STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 3

Match these words with the questions over
there------------------------------------>.

10,000 words
18 -- 30 months
5 words a day
5-year-olds
6 1/2 years
aggression
altruistic
androgynous
animistic thinking
appetite
assisted discovery
associative play
birth or before
bodily/kinesthetic
center of gravity
cerebellum
child-care centers, preschools, schools
conservation
cooperative play
corpus callosum
egocentrism
emotional self-regulation
empathy
encourage good conduct
epiphyses
existential
expansion
gender identity
gender typing
Head Start
Head Start
imaginary companions
immunizations
initiative vs. guilt
interpersonal
intrapersonal
logical/mathematical
make believe play
musical
naturalist
nonsocial activity
Oedipus conflict
otitis media
parallel play
pituitary gland
pragmatics
preoperational stage
private speech
scaffolding
self-esteem
self-guidance
skeletal age
sociodramatic play
sympathy
synapses
synaptic pruning
time out
a train
tying shoes
unintentional injuries
verbal/linguistic
visual/spatial
CHAPTER EIGHT

1. The best way to estimate a child’s physical maturity is to use:

2. X-rays of ______________ permit doctors to estimate a child's progress toward
physical maturity.

3. The age at which most North American children get their first permanent tooth:

4. An overproduction of ______________ during early childhood supports the plasticity
of the brain.

5. The process by which neurons seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers:

6. Although hand preference is evident in 10% of 1-year-olds, 90% of
_________________________ show hand preference.

7. The ______________ is a structure at the rear and base of the brain that aids in
balance and control of body movement.

8. The ____________ is the bundle of large fibers that connects the two hemispheres of
the brain.

9. The gland located at the base of the brain that releases hormones affecting physical
growth is the _______________ gland.

10. A decline in ____________ during the preschool years occurs because growth has
slowed.

11. As an effort to reduce the rate of childhood diseases, in 1994 all medically uninsured
American children were guaranteed government-funded ______________________.

12. Attendance here increases a child's risk for such illnesses as measles, flu,
respiratory infections, diarrhea, lice, etc.

13. In industrialized nations, ____________ is/are the leading cause of death in early
and middle childhood.

14. Another term for a middle ear infection is ___________________.

15. Preschoolers are more proficient at posture and balance because their
__________________________ has lowered.

16. What is the most complex self-help skill of early childhood?

CHAPTER NINE

17. According to Piaget, the _____________________ begins at 2 and ends at 7.

18. The make-believe play with others that first appears between 2 and 3 years is also
called ____________________________.

19. About 25% to 45% of preschoolers spend much time in solitary make-believe with
these, fantasized friends endowed with human-like qualities.

20. ___________________ is the failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of
others from one's own.

21. The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes,
feelings, and intentions is called _____________________.

22. Which of the following is 3-year-old Leah most likely to believe is alive?
a. a rock
b. the kitchen table
c. a crayon
d. a train

23. Hennie and Brendan have identical balls of playdough. After Brendan flattens his into
a pancake, he believes that now he has more playdough than Hennie. What Piagetian
skill does Brendan lack?

24. Self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior is now
known as ______________________, according to Vygotsky.

24a. We all speak to ourselves. Admit it.

25. According to Vygotsky, children speak to themselves for
____________________.
26. ________________ refers to the changing quality of social support over the course of a teaching session.

27. Vygotsky's approach to education emphasizes:

28. According to Vygotsky, ___________________________ is the ideal social activity for promoting cognitive development in early childhood.

29. ____________________ includes parent involvement in the classroom, nutritional and medical services, and programs for parents on child
development and parenting skills.

30. Which of the following programs is least expensive?
a. Head Start
b. special education classes
c. treatment of juvenile delinquents
d. welfare

31. At age 2, a child has a vocabulary of approximately 200 words. At age six, how big is his vocabulary?

32. Up to the age of 6 years, children add ______ new word(s) to their vocabularies daily, on average.

33. The practical side of language used in social contexts is called:

34. Collin says, “I see truck!”; His grandmother responds, “Yes, you see a big, red fire truck!”  His grandmother’s response would be classified as
a (an):

CHAPTER TEN

35. Erikson’s critical psychological conflict during the preschool years is:

36. The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments is called our _________________.

37. A child's ability to control their expression of emotions is called _________________________________.

38. ____________________ behavior is done to benefit others, without the expectation of a reward.

39. Sabrina responds with _____________ to her friend Ella, who is crying. In other words, Sabrina feels sad, too.

40. Feelings of concern or sorrow over another's plight is called ____________________.  

41. Three year old Sam wanders around the room at preschool, observing other children. Sometimes he is unoccupied, sometimes he just
watches, and sometimes he plays alone. Sam is engaging in _______________________ .

42. Danny and Vinny are playing with similar objects in the same room, without looking at one another at all. They are engaging in
_______________________ .

43. Jason digs a tunnel at one end of the sand table, while Jennifer makes cupcakes at the other. They converse and pass tools back and forth.
They are displaying ______________________.

44. In the block area, Tim and Randy work together to build a castle. They are participating in ________________________ .

45. The conflict by which the boy desires to possess his mother and feels hostile toward his father is known as the:

46. One of the undesirable side-effects of harsh punishment, such as spanking, is that the punishment itself models __________________.

47. Removing children from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately is a discipline technique known as
________________.

48. The most effective forms of discipline:

49. The process of developing gender-linked preferences and behaviors valued by the larger society is called:

50. As early as _______________, children begin to categorize themselves and others on the basis of gender.

51. Parents begin to hold different perceptions and expectations of their children based on gender by age:

52. A person's perception of the self as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics is one's:

53. A person who displays many masculine and feminine characteristics:

54. -- 62. List the 9 intelligences listed in Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory:
ANSWERS:
1. skeletal age;  2. epiphyses;  3. 6 1/2 years;  4. synapses;  5. synaptic pruning;  6. 5-year-olds;  7. cerebellum; 8. corpus callosum; 9. pituitary;  
10. appetite;  11. immunizations;  12. child-care centers, preschools, schools, etc.;  13. unintentional injuries;  14. otitis media;  15. center of
gravity;  16. tying shoes;  17. preoperational stage; 18. sociodramatic play; 19. imaginary companions; 20. egocentrism;  21. animistic thinking;  
22. a train;  23. conservation;  24. private speech;  25. self-guidance;  26. scaffolding;  27. assisted discovery;  28. make-believe play;  29. Head
Start;  30. Head Start;  31. 10,000;  32. 5;  33. pragmatics;  34. expansion;  35. initiative vs. guilt;  36. self-esteem;  37. emotional self-regulation;  
38. altruistic;  39. empathy;  40. sympathy;  41. nonsocial activity;  42. parallel play;  43. associative play;  44. cooperative play; 45. Oedipal
conflict;  46. aggression;  47. time out; 48. encourage good conduct; 49. gender typing;  50. 18 -- 30 months;  51. birth or before;  52. gender
identity;  53. androgynous;  54. Bodily/Kinesthetic; Logical/Mathematical; Visual/Spatial; Interpersonal; Intrapersonal; Naturalist; Musical;
Verbal/Linguistic; Existential