7 1/2 pounds                         
23 pairs or 46                        
23rd pair                
300 million                        
age of viability                        
Albert and the white rat             
alcohol                        
Alfred Binet                                                    
attachment
blastocyst                        
John Bowlby                                
Brian                                        
Cesarean section                                        
correlational design                
Charles Darwin                        
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)                   
dependent variable                        
dilation and effacement of the cervix      
dizygotic twins (fraternal)                
Down Syndrome                        
emotional abuse                
emotional neglect   
fontanels                                        
Sigmund Freud                                      
genotype                                
greylag goslings
heart rate                        
implantation                        
independent variable                  
internal working model                
lanugo                
meiosis                                                  
mitosis                
monozygotic twins (identical)               
mutation                        
Ivan Pavlov                        
phenotype                                
physical neglect                     
placenta                                
rhesus monkeys
rooting                                               
secure attachment                        
secure base                        
smoking                
Stage 2                        
Strange Situation                        
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)  
tabula rasa
teratogen                        
Terry cloth or soft mother                
Thalidomide                
toxoplasmosis                        
umbilical cord                        
underestimates        
vernix                                
zygote, embryo, fetus
2020 study guide 1
Theorists

1. Locke's view of the child as a “blank slate” whose character is shaped by experience.

2. A British naturalist whose controversial theory emphasized survival of the fittest or natural
selection.

3. This man, along with Theodore Simon, developed the first IQ test in Paris to identify children who
needed special classes for learning disabilities.

4. This Viennese physician developed the Psychosexual Theory of child development and is
considered the father of psychotherapy.

5. The Russian psychologist who trained his dogs to salivate to a bell.

6. Watson, a behaviorist who studied classical conditioning, was in bad trouble for his experiments
with this baby and animal.

7. Konrad Lorenz, a zoologist and ethologist coined the word “imprinting” to describe the behavior
of these baby bird's attachment to their mothers after hatching.

8. Harry Harlow showed that attachment is not food based when he used surrogate mothers in an
experiment with these animals.

9. This British psychoanalyst developed the theory of attachment, and he is your teacher's hero.

Research

10. A research design in which the researcher gathers information without altering participants'
experiences and examines relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about
cause and effect.

11. The variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment.

12. The variable the researcher expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an
experiment.

Special education

13. A syndrome caused (most often) by an extra chromosome on the 21st pair (Trisomy 21).

Biological foundations

14. The human body has this many chromosomes, the rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that
store and transmit genetic information.

15. Long, double-stranded molecules that make up chromosomes.

16. Twins resulting from the fertilization of one egg by one sperm, which divides during the zygotic
phase.

17. Twins resulting from the fertilization of two eggs by two sperms.

18. The genetic make-up of an individual.
19. The process of cell division through which sperms and eggs are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved.

20. The process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosome.

21. A sudden, but permanent change in a segment of DNA.

22. The individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors.

23. This pair of chromosomes determines the baby's sex -- XX for girls; XY for boys.

24. A man produces this many sperms daily, on average.

Teratogens

25. Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.

26. The most well-known effect from the use of this substance in pregnancy is low birth weight.

27. This legalized drug causes mental retardation, impaired motor coordination, attention problems, memory and language delays, a particular
pattern of facial abnormalities, and overactivity in children who are exposed prenatally.

28. A sedative widely available in Europe, Canada, and South America in the 1960s. When taken by women between the 4th and 6th week after
conception, it produced gross deformities of the embryo's arms and legs.

29. A parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked meat or by coming in contact with the feces of infected cats. During the first
trimester, it leads to eye and brain damage.

Pregnancy

30. The three phases of fetal development, in order:

31. The zygote 4 days after fertilization, when the tiny mass of cells forms a fluid-filled ball.

32. Attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining 7 to 9 days after fertilization.

33. The organ that separates the mother's bloodstream from the embryo or fetal bloodstream but permits exchange of nutrients and waste
products.

34. The long cord connecting the fetus to the placenta; it delivers nutrients and removes waste products.

35. This occurs between the 22nd and 27th week of pregnancy.

Attachment

36. The strong, affectional tie that humans feel toward special people in their lives is known as this

37. Research with rhesus monkeys reared with terrycloth and wire-mesh surrogate mothers showed that the infant clung to which mother?

38. One-year old Molly often returns to her mother repeatedly for a hug and a kiss when playing with her toys on the family room floor. Molly is
using her mother as what?

39. In Bowlby's theory, this is a set of expectations derived from early caregiving experiences that serves as a guide for all future close
relationships.

40. The most commonly used method for assessing an infant's attachment is this.

41. What attachment pattern is the most common classification in all societies studied to date?

Childbirth

42. The first stage of childbirth, in which the cervix thins and widens to 10 centimeters.

43. The baby is delivered in this stage of childbirth.

44. A surgical delivery of a baby in which the doctor makes an incision in the mother's abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus.

Newborn baby

45. The average weight for a newborn baby is this.

46. A white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus, helping the vernix stick to the skin.

47. A white cheese-like substance that covers the fetus and prevents the skin from chapping due to constant exposure to amniotic fluid.

48. The Apgar Scale assesses a newborn's respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color, and this.

49. The unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant younger than 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation.

50. This newborn reflex causes the baby to turn her head when her cheek is stroked.

51. The soft spots that separate the bones of the baby's skull at birth are called this.

Child Abuse

52. Estimates of child abuse are probably:

53. Crystal's parents do not provide her with enough food nor adequate clothing. They do not keep their eye on her, although she is too young to
be without parental supervision. When she needs medical attention, her parents ignore her. What kind of abuse does this describe?

54. Failure of parents to meet children's needs for affection and support is called this.

55. This kind of abuse accompanies most other types of abuse.

56. Which child is most likely to be abused?
a. Sally, a cheerful, active 6-month old
b. Robert, a passive, lethargic 5-year old
c. Leslie, a healthy self-reliant 5-year-old
d. Brian, a sick, colicky infant who has become an hyperactive 3-year old
ANSWERS
1. tabula rasa; 2. Charles Darwin; 3. Alfred Binet; 4. Sigmund Freud; 5. Ivan Pavlov; 6. Albert and the white rat; 7. greylag goslings; 8. rhesus monkeys;   
9. John Bowlby; 10. correlational design; 11. independent variable; 12. dependent variable; 13. Down syndrome; 14. 23 pairs or 46; 15. deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA); 16. monozygotic (identical) twins; 17. dizygotic (fraternal) twins; 18. genotype; 19. meiosis; 20. mitosis; 21. mutation; 22. phenotype; 23. 23rd pair;
24. 300 million; 25. teratogen; 26. smoking; 27. alcohol; 28. thalidomide; 29. toxoplasmosis; 30. zygote, embryo, fetus; 31. blastocyst; 32. implantation;
33. placenta; 34. umbilical cord; 35. age of viability; 36. attachment; 37. terrycloth mothers; 38. secure base; 39. internal working models; 40. Strange
Situation; 41. secure; 42. dilation and effacement of the cervix; 43. Stage 2; 44. cesarean section; 45. 7 1/2 pounds; 46. lanugo; 47. vernix; 48. heartrate
(others are color, reflex irritability, respiration, and muscle tone); 49. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; 50. rooting; 51. fontanels; 52. underestimates;
53. physical neglect; 54. emotional neglect; 55. emotional; 56. Brian