symbolic system available, that of language.

symbolic play skills -- the ability to use objects in play to represent other objects.

symbolic representation -- the use of mental symbols to represent objects.

symbolic representations -- mental representations of objects and people that can be manipulated in the mind.

symbolic thinking -- cognitive thought in which one object or action stands for another.

symbols in children's art -- a visual representation of something of importance to the child.

symbolism -- the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character; a set or system of symbols; symbolic meaning or character; the
principles and practice of symbolists in art or literature; a movement of the late 19th century in French art and literature; the use of any of certain special figures or marks of identification to
signify a religious message or divine being.

symmetrical interaction -- a style of communication in which partners send similar messages designed to control how the relationship is defined.

symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR) -- reflex such that when head falls forward, arms flex and legs extend, when head falls back, arms extend and legs flex.

symmetrophobia -- fear of symmetry.

sympathy -- feelings of concern and sorrow for another's plight.

symphony -- extended orchestral movements.

symphysis -- a growing together of bones originally separate, as of the two pubic bones or the two halves of the lower jawbone; a line or junction thus formed; an articulation in which bones
are united by cartilage without a synovial membrane; the coalescence of similar parts or organs.

symposium -- conference for discussion of a particular topic.

symptom -- Freud: a partial satisfaction of a repressed wish. Symptoms blend repressive mechanism with symbolic satisfactions; for that reason, Freud considered them compromise
formations. Every symptom has some anxiety behind it.

symptoms -- changes in the body or its functions that are experienced by the affected individual.

synapses -- the minute spaces separating one neuron from another. Neurochemicals breach these gaps. (----->).

synapsid tetrapod --
a class of tetrapods (vertebrate land animals, usually with four legs and feet; quadrupedal) that includes mammals.

synaptic pruning -- loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an uncommitted state so they can support
the development of future skills.

synaptogenesis -- the creation of new neural connections, or synapses.

synchrony -- degree to which caregiver's and baby's behaviors occur together and are coordinated to produce a state of mutual enjoyment and

synchronicity -- Jung: the quality or fact of being simultaneous; the coincidental occurrence of events and especially psychic events.

syncopal episode -- fainting spell.

syncratic power pattern -- a power pattern in a marriage in which both partners share authority equally and make decisions jointly.

syndactyly -- fusion of fingers or toes (see picture-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->).

syndrome --
A grouping of similar physical or neurological characteristics.

synecdoche -- a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special as in
ten sail for ten ships or a Croesus for a rich man or 50 head of cattle for 50 cows, or the army for a soldier.

synergy -- combined action of two or more muscles, nerves, and the like; combined action; the interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their
combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.

synesthesia -- a neurological condition in which one sense is simultaneously perceived as if by one or more additional senses. A form of synesthesia joins objects such as letters, shapes,
numbers, or people's names with a sensory perception such as smell, color, or flavor.

syngenesophobia -- fear of relatives.

synonyms -- different words with similar or identical meanings.

synophrys -- confluent eyebrow.

synostosis – the joining of two bones by the ossification of connective tissues.

synovial -- a clear, viscid lubricating fluid secreted by membranes in joint cavities, sheaths of tendons, and bursae.

syntactic bootstrapping -- figuring out word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of the sentence.

syntactic structure -- the part of grammar dealing with the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.

syntax -- Ability to recognize and follow the rules of a language for the correct order of words during communication. The organization of words into meaningful combinations and the small
changes made to words to indicate, for example, plurals and tenses.

synthesis -- the process of making a compound by the union of simpler compounds or elements.

syphilis - a sexually transmitted disease that can cause an intrauterine infection in pregnant women and result in severe birth defects, associated with sensorineural hearing loss;
congenital syphilis can cause

syringomas --
benign sweat gland tumors.

syringomyelia -- a chronic disease of the spinal cord characterized by the presence of fluid.

system -- a set of interconnected components that form a whole; what happens to one component affects all the other components.

systematic collection of data -- research carried out according to a strategic plan detailing the number and characteristics of respondents, the way in which respondents will be obtained,
and the questions that will be asked (or behaviors observed).

systematic instruction -- instruction that includes a task analysis of the target skill. Also the use of procedures such as shaping, prompting, modeling, and response cost to assist the child
in acquiring the skill.

System for Augmenting Language (SAL) -- a system that focuses on augmented input of language.

systemic -- pertaining to the whole body.

systemic bias -- favoritism toward a particular group that occurs at multiple levels within a society or institution; such favoritism becomes an implicit part of the functioning of that society or

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) -- a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder, which affects the skin, joints, kidneys, and other organs. Most people with SLE have joint pain and
arthritis. Frequently affected joints are the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees. Other symptoms are fatigue, fever, general discomfort, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, pleurisy,
psychosis, seizures, sensitivity to sunlight, rash, swollen glands, abdominal pain, blood disorders, blood in the urine, coughing up blood, hair loss, mouth sores, nosebleeds, numbness and
tingling, swallowing difficulty, visual disturbance.

systems analysis -- a theory based on the idea that whatever happens to one part of a system affects all the other parts.

systems-level approach -- a plan devised and implemented by the several agencies involved in facilitating a child's transition to the next educational program.

systems of care -- approach to interagency collaboration for the benefit of students with emotional and behavior disorders based on a coordinated network of service providers and guided
by core values and principles.

systems of supports -- networks of supports that everyone develops to function optimally in life.

systolic pressure -- the blood pressure when the heart is contracting. It is the first number recorded (the top one).

syzygy -- Jung: an archetypal pairing of contrasexual opposites, which symbolized the communication of the conscious and unconscious minds; the conjunction of two organisms without the
loss of identity.
A   B    C    D    E     F     G      H     I     JKL    M     
NO    PQ    R   Sa--So    Sp--Sz   T     U--Z