Test 2 Study Guide–Chapters 5, 6, and 7
basic emotions
basic trust      
birth or before
cerebral cortex
child-directed speech
Noam Chomsky
crying, sucking, sleeping ...
depth perception  
developmentally appropriate
interactional synchrony
move independently
to                               approach or
nonorganic failure to thrive
object permanence
palmar, or ulnar      
Jean Piaget
secondary circular reaction
self-conscious emotions  
separation anxiety
shame and doubt
skeletal age
social referencing
social smile                                        
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  
tertiary circular reaction
when the baby seems interested
zone of proximal development
Physical Development of Infants and Toddlers

1. The average baby’s weight ____________________________ by age 2.

2. ________________________________ means that the head region develops before the foot

3. ________________________________ means that development proceeds from the center of the
body outward.

4. The best way to assess a child’s physical maturity is to use _____________________.

5. __________________________________ are the soft spots that separate the bones of the skull at

6. Cells specialized for storing and transmitting information in the brain are ____________________.

7.  The tiny gaps between neurons, across which chemical messages are sent are called

8. _________________________________  is the largest, most complex brain structure.

9. _________________________________ is the specialization of the two hemispheres of the cortex.

10. The ability of another part of the brain to take over the functions of a damaged region is called

11. In the US, the leading cause of infant death between 1 week and 12 months of age is

12. Kwashiorkor results from a diet very low in ___________________________.

13. In the US, approximately ________% of children suffer from a condition called food insecurity –
uncertain access to enough food for a healthy, active life.

14. __________________________________ means that the baby is not growing due to abuse or

15. Grasping is a good example of a ________________________ motor skill.

16. Crawling  is a good example of a ________________________ motor skill.

17. The grasp in which babies hold an object by folding the fingers against the palm is called the
________________________________ grasp.

18. One year old Sally can pick up a raisin with her thumb and index finger. What kind of grasp is she

19. Research suggests that the best time to begin toilet training is ___________________________.

20. The Visual Cliff was developed by Gibson and Walk to study the development of

Irreducible Needs of Children

21. What do YOU think is the most important irreducible need of children?

Parenting Styles

22. The ________________________  parenting style is associated with successful child development.   
23. Parents who display the ___________________________ style of parenting are warm and accepting, but overindulging and inattentive.
They engage in little control of their child’s behavior, and allow too much autonomy.

24. Parents who use ____________________________ parenting are very low in acceptance, involvement, and control, and have general
indifference to the child; autonomy granting is a non-issue.

25. Parents with the ______________________________ style of parenting are low in acceptance, involvement and autonomy granting, but
high in coercive control.

Cognitive Development of Infants and Toddlers

26. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, specific psychological structures that children use to make sense of their experiences are called

27. What is Piaget’s first stage of human development, which spans the first 2 years?

28. A preschooler who sees an airplane for the first time and calls it a bird is using _____________________________________.

29. Baby Latonya is in her crib and accidentally kicks the mobile hanging above. Later, she tries to repeat this behavior again and again. What is
she using, according to Piaget?

30. The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight is called _______________________________.

31. Baby Jeffrey is throwing his blocks down the living room stairs. He is tossing some straight up into the air, bouncing others off the walls, gently
dropping some, and forcefully throwing others What Piagetian task is he using?

32. According to Vygotsky, tasks that a child cannot yet do on her own, but can with the help of an adult are within the child’s

33. A child-care facility where parents are welcome to visit at any time, a flexible daily schedule, and the availability of a fenced outdoor space
indicate this kind of child care.

Language Development

34. People are born with a system of grammatical rules that underlies all human languages, according to _______________________.

35. About 2 months, babies make one-syllable vowel sounds called  ______________________________.

36. The repetition of long strings of consonant-vowel combinations, beginning around 6 months of age is called

37. At all ages, in language development, _________________________ language develops ahead of ________________________

38. Talking to a baby or young child with high-pitched exaggerated expressions; many simplified words; and repeated phrases, questions, and
directions is  ___________________________________________.

39. The age at which children first prefer to listen to child-directed speech over other kinds of adult talk is _______________________.

Baby Signing

40. At what age can you start teaching a hearing baby to sign?    

Social and Emotional Development in Infants and Toddlers

41. Freud’s first stage in his Psychosexual Theory of Development is the ___________________________ stage.

42. Erikson’s first stage in his Psychosocial Theory of Development is _________________________ vs _____________________.

43. Freud’s second stage, ages 1 – 3 years, is the ___________________________ stage.

44. Erikson’s second stage, children ages 1 – 3, is ____________________ vs. _______________________.

45. Emotions that can be inferred from facial expressions, such as happiness, fear, sadness, and anger, are known as

46. The ____________________________________  is evoked by the human face and first appears between 6 and 10 weeks of age

47. ____________________________ is likely evoked by playfully kissing a 4-month old infant’s tummy.

48. Among older infants, the most frequent expression of fear is ________________________________.

49. Relying on another person’s emotional reaction to appraise an uncertain situation is called __________________________.

50. Distress when a parent leaves the infant’s presence, beginning at about 8 – 9 months is called ____________________________.

51. Shame and embarrassment are examples of _______________________________________.

52. What is a strategy that many infants during the first few months of life use to regulate their emotions when overwhelmed by external stimuli?

53. By the end of the first year, infants become increasingly better at regulating emotions because they are better able to do what?        

54. Stable individual differences in the quality and intensity of emotional reactions constitute one’s ___________________________.

55. A sensitively tuned “emotional dance” in which the mother responds to the baby’s signals in a well-timed and appropriate manner, and both
partners match their emotional states is called ______________________________________________________________.

56. Juan sees Bill, another toddler, fall down and hurt his knee. Juan offers Bill his favorite teddy bear to help him stop crying. What is Juan

57. The capacity to resist the momentary impulse to engage in a socially disapproved behavior is called _______________________.


58. Who coined the terms sensorimotor, assimilation, accommodation, object permanence, schemes, and preoperational?

59. _________________________ is the capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse them.

60. _________________________ means ordering items along quantitative dimensions.

Emergent Literacy

61. At what age should parents begin reading to their children?
ANSWERS:  1.  Quadruples;  2. Cephalocaudal;   3. Proximodistal;   4. Skeletal age;     5. Fontanels;   6. Neurons;   7. Synapses; 8. Cerebral cortex;  
9. Lateralization;   10. Plasticity;   11. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS);   12. Protein;  13. 16%;   14. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive;   15. Fine;  16. Gross;
17. Palmar or Ulnar; 18. Pincer grasp;  19. When the baby seems interested; 20. Depth perception;  21. (student choice);  22. Authoritative;   23. Permissive;   
24. Uninvolved;   25. Authoritarian;   26. Schemes; 27. Sensorimotor;   28. Assimilation;  29. Secondary circular reaction;   30. Object permanence;   
31. Tertiary circular reaction; 32. Zone of proximal development;    33. Developmentally appropriate;   34. Noam Chomsky;   35. Cooing;   36. Babbling;   
37. Receptive; expressive;   38. Child-directed speech;   39. Birth;   40. Birth;  41. Oral;  42. Basic Trust; Mistrust;  43. Anal; 44. Autonomy; Shame and
Doubt;   45. Basic emotions;  46. Social smile;  47. Laughter;   48. Strangers;   49. Social referencing; 50. Separation anxiety; 51. Self-conscious emotions;
52. Crying, sucking, sleeping, ...  53. Move independently to approach or retreat; 54. Temperament;  55. Interactional synchrony;   56. Empathy;   
57. Self-control;    58. Jean Piaget;   59. Reversibility;   60. Seriation; 61. Birth